Based on the reserve Strategic Brand Management by Kevin Lane Keller (2008), Identifying and creating brand positioning is the first and important stage of the strategic brand management process. Positioning results over a founding benchmark and works toward building a strong brand by aiding marketers to design, to apply, to solidify or to sustain brand associations. Aaker (1991 ) also supports the theory that the brand position can provide clear route to a communication program implementation. To establish the position of a brand, the concept of it ought to be clearly defined. Criticism of the literature uncovers numerous meanings and clarification of placement. Sekhar, (1989) states that the concept of placement developed from research on market segmentation and concentrating on. Kotler (2003, p. 308) defines brand placement as "the act of designing the business's offering and image to take up a distinctive put in place your brain of the target market. The end result of placement is the successful creation of your customer-focused value proposition, a cogent reason why the mark market can purchase the product". Arnott (1992, 1993) parallels the idea by proclaiming that positioning is, correlated to the rivalry, management attempt to adjust the tangible features and the intangible views of any marketable contribution. Furthermore, Kapferer (2004, p. 99) emphasises on the distinctive characteristics that produce a band not the same as its opponents and appealing to the general public. In addition, Sengupta (2005) enhances the word of perception that signify the core of the brand in terms of its practical and emotional gain in the decision of customer. Also, it is shown as things in perceptual space and thought up a product class.
In fact, Keller outlines the theory behind the concept of brand positioning which involves four aspects; marketplace identification, the nature of competitors, the perfect of tips of parity, and the tips of difference. Discovering target market is vital part in set up a robust placement because dissimilar portion may have diverse brand knowledge framework or understand the same brand in several way range by own attitudes, beliefs, and experience. The prospective customer can be categorized as descriptive (customer-oriented), which associated to the kind of customer or behavioral (product-oriented), which related to how customers consider of or utilizes the brand or product. The behavioral area is more significant to comprehend brand position scheduled to stronger proper implication. Decided type of target can, then, implicitly sketches the nature of rivalry because businesses usually concentrate on that same segment in conditions of category membership. Once the appropriate competitive shape of guide for setting has been shaped, the correct points of parity (POPs) and things of difference (PODs) are able to make. Point of parity (POPs) are characteristics or benefits which could mutual with other brands sectioned off into two varieties: category and competitive. Category point of parity is a typical association expected by customers showing the credibility of companies. Competitive Point of parity are associations designed to abolish rivalry Point of difference. It can be used when organizations want to break even the area that competitors are trying to seek an advantage and achieve advantages in some other areas. To illustrate, to type in the fast food industry, there are key elements that help customers to label a brand as an easy food restaurant such as quick service, good taste, and low prices. They are fundamental features and benefits of product category that it belongs to. Point of difference, on the other side, comprises of strong, advantageous and unique organizations for a brand based on attribute or benefit relationship in the mind of customer. It is associations that customers believe they couldn't find in the competitive brand. It really is considered by useful basis, performance-related consideration and imagery related criterion, which are competitive strengths and perception about consumers' motivations. Reeves and Ted Bates advertising agency (1950) also support the common concept of PODs in conditions of unique offering proposition (USP) that promoting use to compel customers to buy product that rivals could not race. For instance, fast-food chain Subway uses the much healthier gain as PODs weighed against other quick-serve restaurants that supported by less fats feature. Nike, for another example, case of superior performance in athletic shoes.
Nowadays, the business enterprise environment is becoming more intensively competitive. Marketers must certify that their brands constantly amend to remain s, at the same time as keeping on the true core principles (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1999). There are many reasons which make a firm to reconsider about its brand position that could be environmentally motivated, Consumer driven, Competitor driven, and company powered. The environmentally influenced can cause by economical issue, political concern, or the green movement. Consumer driven can be the change of consumer needs and lifestyles or the appeal of alternative focus on markets. Moreover, the powered from inner of company usually be considered a change in company strategy or gaining of new technology or other asset that delivers the brand a competitive gain and valuable differentiator. Finally, the fundamental reason that affects a brand to reposition is the rival movement. Market segments are shredded and full with proposition that rivals try to display their point of different and superior positioning. Then, the brand may be encountered by a new stronger setting. Clancy and Trout (2002) cited by Fuchs C. & Diamantopoulos A. (2010) attracts attention that competitive advantages often survive for only a short period before competitors attempt to match them, which may harm the brand placement in terms of building satisfactory differentiation benefits over their contenders. Thus, brand should behave by using repositioning strategy to change and stay contemporary and fresh in the sight of customers. Trout and Ries (1986) propose an idea of the repositioning that require with competition, change, and problems issues. First of all, repositioning can be competitive the rival by discriminate the brand or product and add value to it. Second, since time go by, brand should revise itself and make link with focus on customer by using technology and communication and multimedia system belongings. Finally, repositioning could cure the crisis especially the price issue. Ryan et al ()also provides meaning of repositioning this is the way to re-adapt brand position the consumer's thought to change the way in which a firm's service or product is apprehend.
Basically, positioning and repositioning are the same; they are both process of getting ownership of a place in the thoughts of the mark market that is proper, differentiating and fascinating. These two activities are, likewise, bases on the client Based Brand Collateral (CBBE) Model resolved by Keller in 1993 which defined as "the different impact that consumer knowledge is wearing the customer's response to marketing activity".
To clarify, this newspaper will show the illustration of two repositioned brand of the automobile industry in both successful and fail way. Begin with brand that flourish in repositioning that is Tiny,
The Little (original named Mini) is one of the very most well-known brands in the car industry, and even the most prosperous British isles car in terms of amount sold (Birmingham Little Owners Membership, 2002 cited by Simms & Trott, 2007). It was launched in 1959 by English Motor Corporation. It had been originally designed for four people seat, in a small size, sensible, easy to park and cost-effective. Also, charged was inexpensively. This reacted to a energy scarcity, and the increasing demand for skillful urban vehicles. The Minuscule Cooper was designed and commercialized as a faster and sporty version of the Mini that would allow the car to contend successfully in rallying. In addition, in 1969 the Mini was located on the film The Italian Job. Due to the combo of the Mini's rallying success and star style reputation so that it became a necessary fashion item. It gained the social status that regarded as a British icon. The Minuscule Cooper's position was variable between the 1970s and the 1980s as the certificate for the brand was sold to Spanish and Italian companies. In 1994, BMW bought the Rover Group, the owner of the Little and launched the collection in 2000. BMW still used the Minuscule brand to unite old and new to form explicit and consistence profile, but a little change in name from Minuscule to Little.
Launching the brand new MINI had job to maintain the Little from becoming a fad. Therefore, business strategy of BMW is to put the Tiny as symbolic. It focus on young groups of customers that are urbane, stylish, individualistic or characteristically take their own journey, value and quality consider, love to drive, and a trendsetter. To meet up the target market need, quality, and lifestyle, Little brand arrived the repositioning strategy that attempted to entice customer in both reasonable level by the merchandise performance and insurance of quality, and at a sensational level by the worthiness of the brand's image or product appearance. At the rational level, MINI helps to keep the belief of a small premium car. It emphasized in sensible and brand traditions about as an market small sport car which may have a different and new specialized base. A couple of three main competitive advantages that support the aspect; custom design, modern quality technology, and outstanding safety. Firstly, MINI has an considerable variety of equipment along with paintwork options, applications on the external and uncommon materials for the inner that make Tiny customizable and can be differentiate. Because of this, it includes customers to choose their own style Minuscule expressing and show their own brand personality. Second, the quality sizing, it involves; body structure setting new benchmarks, the powerful engines, the most intensifying suspension technology, which makes drivers feel a go-kart experience. Thirdly, the basic safety system ensure excellent security airbag system, which makes the MINI one of the safest and the most reliable cars in its category. At an psychological level, the Little pressured on the fun facet, play with the slogan ' fun to drive'. Thus, Minuscule attemptedto create brand personality from it as entertaining, outrageous, cheeky, trendy, sporting and attractive.
Figure 1 : The perceptions of the BMW Minuscule brand: the value of historical organizations and the development of a model : Shape from Simms and Trott (2006)
The win of the MINI brand repositioning can be examined in many aspects. First of all it achieved in evidently defined its target market so it can offer the brand attributes or benefits that meet the aim for needs and, also, could contend with the relevant brands in the sporty compact autos market such as Honda and Volkswagen. Moreover, MINI did not forget to own Category points-of-parity; it provided essential and credible features a car must have to customers. Additionally, MINI can prove strong superiority on its attribute and advantage and, too, consumers can be swayed. Tiny brand associations achieved three standards that can properly be proficient at a point-of-difference; desirability, deliverability, and differentiability. First of all, the MINI's concentrate on customer was given a persuasive purpose to believe by MINI's create on exclusive design, up-to-date quality technology, excellent security, plus fun emotion. Appropriately, they can feel the relevance in both performance and feelings. These advantage organizations are hard to compete. Also, MINI acquired take advantage of the combination of two legacy advantages; English history and BMW's German history that effected to customer notion. The former English heritage included development in Great britain, iconic program, fun and sporty discomfort. The later German heritage BMW's contains the certifying in brilliance of creation and technology along with the premium car section. Moreover, the company can really deliver favor features and benefits, in the other words, MINI could dispatched the promises "unique joy at an attainable price" to its consumers. The merchandise design and its own marketing campaign recognized the desired associations. Their unique, specific and complete forms of advertising resulted to mini's repositioning fulfillment. The client was underlined that possessing and driving a car a MINI is fun, at the same time, also promoting brand personality and the idea of smaller is better. In every touch things, from the billboards to the showrooms, everything is branded that pararell with the established position. Finally, organizations of Tiny brand are strong in differentiate about background related, product related, and emotional related that can promise distinctiveness and superiority against relevant competition.
Whilst MINI brand repositioning has been very successful, Oldsmobile brand, contrastingly, possessed left customers lost. The Oldsmobile brand is a case of the failure brand in repositioning. Oldsmobile is one of the brand legends in All of us car history. It had been in the stock portfolio of Basic Motors (GM) same as Chevrolet, Pontiac, Buick and Cadillac. It was a pioneer brand that launched the first car with stainless- plated lean and front steering wheel drive. Besides, it was a genuine of an computerized car called Toronado model. The brand was popular for many decades until there were problems that shake the strength of brand and have to get rid of the creation in 2000. The reason behind the brand inability can be divided in terms of positioning in three parts.
First of all, around 1980s onwards, when GM's technology acquired cutting edge get started with the Chevrolet machines were substituted advertisement diesel engines received as an option, it, afterward, ended maintaining and emphasizing the initial offering proposition of Oldsmobile and make the brand to be consistent like others. Therefore, Oldsmobile is devalued its setting in advance automobile in sportiness and technology. It lost its benefit border and considered very as well to other brand of GM.
Additionally, because of its brand name, there can be an aftereffect of the name 'old' to the conception of customer that mislead to be regarded as outdates brand specially among teenage section. Because of this, marketers of Oldsmobile attempted to reposition the brand and change the brand image with "It's Not Your Father's Oldsmobile" slogan and ran advertising to describing the point. Alas, this customers couldn't acknowledge reasonable about get older association but still understand that Oldsmobile is old-fashioned (Levinson, 2005). One Brand Week article, printed in February 2001 offered a suggestion to the Oldsmobile that instead of try to be younger, it will better recognize the exist brand, using its older profile, seek out more mature customers insight and give them a communication that fascinated with their needs. It could be possible, as the Oldsmobile have been seen as a trendsetter in its field, even though it possessed never been a youth brand. Also, the process of this repositioning was somewhat impulsive operation. The customer belief should proceeding modify for example, from old brand to mature brand to, eventually, more radiant brand. In addition, Oldsmobile possessed endeavoured to lift up its position to be always a luxury brand by changing emblem and make many product variations to enter European market. However, the main idea of Oldsmobile was to manufacture a low-priced car for the public and discounting technique to sales was still used that contrary to the repositioning goal, thus, consumers were confounded. Again, their memory with the sooner brand image still ran deep. Ultimately, General Motors shut down its Oldsmobile section.
Refer to the case, there are many factors that produce Oldsmobile incapable to success in repositioning. Begins with the target market, it attempted to target younger consumers and affluent market without finding those customers insight. While there were overwhelm of rivals that pierced in the same concentrate on. Thus, adding trendy new Olds autos were too overdue. Oldsmobile didn't carry on the brand's new promise; it just created the label line "IT ISN'T Your Father's Oldsmobile" but did not do anything on service or product programs to stress the state. The product reforms didn't meet needs of new customers. By reason of deficient product development plus inconsistent brand marketing communications, it did not have power enough to change the target's conception that Oldsmobile is a younger, modern brand. Sharfman(2001) claims that this slogan excluded both newer and elder customers. The reason that could be it hadn't done enough through its designs, modern day images, and marketing combination, especially to the customers who don't have high involvement in the brand. They found no advantage and no distinction, and no emotive association. Furthermore, it left behind their competitive advantages which can be a sporty and progressive, predicated on its heritage. Subsequently, the trusted and believable personality of Oldsmobile was damaged. Furthermore, to be in top of the market, Oldsmobile did not prosper on credibility. Price levels did not represent the new inclined position. Also, it had not been in a position to form a unique emotional edge or identity element of brand equity that is related to its customers. Therefore Oldsmobile changed people off.
In a nut shell, brand setting is a proper concept that marketers make a music group image to sit down in a unique room in your brain of the target market by way of a customer-focused base value correlated to opponents. Furthermore, There are factors require brand managers to reconsider about their brand position such as altering customer needs, increasing competitive pressures and changing of the business own framework. The BMW Little case shows a good example of what sort of brand cans success in repositioning. It created effective brand organizations that consumers perceive a brandname dwell in a favourable, differentiated and credible location in the heads of consumers. Thus, Minuscule gained trustworthiness of the merchandise position by information given by brand. Although some brands are wanted to become resurrected and famous again, often, repositioning brand fail in changing the image in your brain of customer as the brought up circumstance of Oldsmobile. It underwent from a lack of strong setting since targeted goal that it didn't have ability to send the offers or new benefits. Also, elements of marketing mix didn't go along with new position such as the product improvement and the price. As a result, marketers should carefully redefine brand's target market, stick on the needs and anticipations, then, find the appropriate and available location to be in their heads, which unique, certifiable, and acceptable. Finally, the new position should be communicated properly and consistency.
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