Strategic Human Reference Management At Cadburys Management Essay

1. 1 Measure the fit of Cadbury's method of managing its recruiting and its business strategies with reference to relevant types of SHRM. (625 Words Utmost - Actual 609)

Cadbury Schweppes has a history of being a traditional, family company, looking after its employees by providing benefits, excellent working conditions and welfare protection under the law. As it is continuing to grow this culture has been taken care of through the engagement of HR strategically throughout all levels of the business, from the HR Director on the primary board down

Although its number 1 goal during the period 2004-7 was "to deliver superior shareholder performance. " rather than having a far more people/employee objective. It is clear that within the culture of the company they require a certain amount of hostility in their leaders.

In assessing the company's approach to taking care of its human resources, it's important to firstly examine Cadbury Schweppes to establish if it has a high or low commitment to HR strategies. Regarding to Leopold el Al (2005) p 31, there's a group of components that signify the degree of commitment an organization has towards HR strategies. Whenever a company has a higher commitment to HR strategy it is argued that recruiting can create high levels of uncertainty because of its managers.

This analysis implies that Cadbury Schweppes has a higher commitment to RECRUITING throughout the business. The organizational cultures indicate that the business has shared ideals and an emphasis on problem solving. Employees are encouraged to be profit driven and must be results- centered. This is recognized by two show schemes open to everyone with a permanent contract. This plan motivates the employees to observe that the company does indeed well. The share schemes could be very profitable for the employees. It was clear from the personnel attitude review conducted in 2005 where over 90 percent of the employees got said they comprehended the business's goal and values and its own local priorities, that they were very pleased to work for this. Relating to the employees and ensuring that they have a good knowledge of the company's targets has been key to the success of the business.

Another exemplory case of the company's commitment to HR is after their purchase of Adams in 2003, the company went through a major reorganization in the business and formed a fresh decentralized structure predicated on five global locations. HR got an important role in taking both businesses along.

According to Guest's (1992) model there are four main goals of any strategic procedure. Strategic integration, commitment of the employees to the organisation, flexibility in structure and functions and high quality of goods and services. The three main sizes, commitment, overall flexibility and quality enhancements are essential factors for low staff turnover, adapting to change and effective job performance. This model was put in place in Cadbury Schweppes in 1977 with the program called "Managing for change" where in fact the three As where talked about. Accountability - that was taking possession; Adaptability-which was about coping and adapting to improve and Aggressiveness - which was being results-focused.

There are numerous SHRM models. The very best practice and best fit views are two traditional models however the new tendency is the resource-based strategy. This model is different since it first addresses the organisation internally and its potential for producing ways of exploitation. Although there are similarities between your three models, Cadbury Schweppes uses a combination of techniques. The strong HR existence indicates clearly the best practice strategy nevertheless they are also resource-based. This process focuses on interior personnel and their capabilities and capacities.

In finish Cadbury Schweppes has a higher commitment to HR Strategy throughout the company. This is exhibited in the company composition with HR being on the key panel of directors and its focus on the folks facet of its employees and their collective involvement and fascination with the success of the business.

1. 2 Making use of your knowledge from Unit 8 and the related information about managing effective change evaluate the organization's method of change examining its impact and the role performed by SHRM techniques and techniques. (1250 words Maximum - Actual 969)

According to Sir Adrian Cadbury the degree of the Quaker involvement and affects business in the 18th and 19th century in the UK. These businesses included as well as Cadbury, the other three main chocolates companies, Fry, Rowntrees, and Terry.

However it was the fundamental religious notion for the price of every individual, whether male or female that impacted the way the business was been able. The company benefited greatly from the belief that everyone working there experienced something of value to provide.

Cadbury Schweppes has already established to handle change throughout its history. Just lately with the acquisition of Trebor Bassett and Adams in 2003. The organization has been continually changing and adapting. This potential to adapt to change has to be a quality of most of their employees. The business has run programs to help their workers embrace, rather than dread change.

Cultures bind a organisation. They provide unity of purpose and also motivate and stimulate employees. It really is vital that organisations take time and give concern to the culture they would like to develop. A resources orientated culture in just a company is more successful when compared to a traditional culture without clear staff goals.

According to Paul Bate (1992) there can be an important marriage between organizational culture and effective company problem resolving. Bate's model of culture is employed to measure a person's attitude to organisational life. In Cadbury Schweppes they plainly show the attitude of conservatism, which is the receptiveness to learn and test. In the organisational culture, it is vital to welcome all areas of positive change.

Cadbury Schweppes has had a culture of commitment to its staff in return for commitment and has been results orientated for quite some time. Together with the new acquisitions in 2003. they had to involve all relevant managers and create a new unique culture that could allow for a far more harmonious, collaborative marriage between your existing and new staff. The great things about creating a fresh culture would help the integration of different groupings.

The company has supervised this change very effectively with HR participating in a very important role in the success of managing change within the organisation.

There are new fads in the management of HR Functions. Auditing Performance, Devolution and Decentralization are evidently visible within Cadbury Schweppes.

Auditing Performance has the objective of making certain the investment in staff can be justified. This is employed for establishing agreements and targets for the HR role within the company. Cadbury Schweppes uses this strategy of auditing performance to invest in its people also to set finances to measure added value to the business.

Devolution of HR activities is very important to a far more business led reaction to employee related issues. Devolution is when a few of activities normally completed by HR department receive to line managers or locations away from the head office. Cadbury Schweppes has indeed followed this trend reaping the benefits since the days and nights of 'Managing for Value' was launched in 1977. Matching to Hall & Torrington (1998) devolution includes certain activities such as work organisation, training, recruitment and selection, appraisal and staff relationships. One important benefit with devolution is improved ownership, something very important to Cadbury Schweppes in their culture. It permits empowerment by management and a higher degree of versatility in your choice making process. This versatility has brought about improvement in the partnership between HR and collection managers. A possible disadvantage of devolution, however, could be that it's viewed as having less dedication by top management to HR issues and integration of HR procedures.

Perhaps the most impacting change to Cadbury Schweppes has been the decentralizing of the human resource functions amongst other business activities. In their period of ideal change, in 2004, they experienced a major reorganization, when they transferred to a decentralized organizational composition based on five global regions. A principal benefit of having decentralized activities is greater flexibility in terms of the acceleration at which decisions can be made.

After using the Human being resource Role-Assessment Study by Dave Ulrich and Jill Nook to analyze: HR can be used to improve employee needs, operating efficiently and help with the procedure of change. HR is involved with many programs: including the 'working better together' construction to help working collaboratively within the new decentralized composition. The company results highly in the area of adapting to improve where is has tried to make a unique culture between your businesses. By producing this culture and relating everyone along the way has given everyone a feeling of possession.

In analyzing the success of Cadbury Schweppes and their HR strategies and more recently Cadbury Schweppes Adams: a general overview of companywide proper HR planning provides data that supports balanced approach in the strategic planning of HR resources and functions. Several illustrations can be outlined such as business concentration, results orientation and performance augmentation which includes been dealt with by the insurance plan of auditing performance. The main goal of 2004-7 was "to deliver superior shareholder performance". The auditing of performance and the adoption of coaching approach to uncover existing employee potential. gave surge to the 'Growing our People program', which was considered to be one component in the success of the company in the last 3 years. The give attention to behaviours and unlocking the potential of employees at different degrees of the business has paid dividends and definitely resulted in improved performance.

One particular area targeted for improvement is the perceived insufficient attention directed at poor performance as recorded by the employee survey is to be tackled by just one more programme 'Enthusiasm for People' which specifically tackles the mechanics of controlling performance. These programmes underline the business's dedication to creating and expanding its own approach to people management issues as stated by Andrew Gibson the business's HR director (GB & Ireland).

The company demonstrates a balanced strategy in the region of human tool management with a strong focus upon obtaining business aims and delivering superior shareholder performance while at the same time involving and committing employees by any means levels within the business to a programme of performance search engine optimization and adaption to improve. The addition of both strong business strategies along with dedication, partnership and involvement strategies has strongly contributed to the introduction of the Cadbury's Schweppes culture alternatively than simply implementing an 'off the shelf' or even more generic solution to match their requirements.

Maybe i should focus on more "BEST PRACTICE" APRROACH?


1. 3 From your knowledge of the course how does the HR Function appear to be promoting the Business Strategy at Cadbury's? In general how can HR best support an company going right through change? (625 words Maximum - Actual 552)

The HR Function is promoting the Business Strategy at Cadbury's in many ways. Throughout and bottom level to top. The HR function is symbolized in all respects of the business like the HR director being on the primary board. The HR Link is really important to the business. For the business it is vital to take into consideration people's things to consider.

The company plainly focuses on its employees. It has done this by creating a unique culture within the company where people enjoy their work and feel pleased to be always a area of the company. The business programme 'Managing for Value' was targeted at increasing how the company could become more profitable. This programme helped employees to comprehend the importance to be results focused. This brought about a sense of possession by everyone. The company culture also promoted working collaboratively through the program 'Working better collectively'. One of HR's biggest goals is to unlock the in its people, by utilizing a joint problem-solving strategy.

University of Sunderland Version 3 (2004) p447 - 448 summarizes the role of culture with 27 factors. In terms of the Cadbury's methodology, it is geared more into the SHRM perspective.

Cadburys Schweppes requires a more strategic concentration to its HR management. The nature of the partnership between company and employee is very much indeed of promoting a united culture within the company. The employees have a lot of flexibility in what they do and this encourages job satisfaction and produces an atmosphere of 'heading the extra mile'. Due to the management decentralization it has allowed the company to make decisions quickly. As far as strategic areas of HR the initiatives are included and change orientated. The lines management is also working towards change and promoting a results orientated culture. The employees show commitment to the company and its brands. .

According to Hofstead's (1980) model of culture. To investigate the prevailing culture in a organisation it's important to the find out the worker attitudes to the next: Vitality distance; Uncertainty avoidance; individualism and masculinity. Vitality distance is the syndication of ability. Within Cadbury's its culture is situated more on equality and empowerment. Doubt avoidance is when employees feel threatened by change. The contrary is the truth for Cadbury's where they have demonstrated versatile, risk taking behavior. It is very difficult for an organisation to change a culture. That is an ongoing process. Individualism is when a person is more enthusiastic about the wellbeing of the organisation's family above their own personal pursuits. Finally masculinity is the eye in acquiring belongings, money etc over caring values and interpersonal health. In Cadbury's they show the somewhat aggressive attitude to organisational centered reward.

How can HR best support an organisation going through change?

The key to successful HR support with an organisation is creating a versatile culture and motivating employees to be adjustable to improve. With an open-minded outlook, advanced performance becomes achievable. Communication between management and employees is of great importance and the need for involvement in your choice making process. Also the value of listening to the employees it ought to be pressured too. HR must support the change with training, workshops and regular communication. HR support should give attention to the business culture and having caring prices and creating a sense of belonging and team work.

Section B

Question 2

What is the value to organizations in making a learning organizational culture? How can organizations work at creating this culture through its HRM/HRD Strategies? (Word Limit 1750 maximum current word count 1660)


For Strategic People Source of information Management achieve a competitive advantage and release employee capability, developing a learning organisation culture is essential. Building a learning organizational culture is a lot more than simply acquiring skills for the labor force. There are many benefits for developing this culture, but it is not easy and there's also problems to beat in the process.

What is a learning organizational culture?

According to Navran Associates:-

"A learning corporation is one that seeks to set-up its own future; that assumes learning is an ongoing and creative process for its members; and one which builds up, adapts, and changes itself in response to the needs and dreams of individuals, both outside and inside itself" ( Navran Affiliates Publication 1993).

Firstly, it is important to note that in recent times we have improved the term "Training" that was used to "Learning". . Learning is an important part of personnel development. Employees need formal learning and self-development programs to help improve both the individual, as well as the organisation as a whole and its overall capabilities. It is important also to notice that Human Reference Development becomes area of the organisational cultural instead of it being 'compelled' after the company.

The strategic goal for learning within an organisation includes the following: Addressing skills gaps for folks and the organisation. That is when there's a particular skill lacking that should be learned to profit both the specific and the organisation collectively. Through the use of Human Learning resource Development as a way of initiating change in just a company, HRD can also be used to get competitive edge by integrating proper planning with real human capabilities. The final purpose is for the creation of an environment for learning for do it yourself development and personal progress.

Learning is central to reaching a SHRM way due to inter-relationship between learning, performance and change. Learning will bring change because of this.

The learning company concept is a indispensable model. Pedler et al (1988) defines a learning company as

"An organization which facilitates the learning of all its users and continuously changes itself. "

What is the worthiness to an company?


Karash (1995) shows that organizations are healthier with a learning environment because it increases the ability for employees to manage change and enhance the quality of products and the work employed.

What really gives value to the employees and subsequently to the company is that a learning culture builds up a more devoted workforce. The personnel become not only more devoted and committed to the organisation but also they become proactive and work much more efficiently.

A highly determined workforce that is constantly learning and enhancing will obviously add in the longer term, to attaining competitive edge over challengers.

According to Rehem (1995 webpage 10), Learning organizations create environments where people can learn collectively for the betterment of the complete by creating the results that they want.

What problems and implications are there?

There are of course problems and implications of having a learning environment culture in an organisation. The cost implications of learning and development can be quite high which can have a poor effect on the money budgeted because of this cause. You will find arguments that personnel should take an interest and be responsible for their own learning rather than rely on the business to teach them.

On the other side, sometimes personnel development is not welcomed and in fact some professionals create barriers. Some lack motivating and enthusing their groups and in not so doing, limit the results and possible benefits.

Sometimes training is seen as a reward by the company to its successful employees. It is, however, central to the potency of learning and development and the competitiveness and growth of companies.

Another concern for an organisation is the amount of time training and representation take. Perhaps management may think this specific time could be utilized for something else, arguably more beneficial, in the short term.

Sometimes organizations disagree with what must be discovered or modified within the business. This may make friction between management and staff.

A final problem might not exactly have anything regarding the determination to learn but with how people learn and their ability to learn. For example, modern ways of learning are through the use of 'ICT' and e-learning. This for a less technically skillful person would naturally be distressing and a reason for low enthusiasm and effort.

How can organizations create this culture?

According to Senge (1990) there are five disciplines which an organisation must master if they're to acquire this culture in their organizations.

Systems Pondering - This is seeing the complete picture and the other four disciplines are needed. This is about taking a look at things in an interconnected way and not as isolated situations. It's important to look at internal, personal actions that can create problems.

Personal Mastery - This is about being committed to lifelong learning. That is when employees look for thrills in their professions.

Mental Models - This shows that we need to look and mirror about our own lives before we think about real change.

Building distributed Visions - An individual vision won't succeed if it's not shared commonly by others. Real determination is necessary from the group. This gives commitment over the long term.

Team Learning - It is essential nowadays in nearly every organization that there surely is team work; this is both for learning and for working together.

There are three clear areas needed to generate a learning culture in a organization:-

The first area is designing the learning activities. The coming up with of learning activities must be carefully thought through. The different learning styles and preferences for learning must be studied into account through the designing level.

Honey and Mumford (1982) developed a model which web links the varieties of understanding how to the four levels of the learning cycle:-

The 'activist' is somebody who is a risk taker, prepared to try things out. They try things out and discuss things with others. This sort of person likes brainstorming.

The 'reflector' is somebody who analyses situations and ideas. This person listens more and can take their time in making decisions and bottom line.

The 'theorist' is somebody who needs to read something before actually doing it. These folks are rational and need to comprehend the theory; they are also sometimes perfectionists, rational and analytical.

The 'pragmatist' is more considering the applicability to true to life and the real world.

The goals for learning have to be clear, relevant and have a clear business goal, including the acquisition of new skills.

The Role of the management can play a huge part in the success or failure of creating a learning organisational culture. The administrator should have now altered to a far more coaching and guidance type role. They must look for opportunities to think about encounters and unplanned activities. They need to ensure that the training is appropriate to the needs of the employees.

An company trying to truly have a learning organizational culture must ensure that this hires effective management who will not set up barriers to improve. An efficient manager is someone who is ready develop strengths and help motivate their employees by satisfying risk. There should always be opportunities for learning and staff should be inspired to address their own learning needs, ask questions and participate in problem handling.

Employee behaviour in relation to culture requires the employee to be flexible and have the desire to learn and develop. It is necessary that they are participative and share ideas, being both proactive and reactive.

Strategic HRD Policy

There are many problems facing a company with regard to Human Source Development. The first stage is getting the organization to invest in both inside and external classes. A possible objection could be the expense of the training. An organisation seeks to form a built-in approach to training and development.

HRM/HRD Strategies to support a learning environment

For a learning environment to really happen it is essential to acquire management support whatsoever levels of the company. The management must be seen as leading by example so that as operating as positive role models to the other people of the organisation.

There are many strategies you can use to support a learning environment. Personnel induction is one way of fabricating a world of learning and growing. That is especially very important to someone joining the company to appreciate the culture in which they are going to work. Another important strategy is appraisal and examination. It is vital that employees have responses along the way that they are working. This should must be frequently. They must be encouraged to build up and placed clear job goals and goals. Career development is also a great way of supporting the learning environment. Some companies send their managers to other countries to complete MBAs or they may be sent on secondment to find out about the areas of the business enterprise or to share their knowledge with charities or other 'not for revenue' organisatons.

E-learning is a fresh trend in organizational learning. Employees must study online courses which have many advantages. The employee is able to learn in a more flexible manner with a swiftness suitable with their own time, speed and velocity of learning. However, for e-learning initiatives to be successful, needs a encouraged workforce.


In conclusion it could be difficult to create learning organizational culture in a company however the benefits and value to an enterprise are crucial. This sort of culture can truly uncover the full probable of employees within the business in terms of both knowledge and skill.

This learning culture needs to be modeled by management and learning should happen whatsoever levels of the business both top down and lower part up. The role of the director is key to the real success of the introduction of a learning culture.

Question 3

Why is real human resource planning this important aspect of SHRM? (Phrase Limit 1750 maximum - current 1533 words)


According to Leopard et el (2005) web page 27 "Strategies are effects of human being interpretation, conflicts, confusions, guesses and rationalizations as opposed to the clear picture unambiguously traced out on a commercial engineer's drawing mother board"

What is individuals tool planning?

Human source of information planning (HRP) includes determining in advance the actual staffing needs of the organization will be examining the recruitment of appropriate employees and labour market, and finding ways to fulfill its staffing needs.

Formulating a strategy can only just happen after first of all obtaining an in depth knowledge of the talents and weaknesses (SWOT analysis) of the current workforce.

An organisation needs to have the correct individual resource with accurate skills, knowledge and skills for strategic strategies to be successful.

Successful planning future career needs of the company can indeed deliver a competitive advantages, primary based on the abilities and capabilities of the individuals. Forecasting these skills can be challenging for organisations especially those reliant on technology which is an ever before changing industry.

The evolution of HRP has been afflicted by many trends, including computerized information systems; better links between lines management and the activities of HR managers and skill shortages. HRP sometimes appears as an increasingly essential process to ensure the future recruitment issues are maintained to the forefront of organisations thinking and that the productivity from the HRP process is fed into all HR decisions.

HRP is all about diagnosing and planning the brief, medium and longer term future. This of course is a difficult job as prediction is actually challenging.

HRP has added to the development and development of a number of issues. To be able to anticipate and plan there has been great progression in the utilization of computerized HR information systems. The relationship between your business environment and the actions of the HR professionals. Skills databases are also created and analyzed on a continuing basis.

Why concentrate on human resource planning?

Human source planning is important since it is used to handle the business enterprise at a tactical level. This implies dealing with all areas of the business such as marketing, financial, operation and technology departments to mention simply a few.

HRP and HR functions must remain focused towards the business objectives. It really is vital that link is stored strong to remain strategic.

Generally HRP planning looks at inner factors but additionally it is relevant to look at external factors such as movements in technology skills etc.

Workforce Planning

Supply and demand of skills

Value using Circumstance planning

The Social Science approach to HRP, launched by Bennison & Casson (1998) is dependant on a manpower system and map. It forms the basis to make management decisions in relation to cultural factors and implications. With regards to workforce wastage, old age, skill changes, behavioural and cultural requirements of the employees.

The need for human resource planning for Strategic Human Source Management

HRP is type in maintaining the hyperlink between business strategy and operational strategy.

Forecasting the needs of the business enterprise technically so when far workers and skills is vital for a competitive border. Failure to discover and action on these changes could be costly to an organisation they could cause them to lose their competitive advantage.

HRP provides managers with strategic information which they need to make human tool decisions. This permits them to predict future changes to remain one step forward.

According to Reilly (1996) there are a few specific uses for HRP, which will be discussed:

HRP is utilized to establish the correct volume of employees for new locations. If an company does not estimate correctly how big is its workforce and has way too many staff then there may be a surplus of employees and therefore underutilized workforce. That is both expensive and counterproductive. Of course the contrary is also problematic because to acquire predicted too little staff can result in existing personnel becoming overstretched and that itself can lead to the failure of reaching output and targets immediately affecting profitability.

Reilly (1996) asks the following pertinent questions

"What techniques may be used to establish labor force requirements?

Have more flexible work preparations been considered?

How will be the staff would have to be acquired?"

These principles are incredibly useful and can be employed to ascertain labor force requirements, whether in a new business or the relocation or the starting of a new factory, regarding the creation industry.

Retention of highly skilled staff

In the recent tough times of recession, keeping staff is not a huge worry to organisations that have been desperately researching to cut costs. An enormous problem though is sacrificing key staff, who've specific skills essential to productivity of the business enterprise.

For an organisation it is vital that the constantly monitor the resignations, inquiring regarding the reasons and also determining exactly what will be the loss to the business.

An exemplory case of highly skilled staff is Nokia, who in their research and development department. These highly skilled workers are essential for keeping a competitive edge. Also highly skilled workers in the information technology industry who own specific skills.

Management must be aware of the numbers of highly skilled personnel lost in order they can do something positive about it. This many mean offering bonuses not to leave or recruiting or training existing staff with the worthiness skill. The cost to the company could be both through the expenses for separation, requirement and induction, but also perhaps more importantly through the increased loss of long-term capabilities and even competitive edge.

Examples of Successful Human resource planning

An example of human tool planning in the form of learning and development is Audi. They have a training and development programme created for technicians at the business. The line professionals identify their fitness and development needs. Using professional consultants they are facilitating in their learning, by onsite courses or exterior ones. They have cleverly incorporated the use from it and multimedia to investigate their training needs and create a personal plan.

The objective of this programme is to have a workforce proficient with the latest training and development must ensure competitive benefit.

Although HRP is very beneficial, computerized HR systems attended quite a distance within the last decade, however the old saying 'Rubbish in - Rubbish out' remains similarly true today, in the past significant amounts of commitment has been wasted by gratifying "wish lists" from all interested parties.

Bacal (2009) implies lots of ways that HRP could be produced more effective?

HRP to be effective needs to have a strong website link between the business planning of the company and with its strategic planning. Inside the HR function of an company is to give support and aid the company to attain its goals. Bacal (2009) calls this website link between HR and tactical planning "vertical integration. "

Secondly the simplest way for HR planning efficiency is to have it lead by the HR team of an company and it should involve the stakeholders and the customers. HRP must take into account all aspects of the business including its mission and perspective. Both management and employees need to be involved.

Finally, much like any planning job the final results of the execution of HRP should be measurable and assessable. Remember that many employees functions curently have available data such as worker turnover, rate of recurrence of grievances and disputes but it is also appropriate to try and assess the consequences of the execution of HRP on the success of the organisations strategic business goals.


For many years, especially in large production companies a young new staff may spend the rest of the working life start one company. In many cases working along with friends, neighbor or even members of the family. This resulted in supervisors and lines professionals not only acquiring an in depth knowledge of the task techniques but also of the ability of every member of their workforce to get the job done. Those new employees who didn't perform satisfactorily would soon be dismissed and replaced from the then seemingly permanent pool of people looking for work. Working tactics generally speaking tended to advance slowly over the medium term.

The dependence on even very basic workers records other than for payroll purposes, was little and the strategic objective of the business enterprise owners was only to maximize gains.

Compare that to today again especially in large developing companies where new young employees are more likely to have several employers in different industries and / or countries over their working lives.

Organisations are flatter, with an increase of flexible working tactics and the need for "can do" and "will do" employee characteristics. For instance Cadbury Schweppes with more than 50, 000 people and processing procedures in more than thirty-five countries. With this environment of mass creation and attendant high capital costs and speedy change and new innovations that will require company aligned proper HR targets. However we must not forget the primary business objective of making a profit for the business owner / shareholders.

HRP brings functional benefits to an company by optimizing resources and allowing more flexibility. Organisations that give great importance to specific and new skills need to plan carefully for the future as this gives or eliminates competitive border and fulfill tactical objectives.

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