Total Quality Management; bringing forth the change required to obtain competitive advantage

The world economy has undergone rapid changes during the past 2 decades with the advent of global competition with an extent that almost every company (large or small) is touch by it in a few ways. As creativity and innovation are necessary for bringing forth the change necessary to obtain competitive advantage, quality is the most effective factor a business may use in the battle for customers/clients. To be competitive, the clients must be satisfied also to satisfy customers we should give attention to quality. Total Quality Management (TQM) supplies the philosophy and driving force for designing quality in order to delight the clients by focusing on best value of any company's products or services.

The above summation agreed with Zikmund (1994), who opined that Total Quality Management is a company philosophy that embodies the belief that management process must concentrate on integrating the thought of Customer - drives quality throughout a business.

It is good above that this chapter will discuss:

Ё An overview of Total Quality Management

Ё Basic principles and concepts of Total Quality Management

Ё Tools and techniques of Total Quality Management

Ё Total Quality Management as a company strategy and implementation

Ё Review and evaluation of TQM on organisational performance and productivity

This is however to ensure that management, scholars, researchers and more fully grasp TQM principles, tools, techniques and methodology as a way of adding to quality improvement process and boosting corporate performance and productivity.

Therefore, the objective of Total Quality Management practice is to increase the corporate performance of organization.

2. 1 SUMMARY OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

2. 1. 1What is Total Quality Management?

Total Quality Management is an American perception of managing quality. Since TQM deals with quality, it appears evident that the first step towards understanding the meaning of the phrase would require an understanding of the term "quality. " The term this means different thing to different people, is often used to spell it out goods and services. Although, Quality as a concept is subjective, however in general, it could be thought as a measure of the amount to which a particular product satisfies customers' expectations regarding certain tangible and intangible features of the product. However, Robert Kotler (1994), view a product's quality as the ability to perform its functions. It includes the product's overall durability, reliability, precision, simple operation and repairs and other valued attributes. Although a few of these attributes can be measured objectively from marketing point of view, but quality should be measured in terms of buyers perception.

Sullivan (1986), showed evidence on this issue when he defined seven stages of quality in Japan in order of increasing level of quality to include: product oriented, process oriented, systems oriented, humanistic, society, cost oriented, and quality function deployment (QFD). Deming (1986), saw quality as aiming at the needs of the customers (present and future). Juran sees quality as fitness for purpose while Crosby (1979), saw quality primarily as conformance to requirements.

Rao, et. al (1996) also approached the scope on quality when they cited Garvin (1988) as the first to categorize the numerous definitions on quality existing in the literature in order to make a common understanding. Five approaches were recognized to defining quality: the transcendent, product-based, user-based, manufacturing-based, and value-based approach.

a. The transcendent approach is typified by Barbara Tuchman's (1980), definition: "a condition of excellence implying top quality as distinct from low quality. Quality is achieving or reaching for the highest standard as against being satisfied with the sloppy or fraudulent. " Types of top quality that meet this definition can be found in fine arts and literature. However, these items might not represent quality to everyone and its insufficient objectivity also create problem for companies in business environment who are striving for quality.

b. The product-based approach identifies features or attributes that can be measured to indicate higher quality. This approach provides objective measures of quality set alongside the first.

c. The user-based approach determines the quality of the goods. The merchandise or service that best satisfies an individual is the bigger quality product. This process equates customer's satisfaction with quality.

d. The manufacturing-based approach was described by Crosby (1979), as conformance to requirements.

e. The value-based approach introduces the component of price. Broh (1982), provided one expression of the approach: "Quality is the amount of excellence at an acceptable price and control of variability at an acceptable cost. "

Unfortunately, like as said earlier, almost all of these definitions are subjective. Although manufacturing-base and product-based approaches are objective, quality needs to be defined by the organisation concerned. Having come to term that quality is a required pre-requisite for just about any company operating in the current highly competitive business environment, hence, it is implied that as quality varies in one company to some other, it also reliant on their mission, policy, and other elements that guide the company in the realisation of its corporate goals. It is therefore common that in the manufacturing sector, quality in both product and service is a compelling competitive differentiator, while for service business, quality is everything-essentially, it is the product.

From an institutional perspective, Total Quality Management is maintaining an environment in which all employees are empowered to participate as a team in determining, measuring, and improving quality of an company. It offers the use of facts and data to implement a management philosophy with the entire goal of increasing customers' satisfaction, profitability, and job satisfaction.

It is from this perspective that Akpeiyi (1995), defined TQM as "an enterprise strategy for making certain organization delivers quality goods and services to both its external and internal customers so that the organization can continually stay in a profitably rewarding business. "

Besterfields, et. al (1995) on the other hand, defines TQM as "both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a consistently enhancing organization. "

According to Arene (1995), TQM stands for customer satisfaction at the lowest cost involving all folks in the business. She further stated that the three key elements of TQM (Client satisfaction, low cost, people involvement and empowerment) call for a total cultural change in leadership and management style, values for effectiveness and deficiency. Quality according to her means the highest standards and the best of the greatest.

Speaking in the same vein, Juran (1995) said that following World War II, the Japanese embarked on a course of reaching national goals by trade rather than by military means. And that the major manufacturers who had been involved extensively in military production were faced with converting to civilian production but a significant obstacle to selling their products in the international markets was a national reputation for shoddy goods created by export of low quality goods prior to world war II. He then went on to state that to resolve this problem, japan undertook to learn how other countries achieve high quality. To the end, japan carried out in-depth research and study from which they devised some unprecedented approaches for creating a revolutionary pace. The Japanese experience confirms the fact that giving the growing competition in world, a competition which not only put one country against another and finally one race against another, it is merely those organizations or countries and races that can compete on the grade of their products and services will survive.

Carlos Cordon (1996) postulated a fundamental basis of TQM is a culture for countinuous improvement. He pointed out that workers are the experts because they have the detailed knowledge of the way the work is performed and they're the best to enhance the process. Cordon further noted that while top management should endorse and initiate the change, it is at the bottom of the business that the responsibility for enhancing process lays. Under this philosophy, work is performed in teams. These teams are accountable for the individual procedures and also enhancing the procedure. He argued further that the role of the supervisors and managers changes where they become the team coaches, ensuring the team has the resources had a need to fulfill their mission. Cordon maintained that to implement this TQM cultural change, a business should train its employees to equip them with tools for process improvement and typically, such training includes techniques about effective team work, problem solving, process analysis, project management, statistical tools etc. Once been trained in the use of these tools, the teams generate ideas for improvement and thereby implement the ideas. With this spirit, mistakes are considered as opportunities for improvement and the objectives is to obtain improvement is a continuing process.

It is noteworthy to point out that training in TQM is a continuing process for everyone employees and not an "on-off" investment for each year, because if this "on-off" approach is adopted, then the TQM training will be observed as a program not as an activity.

Festus Iyayi (1994), also instructively noted that "TQM is both a routine and philosophy of excellence in an organizational opportinity for providing products and services that have good qualities to a higher degree. " According to him, as a path to excellence, TQM is a conscious, formalized and systematic process of seeking, reaching a sustaining improvement in the quality of all activities, structures and processes for the purpose of satisfying the organization's customers which improves the entire performance of the business.

Miller (1994), also did an exploration on TQM and discovered that only those companies that apply the techniques of TQM can survive the competition in future. Such companies according to Miller, will increase greatly in competitiveness and performance because of the aftereffect of TQM.

From the foregoing definitions, TQM serves as a the most important management methodology available today to achieve and maintain a competitive edge against worldwide competition. It could be tailored for a specific environment and there are many ways for implementation, which will be discussed later. Due to high and growing tension, which brings about feelings of blame, mistrust, insufficient common vision of the future, in conjunction with low morale, many organizations are steadily embracing TQM.

It is therefore essential at this point to identify the main sages in TQM to be able to comprehend its principles and concepts to be discussed later.

2. 1. 2 The Deming Philosophy:

Dr. W. Edwards Deming was the first American to introduce quality principles to japan on a large scale. He's credited with providing the foundation of japan quality. . . . . . and resurgence as an economic power. Over the years, Deming condensed his philosophy into 14 points, which became action items for top level management to look at. He also outlines seven deadly diseases that can prevent the successful introduction of TQM. Below are the 14 points he developed as a theory for management for improvement of quality, productivity and competitive position

Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service.

Learn the new philosophy

Cease reliance on inspection of the product to accomplish quality. But require statistical evidence of process control along with incoming critical parts.

Buy materials only when the supplier has an excellent process. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of the price alone.

Use statistical methods to find troubleshoots and constantly enhance the system.

Institute modern aids to training on the job

Institute modern ways of supervision.

Drive out fear

Break down barriers between departments

Eliminate numeral goals

Review work standards to take into account quality

Remove barriers that rob folks of their pride of workmanship

Institute a vigorous program for training people in new skills

Develop a structure in top management that will push the above mentioned 13 points every day.

2. 1. 3 Juran

Juran is regarded as one of the prime architects of the product quality revolution in Japan. After graduating as an engineer, in 1924 he joined the Western Electric Hawthorne Works where he was assigned to the inspection function. In 1951 he published the product quality Control Handbook, which later became a seminal work in the area. He found its way to Japan four years after Deming. He founded the Juran Institute in 1979. Juran expresses his approach to quality in the form of the product quality Trilogy. Managing for quality, he stated, involved three basic processes:

Quality planning.

Quality control

Quality improvement

2. 1. 4 Crosby

In 1965 Crosby joined ITT as a corporate vice president of quality, the first one in the United States. In 1979 he launched a consulting practice focused on quality. Crosby described quality as "free" and argued that zero defects were a desirable and achievable goal. He defined quality as conformance to requirements. Accordingly, a Pinto meeting certain requirements for a Pinto were a quality product just as much as was a Cadillac conforming to Cadillac requirements. Recognising that increasing quality by increasing the amount of inspection would raise costs, he insisted that the best way to achieve zero defects was to improve prevention techniques.

Conformance costs include appraisal and prevention costs. The original view, as expressed by Juran, is the fact the expense of appraisal must increase if quality is to increase. Crosby's contribution was that, by enhancing prevention approaches, the price would decline since the complete quality-appraisal trade-off curve would move in the direction shown.

He articulated his view of quality as the four absolutes of quality management

Quality means conformance to requirements. Requirements would have to be plainly specified so that everyone knew that which was expected of them

Quality comes from prevention. And prevention was due to training, discipline, example, leadership, plus more.

Quality performance standard is zero defects. Errors shouldn't be tolerated.

Quality measurement is the price of nonconformance.

In order to improve quality, Crosby proposed a 14-point program

Demonstrate management commitment by being convinced that quality improvement is needed and subscribing to a written quality policy. This policy should specify clearly that each person be likely to perform exactly as specified or cause the specifications to be changes to match the needs of the company or the client.

Form quality improvement teams. These should be cross -functional and include department heads to oversee the product quality improvement process. The team of department heads should be responsible for promoting quality through the entire company.

Establish measurements for quality in all activities. Although some of the measures could be error rates, he also included some others. As examples, he suggested that accounting could use the percentage lately reports; plant engineering might use time lost because of equipment failures.

Evaluate the expense of quality and utilize it to identify where quality improvements could be profitably made.

Raise the knowing of quality through the business. Get employees involved by causing them aware of costs.

Take corrective action to improve quality in areas discovered in the last steps.

Arrange for zero defects. Using members of the quality improvement team, plan a zero defects program that fits the business and its culture.

Train all employees to carry out their area of the quality improvement program.

Hold a Zero Defects Day to signal to all or any employees that the business has established a fresh performance standard.

Encourage visitors to set goals for themselves and their groups. These goals should be specific and measurable, and progress should be measured against them.

Remove obstacles that prevent employees from achieving these goals by encouraging those to report these obstacles to management

Provide recognition for those who participate. This should be public and non-financial

Establish quality councils consisting of team chairpersons and quality professionals. They need to meet regularly, share experiences, and generate ideas.

Do it all once more to stress that quality improvement is a continuous process.

2. 1. 5 Feigenbaum

Armand Feigenbaum joined General Electric in Schenectady, NY, in 1944. While focusing on the jet engines he discovered that statistical techniques helped him enhance their performance, and, as a result, GE put him responsible for its quality programs. Later, at MIT he developed the concepts of Total Quality Control. In 1968 he founded his own consulting company, General Systems. Throughout his career he promoted the idea of Total Quality Control.

Feigenbaum defines total quality as an excellence-driven rather than a defect-driven concept. In his view quality is defined by the customer, and in this regard he's very much like Juran. He also feels that the quality philosophy extends beyond the factory floor to add all of the functions within an organisation. That is very much like Crosby's view of an broader scope for TQM. In order to persuade management to look at a quality strategy, he also used the Cost-of -Quality approach.

2. 1. 6 Ishikawa

Kaoru Ishikawa graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1939 with a qualification in applied chemistry. His life was totally focused on the promotion of Total Quality through Japan. Ishikawa believed that all divisions and all employees in the organization should be engaged in studying and promoting quality control by learning seven statistical tools. He created one of the tools, the cause-and-effect diagram, which is also called the Ishikawa diagram. Ishikawa's second concept was that of the client as primary in defining quality. He defined the client as another person in the line, the person who gets your work or anybody who depends on you.

2. 1. 6 Taguchi

Genichi Taguchi formerly an employee of Nippon Telephone and Telegraph has already established significant influence on the product quality movement in Japan. His prime focus was to make statistics practical. Because of this endeavor he won the Deming Prize in 1960, and since then he has won the prize again on three separate occasions. His ideas are promoted in the United States through the American Supplier Institute. Taguchi viewed quality as a concern for the whole company and centered on the utilization of statistical methods to improve quality, particularly in the area of product design. Two of his concepts are particularly significant

The loss function

Design characteristics and "noise"

Although Deming, Juran and Crosby are the most well-known TQM gurus in the United States, maybe it's argued that Feignenbaum, Ishikama, Taguchi have been as influential as they in defining the scope of TQM. In broad terms, each of them agree with each other. Accordingly, they all agreed that TQM seeks to improve productivity, and it can so by focusing on satisfying the client and by involving employees along the way. TQM they further agreed, has the practical goal of improving the bottom line and at the same time raising employee morale.

2. 2 BASICS AND CONCEPTS OF TQM

With such strong evidence that TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach, it is there important to highlight a few of its underlying basic principles and concepts.

The principles of TQM are a set of commonsense beliefs that determine the individual's action in everyday living - not only at the job. According to Colin Burns, (1995) experience has shown again and again that for TQM culture to be entrenched in virtually any organization, the average person for the reason that organization must undergo personal change. This is because the power of a business to imbibe in TQM culture is considerably enhanced when the individuals within such organizations first have confidence in and apply with passion the principles of TQM in their lives and interactions with people. He further maintained that the ground breaking principles which may have been recognized to transform the individual "inside-out" and provide the glue for holding together the complete TQM process include

* Personal vision

* Personal leadership

* Personal management

* Interpersonal leadership

* Emphatic communication

* Creative co-operation

* Balanced self renewal

He opined further that without observing and applying the above principles of good management in our individual lives, methods and techniques of TQM alone would rarely produce good quality products and services. The bottom-line according to him is the fact that quality and excellence can only be built on the foundation of sound management principles.

Aluko, et. al (1997) states that all TQM is a distinctive initiative that acts as a framework for morality running a business. According to them, TQM consider the efforts of these directly involved, both outside and inside the organization. It is no coincidence therefore that successful TQM models all will embody concepts of integrity, honesty, commitment, participation and ownership. Indeed, they value and respect the contributions from every individual as the driving force within TQM organization. Even though the principles of TQM may differ in one authority to some other, they were able to summarize sixteen principles of TQM that should guide management as distributed by Choppins (1995) to add the following

Highest priority:

Total quality must overtly be the highest priority of the business / company / individual. .

Quality definition:

Any definition of quality must include meeting / satisfying /conforming to agreed/negotiated customer needs / requirements / wants / expectations.

Customer definition:

The idea of customers include investors / employees / stakeholders / suppliers / the city and even interpersonal relationship.

Customer satisfaction:

Long-term satisfaction of customer needs will be an aim of any total quality organization.

Aim:

A total quality organization will have a plainly stated, widely understood and generally accepted direction/aim.

Communication:

A total quality organization will communicated openly and evidently its principles / beliefs / values / mission statement/policy for quality.

Ethos:

Total quality management embodies the values / beliefs / ethos of the organization, and thus total quality is intrinsic to every activity, decision and action.

Values:

The highest degrees of integrity, honesty, trust and openness is essential ingredients of total quality management.

Mutual respect and benefit:

There can be an implicit mutual respect of most stakeholders associated with a complete quality organization, which assumes that long-term business will be mutually beneficial to all concerned.

Health and safety:

Health, safety and environmental issues have a high priority within a total quality organization because the welfare of most investors / employees / suppliers / the city as stakeholders in the enterprise is intrinsic to the near future physical condition of the organization.

Commitment:

Leadership of total quality management stems from the top of the organization and enlists individual and team commitment throughout.

Participation and ownership:

Total quality offers each individual the chance to participate in, also to feel ownership of his/her activities, and jointly to talk about a sense of ownership for the success of the complete company.

Continuous improvement:

TQM involves continuous and measurable improvement at all levels of the business, which range from organizational performance to individual staff performance, such that continuous process improvement becomes a salient facet of success.

Performance:

TQM requires consistent, predictable, accurate, and precise performance to high standards in every areas of the business. Therefore, measurement, assessment and auditing are normal TQM activities.

Resources:

One major goal of every total quality organization is to use resources better, and also to achieve greater success (financial and otherwise).

Investment:

TQM will usually require sufficient/ appropriate investment to ensure that planned activities may appear.

Speaking in a similar vein, Onanusi (1998), remarked that every organization which want to unite her employees and offer horizons for thoughts and action amidst them require the following values to compliment the aforementioned listed principles. Quality service focusing on clients to be able to deliver quality service that exceeds expectation is an essential value.

Quality people:

This stems from recruiting the best people and training them to be the best of the best.

Meritocracy:

Connotes providing employees with challenging opportunities for career development, predicated on their effectiveness in serving the client.

The fourth value:

Concerns the approach of employing the same methodologies and sharing resources to ensure that all employee provides high quality services consistently.

Integrity:

Which expects that everybody stick to personal and professional standards.

Innovation

Referring to delivering unique method for each client's need

And the last value stewardship

Concerns a commitment to investigating in the foreseeable future order to bequeath a stronger and far better organization to future generation of folks in the task place.

From the above mentioned, it follows logically, that organizations won't commence the transformation of TQM until it appreciates, recognized the importance and necessity of the principles of TQM towards quality improvement if they're to survive domestic and global competition.

Robert Helter (1995) in "The Leadership Imperative" defines the concepts of TQM as a practical methodology for continuously improving all business process".

But the Besterfields think that TQM requires six basic concepts in order to integrate fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach. These concepts as highlighted by them are the following

A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organizational support.

An unwavering concentrate on the client, both internally and externally.

Effective involvement and utilization of the entire employees.

Continuous improvement of the business enterprise and production process.

Treating supplies as partners

Establishing performance measures for the procedure.

These concepts outline an excellent way to run a small business. Organizations in Nigeria that practice TQM are therefore seriously advised to internalize the above mentioned concepts into their activities and consistently defend the concepts from dilution by carrying out quality audits periodically to ensure that established systems are maintained. As TQM concepts work when it is completely integrated into the culture of the business and it becomes a way of life and an endless journey practiced by all.

2. 3. 1 TQM AS THE BUSINESS STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION

As Rao et. al (1996) remarked, most corporate leaders today would agree that the only frequent running a business life is change. This change can be large or small, rapid or slow, planned or unplanned, controllable or uncontrollable and it occurs in all respects of organizational life.

One of the tasks of TQM is the successful usage of the tools and techniques. And above all, the ability to change the organizational culture so that paying attention to quality is a standard part of the behavior of the organization. However, sustaining the method of organizational change essential to transform an organization so that quality becomes a means of life is the hardest part of TQM process. It is important to identify that TQM is not a program that can be implemented and completed; rather TQM is an ongoing effort. This rationale was instructively noted in Crosby's work when he says, "Do it all over again. . . " and Deming when he says, ". . . push the above mentioned thirteen points every day. "

2. 4. 1 TQM Implementation

Without implementation, there is no point in a business adopting TQM as a small business strategy for whatever purpose. Because from all indications, implementing TQM is a forever process, with no finite end. It is a never-ending journey of quality improvement process. This conclusively brings to us that, all within an organization need to interact to meet the challenges of implementing TQM. Despite the fact that there could be a major difference in the amount of implementation, the relevant literatures of TQM focus largely on management and management techniques on TQM implementation.

In implementing TQM in an organization, implementation plans need to be established in order to perform the organizational goals. Implementation plans in this context identifies sequence of events, programs, meetings, and activities designed to help employees learn new perspectives, skills, attitudes, behaviors in the TQM process. This means that the procedure of introducing TQM is the one that requires changing various elements of the existing culture in the business. The process must be planned and managed from the most notable. That is why Besterfields, et. al noted that, TQM implementation process starts with senior management and most important, the CEO's commitment, hence, the value of the role of senior management. It really is critically important that senior management remember to grasp TQM and what it can perform for the organization and develop and agreed (at board level) arrange for implementation before trying to implement the plan. The attitude of senior management to TQM must be positively demonstrated everyday and in every action as indifference and insufficient involvement are generally cited as the main known reasons for the failure of quality improvement efforts. Delegation and rhetoric is insufficient - involvement is required. As a general rule, the senior management starts implementation with clear statement of "quality policy" which entails the ethics, mission and value of the organization and undoubtedly its philosophy. This is regarded as the planning phase (where in fact the decision to implement TQM is taken, the look, implementing and monitoring processes are established as well as the organizational structures to be utilized in the implementation process).

The next type of action under implementation process is organizational change phase. Here organization revisits and review various action plans such as

v The articulation and dissemination of an value system

v Clarification and popularization of the mission statement.

v Attitude change through such techniques as confrontational meeting and educational courses.

v Improved collaboration between inter-group teams through such techniques as team development, the organizational mirror, role negotiation, etc

v Change in leadership and delegation styles and practices through such techniques as feedback counseling and educational courses.

v The introduction of recognition ceremonies, redesign of reviewed and performance appraisal systems, etc.

v Change in the firm's management practices of key managers and officers.

Management has an activity of making certain the right methodology is used to implement the above mentioned to ensure continuity throughout the organization. The next TQM methodology is usually applicable to all facet of business, but to be rapidly applied

The required methodologies are:

Step 1 - analyze and define existing system

Step 2 - specify complete system

Step 3 - phased implementation.

This methodology can be an essential element to the successful implementation of new and improved systems, methods and procedures within an organization. Difficulties in communication lead to inaccurate specifications for new systems, which lead to implementation and continual operational difficulties.

The active involvement of middle manages and first -line supervisors is essential to the success of the TQM effort. They are in charge of achieving many of organization's performance, goals and objectives, plus they form enduring links in the communication chain from senior management to the front-line workers. Without middle management's early and active support, the TQM effort could fail. Senior management must ensure that managers whatsoever levels have a chance, as quickly as possible to develop ownership in the TQM efforts and a chance to find the insight and skills necessary to become leaders. One of the ways to accomplish this concept based on the Besterfields, is to have a retreat, The retreat according to them, will give attention to TQM training, leadership, skills and active involvement in the introduction of the organization's statement.

As TQM is often make reference to involve empowerment of employee, employees are taught in this phase of the implementation process as it's important to communicate TQM to the whole organization. Communication is important not only during implementation stage. It is a constant process. Communication is necessary to set-up TQM awareness, interest, desire and action. This will make all employees become experienced in the request of the many concepts, tools, and techniques as they'll be in a position to identify and focus on projects targeted at reducing costs and increasing the quality of activities, processes and results. Employees are taught, total quality, problem solving, report writing and presentation, total customer services and statistical tools and techniques.

Following the company-wide TQM education, the various TQM systems procedures and techniques are introduced. However, the system introduced usually depends upon the sort of organization, nature of the product quality problem confronting it and the expectation of management regarding priority areas for immediate TQM application. The business should establish or use one or more of the next TQM techniques and systems which include

v Quality task forces

v Quality codes

v Quality implementation teams

v Total quality stands

v Total production maintenance

v Customer-supplier development programs.

Having reached the stage where the senior management team and employee understand what TQM is and exactly how it could be used as management methodology to attain the required business benefits there may be the necessity to plan implementation. The first requirement is to form a high team to plan and control the implementation of TQM throughout the organization. Everyone must be trained in quality awareness and problem solving since many people are in charge of quality.

Again, the Besterfields remarked that senior management must actively participate in the product quality implementation process by serving on teams, coaching teams and teaching, demonstrating, communicating and reinforcing the product quality statements and that they must practice the philosophy of management by wandering around (MBWA). They suggested that, senior management should get out of their office and visit customers, departments and plants within the organization, and suppliers - talk to people.

Cole (993) opined that employees should think for themselves. And that senior management role is no more to make the final decision but to make certain that the team's decision is aligned with the product quality statements of the business.

The Besterfields further suggested along this line also by recommending that senior management should push problem solving and decision making to the lowest appropriate level by delegating authority and responsibility. The TQM tools and techniques, the technical requirements of the job and safety and resources by means of the appropriate equipment to get the job done must also be provided. In order to construction, senior management should be able to drive fear from the organization, breakdown barriers, remove system and roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to improve and in general change the culture. Only with the involvement of senior management employees can TQM be success from this perspective.

2. 4. 2 TQM Measurement so that as Business Strategy

According to Sadgrove (1995), people sometimes accuse TQM of being vague, and this vagueness creates problem for companies who want to achieve total quality. It is important to adopt measurements. Its initial performance can't be measured, setting targets will be extremely difficult and without targets, an organization does not have any way of judging progress made. He further opined that, the most crucial corporate performance measurement yardstick are as shown below.

According to him, companies adopting TQM can measure (through these analogue) what is actually happening in their business. These TQM performance measurements help companies predict changes in sales, turnover, hence productivity and corporate performance.

a. Productivity

According to him, productivity is an easy measure because all companies know how much they produce. The simple task here's to create goals for improvement to be able to improve corporate performance through productivity.

b. Financial performances

Although company keep detailed financial records, but the aren't always informative (Sadgrove). Thus the utilization of ratios has therefore been found very helpful since they track corporate performance and progress. He was of the view that, financial information should be made more accessible below director's level. He further suggested that, the information should reveal amongst others why customer have stop buying, decline in productivity, and corporate performance, etc.

c. Production Quality

The essence of this is to improve quality of products that comes out of companies as put on both manufacturing and services companies. Quality and productivity aren't mutually exclusive, but improvement in quality can lead directly to increased productivity and other benefits.

d. Customer satisfaction

According to the Besterfields, quality is judged by customers. It therefore implies that customers are supreme to TQM organization and the success of such organizations sometimes appears from the eyes of the client. All products and services characterized that contribute value to the client and lead to customer satisfaction and preference must be the focus of an organisation's management system. Organisation should endeavour to check how responsive it is to customers. Morup (1992) notes that quality is the most effective factor a corporation can use in the battle for customers. To compete, we must gratify the customers. To become more competitive, we must delight the clients and quality is defined here as the way of measuring customer delight. However, he further stated that customer satisfaction is an area in the scale of customer delight also to delight the client, we should design for quality. In measuring customers satisfaction according to Sadgrove, organization must go through the following:

v What factors, value, satisfaction and preference may influence customers

v What factors are essential to her customers

v How can the organization react to customers complains and delivery reliability

v How well are the organization competitors performing

v What does customers think of the organization

v How does the organization measure customers loyalty

In addition, the organization's success in recovering from defects and errors (making things befitting the client) is vital to building customer relationships and also to retain customer. Marketing research data can be used to measure performance progress towards total quality and identification of factors essential to customers' satisfaction. Since customers needs, value, and expectations are constantly changing and becoming more demanding.

e. Staff attitudes

An organisation's success in increasing performance depends largely and increasingly upon the abilities and motivation of its work force. Employee success depends increasingly after having meaningful opportunities to learn and to practice new skills. Organisations therefore need to purchase the introduction of the task force through educative, training, and creating opportunities for continuing growth. If employees are demotivated, product / service quality will decline, as well as productivity and corporate performance. Very few Nigerian companies know precisely what their staff think. It therefore follows logically, with survey, management will be able to determine what staff considers the business, its management, and its own culture. Today, organizations pay more attention to staff attitude and a quality staff attitude. Survey in a TQM environment should include

v Culture

Is it a good company to be employed by?

To what extent are staff involved in running the business?

Does management listen?

v Communication

Are staff told about the things they need to know?

How do they hear about things - grapevine?

Are communication getting better?

v The Job

Are people satisfied with their pay?

Are people satisfied with their work conditions?

Are there promotion prospects?

v Training

Have employees received working out they need?

v Product and customers

Do people know who the customers are?

Do people understand the merchandise?

Do people know how the company does, compared to competitors?

v Working unit & others

How does the individual get on along with his boss?

What do staff think of management?

To what extent does co-operation exist?

Addressing these challenges requires acquisition and use of employee related data or skills, satisfaction, motivation, safety and wellbeing. Such data need to be tied to indicators of organization performance, such as client satisfaction, customer relation and productivity. Through this approach, recruiting management can be integrated better and aligned with business directions, using continuous improvement processes to refuse integration and alignment to meet change staff attitude positively.

f. Health, safety and environment

An organisation's management objectives should stress corporate responsibilities (identifies the basic expectations of the organization's business ethics and protection of heath, safety and environment). These need to be taken into account in the organisation's product service life cycle. Planning relating to health safety and environment should anticipate adverse impacts which could arise in facilities management, change distribution, transportation and use for disposal of products. Plans should seek to prevent problems to provide a forthright organization response if problems occur and make available information needed to maintain public awareness, safety, trust and confidence. Inclusion of social responsibility areas within an excellent system means meeting all local, state and federal laws and regulatory requirements and treating these requirements as areas for continuous improvement "beyond mere compliance"

Considering these ideas, from Sadgrove, Besterfields yet others, a modern business management system must build after a framework of measurement, date and analysis. Measurement I believe must be derived from the organisation's strategy and encompass all key processes and the output of the processes. Also, I really believe facts and data needed for quality improvement, productivity, corporate performance and quality assessment are of many types including customers, product and service performance operations, market competitive comparisons, suppliers, employee related and cost and financial to aid evaluation and decision making within the business.

In general, taking all the above measurements allows the business to evaluate improvement over time. Sadgrove, however, advised that it is always important to start out records before improvement project will take off. Otherwise, the real aftereffect of the TQM program will not be seen. According to him, once a business has started making improvement, it is always too late to estimate what the problem used to end up like.

Finally, Aluko, et. al (1997) citing Fran (1995) pointed out that reasonable success in TQM is determined by initiatives which form strong relationships with making activities. The purpose of this relationships or partnerships is to integrate customer requirements into TQM programs to be able to build up products and services that excite customers and clients. They argued further that, for many Nigerian companies to embrace the thought of developing quality to their customers and clients as an enterprise strategy, quality and cost should be linked in the TQM process.

2. 5. 3 Suggested theories on TQM Steps

As a way of TQM implementation and measurement, Robinson's (1994) approach provides us with a scope from which we can discuss Total Quality steps essential for organisational excellence. According to him, in his publication titled " A Journey to Excellence" the next steps are incredibly very important to organisations to attain their goals;

* Establish the company mission

* Establish the business philosophy

* Audit the structure, management and communication process

* Set up a central coordinating body for quality program

* Appoint a quality directors with officers

* Perform basic quality wide education

* Establish quality groups

* Reward contributions to quality

However, Peter and Waterman (1982) likely have done more to market the message of excellence in TQM throughout depends upon. In their book which becomes a classic "Searching for Excellence in TQM", they show that organization becomes excellent in TQM when they

* Provide top quality

* Create total customer responsiveness

* Achieve versatility by empowering people

* Purse fast-paced innovation

* Adopt a leadership style

* Maintained cross-function and decentralized management.

2. 6 BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF TQM FOR THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

TQM we already said is a system of method of management that aims to improve value to customers and clients by designing and continually enhancing organizational processes and systems. As this definition suggests, organizations that embrace TQM and are deeply committed to the processes and systems have transformed the business to those that see quality from the perspective of their customers.

Generally, when successful, customers' loyalty, retention and base increases exponentially at all times with immense benefits for the organizations. So, TQM can be regarded as a powerful technique for improving organizational corporate performance and increasing productivity. TQM also encourage better management of supplier relationship with cost reduction benefits. TQM permit all facets of the business - leadership, information and analysis, strategy planning, human resource development and management, business processes, etc for taking input, add value to it and offer an output to its customers.

In the light of these, future Nigeria managers should become more aware of value and quality to deliver to customers and clients. The lesson of Japan demonstrates challenges of development are challenges of quality. Going for a cue from this, the challenges in Nigeria have to be met not on the streets, but in our various organizations and institutions. These concepts of quality and value ought to be the underlying factors for modern managers in our organizations. To embrace TQM in totality, they must practice flat organizational structure and self-managed work teams to attain corporate goals and enhance productivity. Top management must assume primary responsibility for providing leadership and commitment needed to meet this challenge. This challenge is only possible through practical and effective implementation of TQM techniques in organizations and institutions.

While recommending TQM as a great management technique to meet the challenges of development of the Nigerian economy Onanusi (1998) envisaged that a National Quality Campaign (NQC) would have a commending influence based on the knowing that the theories, methodologies, principles, concepts, tools and techniques of TQM must be adopted. In his analysis, the methods to TQM implementation in Nigeria with various ethnic grouping should be assessed, great deal of thought structure, size and nature of the surroundings.

For TQM to work in Nigeria, Onanusi recommended the next:

* That a National Quality campaign should be launched. Upon this, he remarked that the credibility of this campaign would be utilized to dominate the media. Television and radio program, non-stop articles in National institutions and business press should be embarked upon

* That a National Quality Policy Statement should be formulated through the above, in liaison with the Presidency and Vision 2010 (The Visionary Team!). This will be concise and readily understandable in a mission statement.

* That Quality Program should be developed to produce awareness and commitment to TQM.

* That effective training program for change should be developed.

* That TQM should be tailored to meet Nigeria needs and culture.

* That the need to assess the country current status in a variety of quality measures is also paramount.

* That institutional heads, universities commissions, government agencies, professional bodies, etc have to be addressed to expand TQM, so that each establishment and offices will be working towards a goal.

In Onanusi's view, if the above are considered and approved by the Presidency, TQM has inherent values that will assist Nigeria in the challenge ahead towards economy development and national building.

Only recently had there been some noticeable changes in the Nigerian business environment as the Nigerian companies have learnt that customers are willing and with the capacity of paying extra price for products, services or even ideas that meets their standards and their measures of quality. It is interesting to note as Aluko, et. al. (1997), observed that prosperous Nigerian companies are those which may have changed their management practices and processes and encouraged organizational staff performance and improvement through TQM principles, techniques and practices.

In conclusion, though the Nigerian economy is presently experiencing a recession (or perhaps a depression), it's important for organizations to create an extremely clear direction and develop an efficient and efficient process for TQM strategy implementation to be able to accomplish corporate goals and enhance productivity. To achieve success, organizations needs not only keep customers satisfaction in focus, but must also balance the approach because customers' satisfaction actually commences with employees' satisfaction.

2. 7 PROBLEMS OF TQM

Briefly, there are some impediments to TQM implementation atlanta divorce attorneys organization. This revolves around the perception that the idea of TQM is time consuming, rigid, formalistic, impersonal, bureaucratic, and property of an expert group. According to Westbrook (1993), he noted that experience from research demonstrates resistance to TQM implementation in most organizations is commonly normal with middle management staff.

In Nigeria, TQM is actually at a developmental stage, therefore cannot exist without some basic issues that could impede its implementation. These problems range from political interference, management laxity, and insufficient training to poor communication, conservatism (traditional management approach), cultural variations and favoritism etc.

However, resistance to TQM can be overcome through education and effective communication, facilitation and support, participation and involvement, negotiation and agreement.

2. 8 OVERVIEW OF TQM ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

In summary, various texts and journals have been reviewed to be able to gather the required theoretical and empirical framework for the research study. The literatures reviewed delve into historical background of TQM concepts, principles, techniques, tools as well as its implementation and measurement. Similarly, relevant literature and their benefits to the Nigerian economy were equally highlighted. The totality of the literature reviewed is that TQM concept is suitable for boosting organisational performance and productivity in organization to sustain survival and growth in a competitive business environment.

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