As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• features of advertising communication, its types and forms;
• the specifics of the organization of advertising communication at the present stage of market development;
be able to
• determine the strategic and tactical goals of advertising communication;
• take part in the development of advertising campaigns and individual stocks;
• the basic skills of oral and written communication;
• Basic skills in creating advertising texts and documents.
Structural diagram of advertising communication
According to most experts, the structural scheme of an advertising communication message does not fundamentally differ from the schemes of other means of marketing communications. All the main characteristics of structural elements - from the task in hand and its special coding for successful transmission and understanding before feedback from the consumer with a signal of successful admission - are determined by the parameters of the target audience of circulation.
Consider the main elements of the advertising communication scheme (Figure 4.1). In advertising communication is necessary
Fig. 4.1. Structural diagram of advertising communication
note the leading role of the recipient (the recipient, the recipient - in the scheme it is marked by a cheerful smiley). The main tool and information carrier, emotional impact, psychological installation of the communicator to the target audience is appeal (message, message - in the diagram is indicated by the number 2). The sender (communicator, inductor, addressee, source of communication - on the diagram is indicated by the number 1) - the party on whose behalf the advertisement is sent to the addressee. Achieving the signal sent by the communicator (source of information), one addressee (potential buyer) by specialists is defined as an advertising contact.
When forming an appeal, techniques like verbal (verbal, textual) and non-verbal communication can be used.
Coding in advertising communication is understood as the process of presenting the idea of communication transmitted to the addressee of information in the form of texts, symbols and images. Let's return to the scheme of advertising communication. It should be noted that, when forming a message, the communicator must proceed from the fact that the code used is well known to the recipient. Otherwise, the effectiveness of communication will be low. Especially important is the problem of coding-decoding when working for a foreign audience. Differences in the national mentality, archetypes, stereotypes, hierarchies of cultural values, etc. can cause in different countries a different reaction to the same treatment.
In the formation of advertising communication, it is necessary to take into account the presence of so-called filters, or barriers, perception (in the diagram are indicated by the figure 3). This term refers to various kinds of restrictions in the transmission of a message. The presence of filters can be determined by the characteristics of the sender, the external environment, the recipient.
Barriers associated with the characteristics of the sender may be known moral guidelines, material and financial capabilities of the communicator. The external environment can form such filters as censorship, features of legislation regulating advertising activities. An example is the prohibition of advertising alcohol and tobacco products on United States television in accordance with the US Law "On Advertising" from 1 January 1996.
• physical - is the overlaying of one information on another, damage to the carriers of advertising communication (breakage of the billboard, typos in advertising in the press and print ads, power outages for advertising on TV) and the like.;
• psychological is the result of the difference in perception of the surrounding reality by people participating in the communication process. The same signals can cause different emotions in different people, affect certain moral values of people (for example, national, political, religious, etc.);
• semantic - arise because of the ambiguity of individual concepts that are fairly freely interpreted by the recipient. For example, large - small, weak - strong, a lot - a little, etc. So, the output volume, small for one firm (for example, "Foltsvagen"), for another company (for example, TAGAZ) is huge. It is necessary to avoid the uncertainty and multiplicity of interpreting your message in the communication process;
To semantic hindrances it is possible to carry cutting ears from representatives of the intended target audience of the name of the advertised brands of foreign communicators. For example, for our domestic consumer, the following foreign products are very provocatively and ambiguously audible: "Pukala" (tea brand Pukala ), Wash & amp; Go (shampoo Wash & Go ), Dolby (reproducing video equipment "Dolby"), etc. At the same time, the advertisement of the domestic car brand "Niva" (do not be surprised - in its time, 1970-1980s, it was a very popular model of a youth car in Europe, one of the first crossovers) in the Spanish market was failed, as this word in the local jargon meant "no".
An important factor in advertising communication is the formation of the optimal channel. At the same time, the role of the choice of channels of advertising communication is so important that these problems are addressed by a whole range of applied advertising activities - media planning.
The communication channel unites all participants in the communication process and media from the moment of encoding the signal sent to the time it is received by the addressee. The communicative channel should correspond to the very idea of the broadcast information and the symbols used for its encoding as much as possible. One of the most important characteristics of the communication channel is its availability and compliance with a particular target audience. The size of the business and the size of the advertising agency depends on who is responsible for media planning. In some cases, the advertising message is perceived and those people who are not the target audience. Avoid this in advertising is almost impossible. Media Plan is a certain type of professional image-based scheme, which demonstrates the best ways to send marketing communications messages designed to influence the target audience. To create this plan, specialists need to evaluate and select communication channels, according to which the marketing communications messages will be delivered to the target audience in the form of advertising messages taking into account the maximum impact effect (at the right time, in the right place, for the optimal price). From scientific and educational and special literature it is known that marketing has an important role in supporting marketing communications programs. In turn, media planning is a key element of the marketing communications program. While the marketing communication plan is based on the company's marketing plan, the media plan depends on the marketing communications plan and its goals.
In order to make a decision regarding the use of certain media, specialists must take into account all factors that can exert the necessary influence. There are seven main factors.
1. Marketing objectives of the company. The media plan should support the company's overall marketing goals, since it is these goals that determine the decisions about the use of certain media. Virtually all marketing goals are conditionally divided into two stable groups. The first is those goals that directly relate to the share of the commodity market. Another group of goals relates to the field of communications. Both groups assume a certain type of media plan.
2. Product. The advertised product, its characteristics also influence the choice of certain media as an advertising communication. The price of a product, its novelty, stage of the life cycle and the means of distribution of the goods determine the type of its buyer.
3. Product profitability. Has a direct impact on the choice of media for the advertising communication process. It is difficult to imagine and justify an expensive advertising campaign, for example on television, for a product that brings a small profit. Small profits can also affect the amount of support for the marketing communications program from retailers. Speech, of course, does not go about those exceptional cases when the social and social significance or the political and ideological necessity of the advertised product overlaps the value of profitability and costs.
4. Distribution channels. Correctly considered features of the market and channels of goods promotion (for example, availability of demand for goods in a certain geographical area, preferences of means of advertising communication for specific partners, depending on content and essence their commercial business, etc.), can significantly affect the optimization of advertising communications costs.
5. Integrated marketing communications strategy (IMC ). When forming a media plan, it is necessary to take into account other elements of the IMC strategy. Efforts spent on advertising, personal sales and sales promotion help to successfully build a media plan. The advertising campaign of luxury goods, performed in single copies, will differ in content and focus from advertising of mass consumption goods, etc.
6. Marketing resources. Obviously, no commercial enterprise has all the necessary resources to realize a full impact on the intended consumer, even if advertising is not its business segment and a priority. This is particularly true in media planning, where the cost of a comprehensive media plan is beyond the reach of the campaign budget.
7. Target Audience. In the case of an integrated marketing communications program, media planners should assess the situation and analyze comprehensive data on the prevailing target audience, for example, what are the preferences for obtaining information and how best to combine media to maximize the effectiveness of the target audience, using for this and unconventional options. Such an assessment may require the company to conduct additional research on the means of disseminating information related to the target audience.
The effectiveness of advertising communication to a large extent depends on who represents the communicator, in whose mouth the advertising message is embedded. This person (or character) can be defined as an intermediary ( communicant) in this communication. Such a mediator can be a specific person, in particular, one of the popular artists. For example, actress Natalia Fateeva - vitamins Vitrum & quot ;, TV host I myself! Julia Menshova - pantyhose "Levante", Larisa Dolina - slimming remedy "Supersystem - Six", Christina Orbakaite - shop "Snow Queen". The use of a known person as an intermediary has been called testimonium. An alternative to use in celebrity advertising can be the collective image of a "person from the people", "ordinary person" either voice-over, as well as various fantastic and famous fairy-tale creatures. An example is the Rabbit Quikia from the Cocoa Nesquik ad, the Ronald McDonald clown, and others.
The recipients (addressees) in the advertising communications are those people (the target audience), which was originally intended advertising. The so-called reference group can also serve as the target audience; those people who take part in the decision to purchase or directly affect it.
The decoding system provides decryption messages of the communicator by the recipient. It is completely determined by the individual and social characteristics of the addressee (belonging to a particular culture, level of intelligence, etc.).
Feedback is the part of the response that the recipient informs the sender. As elements of feedback can be considered: the appeal of recipients to the communicator for additional information, testing of the advertised product, its recognition in a mass of similar brands, its memorability, etc. The response is a set of recipients' responses. Of course, that the communicator expects the recipient of the advertising message to purchase the advertised product.
However, advertising developers need to consider that various kinds of interference (barriers and perceptual filters, indicated by the number 3 - see the block diagram on page 98) may arise in the process of advertising communication. This can be unplanned distortion of information while interfering with the process of communication of additional environmental factors. Most of these interferences can not completely block the communication process. But they can cause a decrease in the effectiveness of the advertising message. To reduce the level of their influence, it is necessary to study and analyze the processes of their appearance and propagation.
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