Suitability of command styles to applying changes

Leadership styles are the primary subject of this section. First will be regarded what control is, thereafter the differences between managers and market leaders are mentioned in short. Then, different authority styles are identified and the characteristics of a powerful leader are given. Finally, the connection between leadership and changes in the organization because of this of organic expansion are talked about and the most suitable type of command to apply these changes are given.

What is leadership

Leadership is a broadly researched phenomena in the medical books but it is hard to give a consistent and comprehensive explanation of it. This is, regarding to Grint (2004), due to insufficient arrangement on four problems that are related to authority;

(1) the process problem - is management derived from the personal qualities, or is it sociable process?

(2) the positioning problem - has the leader officially allocated specialist, or leads he with informal influence?

(3) the philosophy problem - are activities determined by context and situation, or by intentional impact?

(4) the purity problem - is authority somebody's, or an organization phenomenon?

In the same 12 months of Grint's research publication, Northouse also examined his theory about leadership. He mentioned that leadership is an activity and involves influence, occurs in an organization and requires goal attainment.

However, an common definition of what's meant by organizational command is commonly stated as 'the capacity of a person to influence, encourage, and enable others to add toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are people'.

In short, command is a combination of the leader's attributes, the behaviour of the first choice, and the problem in which the leader exist. Which means that leadership could be different atlanta divorce attorneys situation.

Differences administrator and leader

In many management catalogs and technological articles the conditions 'administrator' and 'head' are being used interchangeably which imply these words have the same meaning. Because this isn't correct and can result in misconception, the primary differences and evaluations between a administrator and a innovator, based on an article of Abraham Zaleznik (1977), receive in a nutshell in desk 3. 1Managers and market leaders.

Table 3. 1 Professionals and leaders



Attitudes toward goals

Take an impersonal, unaggressive outlook

Goals come up out of needs, not wants.

Take a personal, active outlook. Form rather than respond to ideas. Alter moods; evoke images, goals.

Change how people think about what's suitable and possible. Place company route.

Conceptions of work

Negotiate and coerce. Balance opposing views.

Design compromises. Limit choices.

Avoid risk.

Develop fresh approaches to problems.

Increase options. Convert ideas into fascinating images.

Seek risk when opportunities look promising.

Relation with others

Prefer dealing with people, but maintain nominal emotional participation. Lack empathy.

Focus on process, e. g. , how decisions are created rather than what decisions to make.

Communicate by sending ambiguous impulses. Subordinates perceive them as inscrutable, detached, manipulative. Group accumulates bureaucracy and politics intrigue.

Attracted to ideas. Relate with others directly, intuitively, empathetically.

Focus on material of situations and decisions, including their so this means for individuals.

Subordinates explain them with psychologically abundant adjectives; e. g. , "love, " "hate. " Relations appear turbulent, intense, disorganized. Yet desire intensifies, and unanticipated benefits proliferate.

Sense of self

Comes from perpetuating and building up existing corporations.

Feel part of the organization.

Comes from challenges to profoundly alter human and economical relationships.

Feel separate from the business.

Different control styles and effectiveness

To become successful, a leader needs a proper management style which will fit within the complete organization. It is therefore essential to know which different control styles there are and which of them are most reliable in certain circumstances. Although there are several studies about these matters, just some theories and styles will be discussed in this section.

The two most fundamentally different and common used management styles are transactional leadership and transformational leadership. Transactional leaders change their style to the existing organizational culture and manages within that platform. The composition is given where their goals and needs need to be reached. This market leaders implement only incremental changes. In contrast of that, transformational market leaders have a perspective of what have to be done, and the business has to adjust to reach this vision. So, the group's wishes and needs and the organization's culture need to change. They lead trough applying radical changes (Bass, 1990).

Rooke and Torbert (2005) viewed another way to this issue of leadership. They argues that we now have seven transformations of control, although seven means of leading, that they called action logics. Each of the seven transformations is a leader's dominating thought process and leaders contain the possibility to move through these categories.

Out of the research of thousand leaders, they observed another action logics showed in table 3. 2 Seven means of leading, using their characteristics, their advantages and the ratio of the sample that belongs to it.

Table 3. 2 Seven ways of leadingthis action logic

Action logic



% of research test profiling at this action logic


Wins in any manner possible. Self-oriented;

manipulative; "might makes right. "

Good in emergencies and

in sales opportunities.



Avoids overt turmoil. Wants to belong;

obeys group norms; rarely rocks the


Good as supportive glue

within an office; helps bring

people jointly.



Rules by logic and experience. Seeks

rational efficiency.

Good as an individual




Meets proper goals. Effectively

achieves goals through groups; juggles

managerial responsibilities and market


Well suitable for managerial

roles; action and goal




Interweaves rivalling personal and

company action logics. Creates unique

structures to solve gaps between

strategy and performance.

Effective in venture and

consulting assignments.



Generates organizational and personal

transformations. Exercises the power

of common inquiry, vigilance, and

vulnerability for both the short and

long term.

Effective as a transformational




Generates communal transformations. Integrates

material, religious, and societal


Good at leading society-wide



The managerial implications of these findings is that the Opportunist, Diplomats, and Experts are associated with substandard corporate and business performance. The Achievers are associated with effective implementing of organizational strategies, but only the Individualist, Strategists, and Alchemist (which accounted for 15% of the sample) have the capacity to innovate and to enhance organizations in a successfully way.

Because there is absolutely no single trend that is effective in all situations, Flamholtz created his Command Effectiveness platform whereby the problem determines which design of authority will be most reliable. Relating to Flamholtz, authority effectiveness would depend on leadership jobs, situational factors, authority styles and the combo of the style-situation fit. An overview of Flamholtz Control Effectiveness framework is seen in figure 3. 1 The Flamholtz command effectiveness framework.

Figure 3. 1 The Flamholtz management effectiveness framework

Leadership Effectiveness

Leadership tasks

Work Orientation

People Orientation

Situational factors


Work to be done

People doing the work

Leadership styles




Style-Situation Fit

The leadership jobs contain work orientation and folks orientation. Work orientation, meaning the work has to be done, relates to goal emphasis and process facilitation. People orientation provides attention to the needs of individuals carrying it out, and is related to personnel development, discussion facilitation and supportive behavior.

The situational factors can be split into the degree of job programmability, which is the amount to a work process can be given prior its execution, and the potential for job autonomy, which is the amount to someone can work without guidance.

Each management category in Flamholtz framework pertains two control styles.

Autocratic and benevolent autocratic belong to the directive category. This styles declares what's to be achieved respectively without, and with an explanation.

Consultative and participative belong to the interactive style. A innovator with such a method respectively gets views before deciding on the plan provided, or first formulates alternatives with a group and then makes a decision.

The last two styles, consensus and laissez-fair, is one of the nondirective category. With the consensus style has every person in the group an equal voice to make decisions, the laissez-faire style leaves it up to the group to decide what to do.

Overall, to attain a high degree of effectiveness a innovator has to find a balance in emphasizing the task and folks orientations of command tasks

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