8.2. The role and value of primary adaptation
Adaptation means adaptation to the existing conditions of work performance, habituation to the requirements of the content, nature and forms of work organization, in the final analysis it is expressed by the degree of mastering the profession, specialty and qualification of the employee corresponding to his job duties. As you know, the process of forming professional skills in the training of young professionals in any profession includes three main stages:
- the formation of initial labor skills;
- clarification and consolidation of the formed skills, combining them into complexes of professional skills;
- further improvement of skills, bringing them to automatic execution and the subsequent increase in the level of qualifications.
Professional skills and skills obtained as a result of production exercises are a series of conditioned reflexes. In the process of mastering a new profession, the trainee performs a complex system of labor receptions, or conditioned reflexes. Of these, some reflexes, called positive, are expressed in the implementation of labor actions, others, called negative, are manifested in the cessation of action. The system of positive and negative conditioned reflexes in the physiology of labor is called a dynamic stereotype. The dynamism of the stereotype is that it is capable of changing depending on the working conditions and tasks of vocational training.
Professional skills are established, fixed and continuously improved dynamic stereotypes. The task of vocational training is to form the correct dynamic stereotypes among students and constantly improve them in the process of classes. The development of new work methods is associated with the change and adjustment of previously established stereotypes. Changing and improving the stereotype is a complex process, requiring great physical and nervous expenses. It is known that it is more difficult to retrain than to study for the first time. Difficulties arising from relearning are associated not only with the need for the formation of new links in the central nervous system, but also with the destruction and restructuring of previously formed ones. That is why, when organizing the implementation of a particular operation, that is, by establishing its dynamic stereotype, it is necessary to provide limits for changing the structure of operations.
An important indicator of the high level of skill of employees is the plasticity of production skills, that is, the ability to transfer them to new operating conditions, and also to easily rearrange them under changing working conditions. Interaction of skills is of great importance. In the process of production training, there is often a need to replace previously acquired skills with other, more advanced ones. The need for skill restructuring can be associated with changing working conditions. It is established that the transfer of skills is facilitated in cases where previously mastered techniques are partially or completely transferred to new conditions. In the practice of industrial training, there are also cases when, along with the positive influence of previously acquired skills, a negative influence, called interference of skills, is possible.
As domestic psychologists have established, rational, strong and at the same time sufficiently conscious skills are better formed in those cases if the following conditions are taken into account.
First, the incentive and interest to work, increasing the effectiveness of exercises. Young workers need to know exactly what qualitative and quantitative results they need to achieve. To this end, it is necessary to conduct timely, clear instruction, and also properly organize rationing and labor planning.
Secondly, for good work you need control: preliminary, in the process of work and at its end. With properly organized control, the attention of young workers in the process of exercises will always be concentrated on doing the tricks without errors.
Thirdly, from the very beginning, the installation of young workers should be not so much on the pace as on the quality. The pace should increase after the operation is well mastered and accurately executed. However, this rule should not be understood in such a way that work can be started at a slow pace. The pace should be quite energetic from the very beginning, but not at the expense of the quality of the products.
Fourth, the exercises should be systematic and continuous. A break in the exercises for a more or less significant time can lead to a noticeable weakening and even loss of the acquired skill.Fifth, in the process of exercises there is a restructuring of the skill, its improvement, hence the need to form a desire for young workers to improve their work, increase its pace and quality, introducing rationalization grain into it.
For young workers, there are five conditions for the success of both mental and physical work. The first condition - in every work should be entered gradually. The second condition is uniform and rhythmic work. Muscular activity is most fruitful with a certain rhythm of muscular excitations. That is why the gustiness in work, the sudden acceleration of the tempo adversely affect the performance. The third condition for the success of labor is the habitual consistency and systematic nature of activity. The fourth condition is the correct alternation of labor and rest. The fifth condition for high labor productivity is a favorable attitude of society towards this form of work activity and, accordingly, an objective evaluation of the results of young workers' work.
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