There has been a marked upsurge in iPhone users across the globe since the product originated in 2007. APPLE MACKINTOSH developed the iPhone and its superior quality combined with an effective online marketing strategy has motivated its use by hundreds of thousands of people around the world. By the finish of 2010, over 30 million iPhones were sold in various parts of the entire world. In america by themselves, there are over 6 million iPhone users, which illustrate the level of popularity of the devices. Iphones are smart-phones which have various features including camera mobile, video camera, lightweight media player, aesthetic voicemail, Wi-Fi, web browsing, 3G connectivity yet others (Holt, 2004). These to use digital keyboards that happen to be activated utilizing a multi-touch screen. In addition, iPhones support various applications which have been produced by Apple Inc. You will find thousands of applications which provide functions such as reference point, games, public networking, Navigation, advertising, security while others. There are also millions of music available on the web which are recognized by iPhones through itunes.
Due to the success of the iPhone brand, it is important to ascertain the major factors which have made the iPhone a cultural symbol or fashion icon. Past research has connected the success of Apple Inc. in marketing the merchandise to the public effect which is produced by consumers in various geographical locations (Aaker, 2001). The public influence made has a direct impact in consumer purchase decisions. Studying the strategies which Apple has used to produce social affects and ultimately translate this to increased sales levels is of main importance. These details may be replicated by other global brands to have success in selling different products to consumers. This newspaper will measure the link between public impact and consumer purchase decisions. The hyperlink will form a benchmark with which Apple Inc. strategies will be examined with respect to this information. The research paper may be useful not and then professionals of global scientific companies but also to students and companies since this will show you how manufacturers might use social influence to market products to consumers.
1. 2 Objective of the Study, research questions and hypothesis
There are various aims of the research paper. The first goal is to analyze the relationship between consumer decision making processes and social influence. The next research aim is to analyze how the iPhone generates social forces and how Apple Inc. has effectively used this influence to motivate for market demand for the iPhone. The 3rd objective of the study is to look for the competitive advantage which the iPhone has with regards to the consumer purchase action. The study questions will be "Do consumer decision making functions have a relationship with social influence", "Gets the iPhone generated sociable influence and when yes, how?", and lastly, "Has Apple used sociable affect to increase consumer demand and increase income?". These research questions will also form the hypotheses to be tested by the research.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This section of the newspaper will review all books on social influence on making of consumer purchase decisions, how iPhones have created a social affect and the competitiveness of iPhones in the global business environment. Consumer patterns, factors influencing demand, communal influence on consumer decisions, iPhones and their affect as well as competitiveness of iPhones products will be mentioned in detail in this section of the paper.
2. 1 History of iPhones
Iphones were developed by Apple Company after its CEO, Jobs made a decision to influence engineers to build up products which applied a touch screen. He viewed this as a chance which had been neglected by phone companies and which may be a source of competitive edge for Apple. The company collaborated with AT&T Company to build up touch-screen device. It required approximately 3 years for the first iPhone to be developed and it cost roughly $140 million in research costs (Mickalowski et. al. , 2008). After the success of the task, AT&T offered Apple exclusive protection under the law to develop iPhones both in terms of software and hardware. The first iPhone was launched in 2007 and a large number of sales were recognized on its first day of access into the market. In the beginning, the iPhone was sold in america, France, UK, Germany, Austria and Ireland. In 2008, another version of the iPhone (3G) was released in over 20 countries and this market later broadened for over 80 countries (Keller, 2002). Apple later developed the 3GS model which consumers complained to be expensive although a later version, iPhone 4 4 was more expensive than the prior version. During the first 2 yrs, over 6 million systems of iPhones were sold by Apple and by 2010, over 73 million units had been sold (Chaudhury, & Jean, 2002). Apple is currently one of the five largest cellphone companies in america when positioned by revenue. In america, there are over 6 million iPhones in use. Because the product can be utilized by people of different age groups and because of its high quality features, iPhones have gained a worldwide demand over the past few years (Netmedia, 2008).
2. 2 Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior can be an important subject of study by professionals in the present day business environment. Increased competition has managed to get necessary to determine factors which affect the decisions which consumers make of purchasing products. Consumer action analyzes why, when, where and how people purchase or fail to acquire products (Drucker, 2000). This subject matter utilizes knowledge learned in sociology, psychology, economics and anthropology. It looks for to comprehend consumer decisions both in terms of group decisions and individual decisions. This understanding is gained through research of behavioral parameters and demographics to be able to develop conclusions on what drives consumers to make certain purchase decisions. There are several factors which can be studied when advancing arguments on consumer tendencies. They are grouped into environmental factors, consumer factors and choice factors. Environmental factors include market stimuli such as product, advertising, place and price while environmental stimuli include factors such as scientific, economic, cultural, politics, natural and demographic factors (Peter & Olson, 2004). Consumer factors include buyer characteristics such as determination, attitude, personality, perception, knowledge and lifestyle while decision making characteristics include beneficial search, problem popularity, purchase decision, choice evaluation and post purchase tendencies (Olins, 2003). Finally, choice factors include choices such as brand choice, product choice, seller choice, purchase amount and timing.
In addition, there's also external and inside influences which determine how consumers make purchase decisions. External affects include sub-cultures, civilizations, royalty, commitment, family, ethnicity, earlier experience, social class, marketing combination factors and lifestyle (Kunde, 2002). Internal factors which effect purchase decisions include lifestyle, demography, drive, personality, behaviour, knowledge, feelings and values. For purposes of research, the economical and psychology perspectives of consumer decision making functions will be mentioned. These include the economical factors which effect the purchase decision operations as well as cultural factors which influence the decision making processes. Financial factors include income, future anticipations, price of product, tastes and preference, option of supply and others. Social factors include lifestyle, demography, beliefs and attitudes. The impact which these monetary and public factors on consumer purchase decision of iPhones will form the basis of the literature review.
2. 3 Factors influencing demand
There are various monetary factors which affect demand of products. A few of them are income, future objectives, price of product, season, flavour and preference, option of supply among others. These factors will be reviewed individually below;
2. 3. 1 Income
Income is one of the major factors which impact demand for products. Consumers budget for products to be purchased with regards to the income they earn. They have got an increased purchase electric power when they earn high income and vive verse (Leuthesser et. al. , 2005). Individuals are also in a position to spend more on luxuries when they may have high incomes and vice verse. IPhones are considered by many consumers to be luxury items and for that reason purchase of these products will seriously rely on income earned. People who earn much more incomes tend to get iPhones and vice verse. Also, they are likely to purchase more quantities of iPhones than those who earn low earnings.
2. 3. 2 Future expectations
A future expectation of price changes is another essential aspect influencing demand. When consumers are aware that prices of products will show up or rise in future, this affects their purchase decisions. When prices are place to show up, consumers purchase fewer levels of the product at present while awaiting the future price decrease (Solomon et. al. , 2003). When they expect future prices to rise, they purchase more levels of products at the moment to be able to mitigate against the future price increase. With regards to iPhones, there are few strong targets of future price changes, except the standard price reduction which has experience as more quantities of a product are offered to the market. This means that consumers of iPhones may purchase these products a few weeks after they are introduced in to the market to be able to take good thing about a semester in prices.
2. 3. 3 Price of product
The product price is probably the single the very first thing which affects demand (Solomon et. al. , 2010). Consumers purchase products depending on the prices priced. Cheaper products are likely to be more purchased than expensive products positioning all factors constant. However, since consumers evaluate other factors such as product quality, option of substitutes and other when making purchase decisions, these also needs to be considered in addition to the product price. When coping with iPhones, product prices aren't very critical indicators influencing purchase decisions. Since iphones are of top quality than many other products produced by Apple Inc. competition, consumers readily purchase these to since they are unique and also have many features not available on other telephone products.
2. 3. 4 Flavor and preference
Taste and inclination also affects the making of purchase decisions by consumers. Many consumers purchase products, especially luxury products, predicated on individual personal preferences and taste. Desire and preference varies across consumers and suppliers of luxury products examine the various preferences which consumers may have regarding purchase of products (Bateman, 2010). When expanding iPhones, the manufacturer developed various features and applications which would be able to satisfy the tastes and preferences of diverse market sections. These features include camera telephone, video camera, portable media player, visible voicemail, Wi-Fi, web surfing around, 3G connectivity while others. There's also an incredible number of applications which fulfill different tastes and likes. These features and applications which gratify power of consumers encourage them to acquire iPhones which is one of the factors which have contributed to the success of Apple Inc.
2. 3. 5 Option of supply
The availability of supply influences demand volume and prices. When products are in high source, their prices are likely to reduce for normal goods which can likely cause more amounts purchased by consumers (Beach, 2007). On the other hand, when you can find low way to obtain something, prices will probably increase which can lead to lower demand for goods by the consumers. However, it's important to note that these situations may only be recognized when working with normal goods and when all the factors are performed constant. This is due to the fact that for several goods such as luxuries, changes in supply which necessitates changes in cost are improbable to impact the purchase tendencies of consumers. In addition, there are a great many other factors which effect demand for products which is not prudent to analyze supply as a factor alone. With regards to iPhones, supply may be observed to truly have a minimal effect on consumer purchase decisions. It has been discussed that lots of people view iPhones as luxuries. They can be therefore able to acquire them irrespective on price or resource shifts as long as their throw-away income facilitates such a purchase.
2. 3. 6 Season
There are various periods which have an impact on the purchase action of consumers since goods are on high or low demand during these seasons. For instance, Valentines Day will be celebrated very soon and during this day, demand for products such as plants, chocolates and jewelry will be high. Furthermore, demand for services such as movies, restaurant and luxury travel may also be high. This demand is artificially created by the season and when it is over, the demand for such services and goods may land. Other seasons include winter and rainy times which raise demand for products such as heavy jackets and umbrellas, or Xmas season which boosts demand for gifts and cards. When dealing with iPhones, it is unlikely that seasons affect the purchase habit of consumers. These to are used across all seasons of the year and many consumers do not review season as female factor when purchasing an iPhone (Kotler, P. & Pfoertsch, 2006). However, whenever there are special events and get-togethers such as Valentines and Christmas, demand for iPhones may surge as some individuals favor purchasing them as gift idea items.
2. 3. 7 Availability of substitutes
This is one of the most crucial factors which affect purchase of goods by consumers. Consumers in the present day business environment have market information including occurrence of substitutes (Lassar et. al. , 2005). Prior to making purchase decisions, consumers review the presence and cost of substitutes as well as their quality. They then make a purchase decision predicated on the most high quality product which has the least cost. When purchasing iPhones, consumers assess other substitute products which may be available from Apple Inc. competitors. There are many substitutes available and these include blackberry, android devices, HTC phones and others. These to have similar or even superior features than those possessed by iPhones. When individuals are purchasing iPhones, they review these substitute be fore choosing whether to purchase iPhones or not. It is important that Apple Inc. improve features and quality of iPhones if it is to discourage the marketplace from purchasing iPhone substitutes.
2. 4 Social Effect on Consumer Decisions
There are numerous social influences which affect the consumer decision making operations. Social influences are sociable factors which have an effect on your choice making process created by the consumer. There are many interpersonal factors which influence the buyer decision making operations and included in these are environmental or personal choice factors. Environmental factors include scientific, cultural, political and demographic factors. Personal choice factors include buyer characteristics such as inspiration, attitude, personality, conception, knowledge and lifestyle. These factors influence the decision making process by the buyer since many people are immediately or indirectly affected by the modern culture when coming up with personal options and decisions. For purposes of the paper, social factors will be examined with respect to four categories. They are cultural factors, social factors, psychological factors and personal factors. These will briefly be reviewed below;
2. 4. 1 Cultural factors
Cultural factors are factors which impact decision making techniques of consumers scheduled to belonging to a certain cultural background. These factors may be divided into culture, sub-culture and communal position. Culture is the wishes, perceptions and patterns learned from communal institutions such as family. Sub-culture is a group which has people who reveal certain beliefs or beliefs. Community category is a section in society based on shared manners and interests. Cultural factors affect the purchase decisions making process by consumers since many consumers make decisions which conform to the society where they live. There are specific products which might be deemed unpleasant to certain ethnicities. For example, Muslim people do not take pork or pork products and buy of the products in a culture which has a strong Muslim culture may be deemed as offensive. Culture also dictates that a person acts similarly with which people in his / her communal group operate. For instance, teenagers who share technical ideals and values are likely to buy IT products in conformity with their communal group. With relation to iPhones, social groups which talk about a culture of trendy IT products may all be drawn to iPhones which form a basis of group personal information. Cultural grouping may become a form of peer pressure to encourage the purchase of iPhones especially by teens and adults.
2. 4. 2 Sociable factors
Social factors are similar to cultural factors plus they influence consumer decision making through family, social groups and interpersonal status and role. Social groups include neighbors, friends, employees and family. The family is one of the very most effective categories which affect consumer decision making functions (Neumeier, 2006). This is due to the strong relationship between family which influences that they react and think. Spouses affect each other when making purchase decisions mainly through tastes and tastes as well as budgeting on available income. Children likewise have an influence how parents make purchase decisions. When interacting with iPhones, family and other cultural groups shouldn't be ignored given that they have a major affect on purchase decisions. For instance, a wife or husband will purchase an iPhone after talking to each other or friends in their interpersonal group. In addition, social position and role also influence purchase decisions. The sociable status one has will determine the products one purchases. For example, a person in the top economic interpersonal group will probably purchase expensive products from exclusive outlets to be able to comply with the social goals of society of folks in this group. Hence, it is likely that folks in middle and high income position will purchase iPhones as opposed to people in the lower income group. It is because iPhones are considered by most visitors to be luxury goods and are associated with people in top of the income brackets (Wilson, 2007).
2. 4. 3 Psychological factors
Psychological factors also play a role in influencing the way consumers make purchase decisions. You will discover four major factors which affect emotional decision making operations by consumers. They are learning, motivation, values and attitudes and perception. Motivation is the drive to purchase the product, which may be inherent or external. Natural motivation carries a desire to own something while external determination comes from the surroundings and social groupings. Another factor is values and behaviour and they are emotions and thoughts which individuals maintain towards certain products (Schmidt & Chris, 2002). For example, some individuals assume that eco-friendly products work in interacting with their needs while others are indifferent between eco-friendly ones or those which aren't eco-friendly. Belief on the other hands is the interpretation of facts and information to create a way of thinking. Motivation, values and behaviour and notion are relevant in making consumer decisions about purchase of iPod products. Drive from peers and interpersonal groups may effect the purchase of the products while perception affects decision making by consumers through differences in interpretation of information available about a product. For example, some consumers may understand iPhones to participate in the upper sociable classes even though they might be able to afford the products, their conception may prevent them from purchasing iPhones if they do not participate in this social class.
2. 4. 4 Personal factors
Personal factors are the various unique attributes within individual which help them in making personal decisions. These include occupation, time, lifestyle, economic situation and personality. These are unique qualities which fluctuate among person and which play a significant role when they are making any decision in their lives. These factors are relevant in the purchase of iPhones by different consumers. Age group is an important factor which affects purchase of products. Some people associate products which certain age groups and they are unlikely to buy these products if indeed they do not comply with their age group. For example, there are consumers who affiliate technological products such as iPhones and ipods with the younger generation and these people are unlikely to acquire iPhones if indeed they belong to a mature generation. Personality is also a distinctive characteristic of a person which affects personal decisions when purchasing products. Some consumers are modest when making purchases while some are extravagant. Modest consumers may choose purchasing cheaper phones that have fewer features in spite of their ability to afford more extravagant mobile phones. Such consumers are unlikely to purchase iPhones. On the other hand there are consumers who are extravagant when making acquisitions and these may choose to purchase telephones with more features and applications such as iPhones. Such consumers may or might not exactly be able to afford such products and they may take loans in order to satisfy their personality qualities. Finally, lifestyle an economical situation also influences consumer decisions. Individuals who earn high earnings and who live lavish lifestyles tend to purchase top quality market products in comparison to those people who have lower incomes and who live humble lifestyles. That is a key point which the vendors of iPhones consider when developing marketing strategies for different population sections.
2. 5 iPhones and interpersonal influence
Iphones have a substantial social affect as has been seen when examining the various social factors which effect consumer purchase decisions. There are different age groups and sociable classes which affiliate iPhones with social influence and school. The social impact which iPhones have amidst different consumers will be discussed using various market features including age, social class, peer teams yet others.
2. 5. 1 Age
Age is a predominant factor which makes iPhones have a sociable impact among consumers in the market. The teenage group and adults are arguably some of the biggest consumers of iPhones. This generation is associated with trendy and new scientific products which redefine fashion statements. Teenagers who own iPhones will be the envy of the peers who also strive to get the products which are seen to be trendy. Various applications that happen to be inherent in iPhones such as iTunes, game applications, security features, as well as other accessories are extremely popular with teenagers. This generation usually strives to fulfill anticipations of the peer categories and possessing an iPhone is seen as a symbol of social position by the majority of teenagers. That is one of the biggest factors which have added to the success of Apple Inc. in reselling iPhones across the globe. The older generation is less willing to get an iPhone scheduled to pressure from peers which is the reason why Apple concentrates its marketing strategies mostly among teenagers.
2. 5. 2 Friendly class
It was talked about that purchasing power and social category is an important factor which has affected the purchase of iPhones. There are specific social classes that are associated with luxury products such as iPhones. Top of the and middle interpersonal class recognizes itself with luxurious and trendy products such as iPhones. The lower social course has a lower probability of purchasing the products being that they are marginally expensive and are considered luxuries by this public group. This is because of the reason that top of the social category prefers spending a lot of money on products in order to maintain a definite course difference in modern culture. The upper public class also has more usage of higher disposable earnings making people in this sociable class have an increased purchasing power. High purchasing power permits people in such interpersonal classes to get high end product including iPhones.
2. 5. 3 Peer groups
Peer organizations also identify themselves with trendy products such as Iphones. Young adults who belong to a similar peer group are likely to acquire similar products to be able to gain a belonging to such organizations. Since iPhones are believed to be trendy, associates will quickly purchase an iPhone if one member buys one. That is done to ensure that there surely is uniformity between group customers and that participants have a belonging to the group. Peer groupings likewise have peer pressure and customers are likely to pressure each other to attain common goals. Peer groupings which make an effort to be trendy will stimulate members to buy trendy products such as iPhones to be able to gain popularity from other peer organizations. However, peer pressure may very well be experienced by consumers who are of lower age ranges such as teenagers.
2. 5. 4 Family
The family which is a social unit performs a substantial role in the making of purchase decisions. Spouses and their children impact each other as far as making purchases is concerned (Peter & Olson, 2004). Spouses usually seek advice from each other when purchasing trendy or relatively expensive products such as iPhones. That is because of the reason that large acquisitions may have an impact on the family's financial stability. This is also because of the reason that members of the family trust one another and they're likely to check with one another when choosing a high quality product to purchase. Children also impact the acquisitions parents make either for themselves or on behalf of them. Children give their unbiased judgment on the appropriateness of products with their parents. They also apply pressure to parents when they want certain items purchased on their behalf. Family members are therefore important when making decisions to buy iPhones. Lovers may advocate for or against iPhones predicated on the financial balance of their own families or their tastes and preferences. Children may also face pressure of their peers to get iPhones and such pressure may be projected to parents to be able to affect their purchase decisions as far as purchasing iPhones is concerned. Apple Inc. has became aware the potential which children have with regards to influencing parents in decision making and they have targeted them in many promotional initiatives involving sales of iPhones.
2. 6 Competitiveness of iPhone products
When making purchase decisions, consumers also examine various areas of products including price, product, advertising and place. They are also known as 4Ps and they're marketing strategies which have employment with many successful firm. The competitiveness of iPhones will be examined in relation to the 4Ps of marketing.
2. 6. 1 Product
Product is an essential element of the consumer decision making process. In order for consumers to buy products, they must be of high quality and they should satisfy their electricity. Iphones are high quality cell phones which have superior features which are not present in many cellphone products. They have high quality features including camera mobile phone, video camera, portable media player, aesthetic voicemail, Wi-Fi, web surfing around, 3G connectivity and others. Iphones are also with the capacity of receiving an incredible number of iTunes and applications which provide different needs of users. These have made iPhones extremely popular with different market segments. Apple Inc. undertakes regular research and technology to ensure that better products are manufactured over time which iPhones remain relevant to the market. Already four years of iPhones have been developed and the organization is along the way of producing more. Since iPhones are high quality products, the firm which produces them has were able to attract a good market share in spite of the presence of substitutes. This has made certain good financial performance by Apple over time.
2. 6. 2 Place
For any organization to be successful in retailing products, they should be accessible to consumers. Apple has ensured that iPhones are accessible in nearly all elements of the world. These to can be purchased both in Apple retailers and through the web in order to ensure they are accessible to consumers. Apple has outlet stores both within and beyond your US. It has also collaborated with overseas companies to ensure that they sell Apple products including iPhones and this creates huge sales volumes globally. The products can be purchased in emerging markets and under-developed countries (Banerjee, 1992). In conditions of Internet sales, Apple realizes billions of dollars each year in sales earnings through Internet sales. Apple came to the realization that many consumers can be reached over they Internet and it took an chance to advertise its products online. This produced a higher response rate which translated to high sales amounts. This is a significant factor which includes ensured that Apple recognized high sales quantities of iPhones within the last couple of years.
2. 6. 3 Price
Price is a major determinant of consumer decisions so far as purchasing can be involved. Many consumers evaluate product prices before making purchase decisions. They make an effort to match the product quality to prices sold to be able to determine whether it is economical to purchase a product. Consumers usually also compare the substitutes which can be found with the merchandise they intend to purchase in order to make wise purchase decisions. Apple has listed its products at between $200 and $500 with regards to the version and features which the phone has. That is a fair price when compared to the quality of the phone and the features which are present (Gregory, 2003). That is a major reason iPhones have become in recognition with such cell phones being affordable to the center and upper sociable groups. Apple regularly adjusts its market charges for iPhones depending on market demand and competition strategies within the marketplace environment.
2. 6. 4 Promotion
Promotion is the ultimate marketing "P" and it includes making markets alert to products sold to them. Unless individuals are aware of availability of certain products on the market, demand might not climb for such products (Adcock, 2000). Apple has made certain that the marketplace knows iPhone products on the market through effective advertising campaigns. Apple runs on the combination of mass media, print out and internet press to attempt advertising. This mixture of media targets certain market sections which have access to these media. Advertising on the internet has allowed Apple reach out to many people across the world who have access to the Internet. The organization has effectively used its website to interact with consumers and gain reviews on products it grows. This has enabled the firm increase the weaknesses which are present in iPhones and get a wider market client base. Apple in addition has effectively used commercial interpersonal responsibility programs to market its products as well as surrender to society. This is a strategy targeted at increasing support from areas and folks who have confidence in various causes which Apple stands for.
2. 7 Brief summary of literature review
Various factors which influence the making of purchase decisions have been examined in the paper. Economic, political and social factors which influence decision making by consumers have been mentioned in the paper. The various strategies which Apple has used for taking good thing about these cultural and economic factors are also reviewed in this section. It is essential that the books which includes been assessed is corroborated by actual research on the ground in order to ascertain whether books being reviewed is sensible in the iPhone global business operating environment. The following section will take on research on the interpersonal affect on decision making procedures for purchase of iPhones. This may corroborate or be in conflict with literature which includes been assessed.
Chapter 3: Research Design & Methodology
This section of the paper will analyze the study technique, its weaknesses and strengths as well as the study design.
3. 1: Research Model and Hypotheses
This research newspaper will apply positivism as a study school of thought. This research strategy will base research results on what may be seen and proved by evidence provided. A deductive research approach may also be applied and the study hypotheses will be analyzed using data accumulated. Research applied will determine if the iPhone has a interpersonal appeal which influences the purchase decisions of consumers and whether Apple Inc. uses this cultural appeal to build up iPhones and increase sales revenues. The study will gather data using questionnaires and online surveys. They are relatively cheap and effective data gathering methods. There will be three research hypotheses. The first will be "Social impact has a primary marriage with making of consumer purchase decisions". The next hypothesis is "the iPhone has a interpersonal appeal which can be used by Apple Inc. to improve its sales revenues". The third hypothesis is "Competitive advantage of the iPhone has increased its global demand by consumers". The three hypotheses will be tested through data accumulated from the research as well as books available on journals and catalogs.
3. 2 Data collection
There are various secondary and most important data collection methods which will be applied when performing research. Principal data collection methods calls for use of questionnaires and surveys while supplementary data collection methods applied will include use of academic journals and books. These data collection methods have certain weaknesses and advantages which will be discussed in this section of the paper. Principal data collection methods such as surveys and questionnaires have good thing about being relatively cheap and with the capacity of being given to a huge sample size together. Another strength useful of questionnaires is the fact that researchers are able to obtain information they require through correctly structuring questions and staying away from bias. Questionnaires also allow anonymity which is important when accessing information deemed private by the test group. Finally, these data collection methods avoid the interviewer bias and ensure recipients answer questions after critical thinking. However, there are certain weaknesses that happen to be associated with these data collection methods. The foremost is that it's difficult to corroborate information received as there is no face-to-face connection with the sample group. Another weakness is the occurrence of bias in particular when open ended questions are employed.
There are also various weaknesses and advantages that happen to be associated with use of extra research resources including academic journals and books. Strengths of these data sources include the high correctness and validity associated with options written by scholars. Academic journals and books are written by scholars who've extensive knowledge of what they reveal and this increases the research accuracy and validity. The next strength is the fact academic publications and books are accessible on the Internet making them cheap and common research sources. Finally, you'll be able to analyze different perspectives about the same topic through evaluation of different publications and books on a single topic thereby providing a broad point of view of the subject under research. Weaknesses of the research sources include the lack of ability to corroborate information accumulated. Since authors are not literally present, it is difficult to carry out follow up appointments or face to face meetings to corroborate information compiled. Another weakness is the opportunity of duplicating problems. If there are problems in academic publications and literature used, these may be duplicated in research in doing so resulting in erroneous research findings. Finally, if outdated journals and books are used, the study findings will be inaccurate.
3. 3 Data collection, focus on population and sample size
It has been discussed that questionnaires and internet surveys will be utilized to gather data on research. However, prior to the genuine research is carried out, a pilot research will be performed to reveal obstacles which might be experienced in the research process. This pilot research calls for the issue of internet surveys and questionnaires to 50 respondents who'll have been chosen through convenience sampling. The difficulties which will be seen in the pilot research will be mitigated in order to ensure a simple process during the actual research. Questionnaires will get yourself and the recipients will be encouraged to disregard any questions they aren't comfortable with. This will ensure they are honest with responses and that there is a higher response rate estimated at more than 80%. Internet surveys may also be given through the web and these will provide the experts with the opportunity of reaching a large sample size quickly an dat lower costs. The prospective population will include teenagers, who follow scientific trends, business managers and consumers of iPhones in general. The sample size will be between 100 and 150. That is a convenient test size since control research studies on the moderately small size will be easier and faster. However, it might not be well representative of the millions of consumers who use iPhones on the floor.
3. 4 Limitations of research
In addition to the limits in the strategy section which have been dealt with by the paper, there are other limitations which may impact the overall accuracy and reliability of research studies. The first weakness is the tiny sample size which includes been used. The usage of an example size of between 150 and 200 may not be representative of the millions of iPhone users around the world. This may have an impact on the research correctness and validity. The research findings are also highly relevant to america and these studies might not be applicable in different market conditions such as emerging markets or under-developed countries. Another research limitation is a restriction with time and tool allocated for purposes of the research. There is bound time and resources which were allocated because of this research. This might adversely affect the research findings and conclusions since the research which has been undertaken may be inconclusive.
Chapter 4: Research findings
This portion of the paper will discuss the studies of the study. The response rate for the questionnaires was 70% while that for the web research was 80%. These are relatively high response rates which show that research conclusions will be exact and valid so far as the study conducted is concerned. The questionnaire looked into the social influence which iPhone users confronted when coming up with purchase decisions. Most respondents experienced iPhones plus they gave feedback predicated on personal experience. Approximately 80% of respondents decided that there surely is a strong interpersonal influence mainly from peers and cultural groups which inspired them to buy the iPhones. The other 20% of respondents discussed that personal desire to possess an iPhone encouraged them to get one and this there was no external influence when coming up with the purchase decision. Furthermore, the research findings revealed that relatives and buddies played a major role in influencing users to get iPhones. Peer categories affected over 50% of people who purchased iPhones while family influenced 30% of iPhone owners when coming up with purchase decisions. The other 20% bought the telephone to be able to comply with social status or school.
The research studies are very like the literature which has been assessed on the sociable affect present when individuals are making purchase decisions. The literature review has mentioned that social influences when coming up with purchase decisions include family, cultural groups and communal position and role. They are the same factors that have been cited by respondents as influencing their purchase decision. The research conclusions show that peers have a stronger influence to make of purchase decisions than family. The results also show that hardly any people purchase iPhones due to an individual motivation of getting one since many are affected by exterior factors when purchasing the telephone. However, there was no clear information on how personal and economical factors that have been reviewed in the literature review impact consumers when making purchase decisions. This can be linked to a restriction of open concluded questions in the study which could have captured individual thoughts on the issue.
The website link between social effect and decision making by consumers as observed in the research findings is vital to a variety of stakeholders in the business environment. Managers could use the research conclusions when expanding marketing strategies which focus on social effect on decision making. For instance, they may target teenagers and children in marketing strategies with knowledge that these target groups may influence their parents to make favorable purchase decisions as seen in the research. The research is also important to sociologists who may research how the culture has an effect on individual and group decision making processes. Finally, business students could find the research results important since these details will enable them make wiser purchase decisions and better business decisions as future business managers.
Chapter 5: Summation and conclusion
The research newspaper has mentioned the social affects which have a direct effect on the buyer decision making processes. It has been reviewed that personal, monetary, environmental, psychological, ethnic and sociable factors have an impact on the decision making process. When individuals are making a purchase decision, they analyze financial factors such as price, campaign, place and product quality. In addition they analyze ethnical and interpersonal factors such as communal class, communities and family. Psychological factors including learning, determination, beliefs and behaviour and notion also impact the buyer decision making process. Finally, personal choice factors such as job, age, lifestyle, monetary situation and personality also impact consumers when they are making purchase decisions. Apple Company which advances the iPhones has became aware the importance of these communal factors and it offers applied them in its marketing strategies. The firm produces phones which are suited to different market sections and populations. This means that high sales earnings are realized in the long run.
The research which has been conducted has provided similar studies to the info gathered from books which was researched. The study conducted through questionnaires and internet surveys on 150 respondents has exposed the social impact which society is wearing purchase decisions of consumers. The studies have shown that about 80% of respondents arranged that there surely is a strong social affect mainly from peers and public communities when purchasing iPhones, as the other 20% of respondents discussed that personal desire to possess an iPhone motivated them to get one which there is no external affect when coming up with the purchase decision. Furthermore, the research findings revealed peer groupings influenced over 50% of the folks who purchased iPhones while family affected 30% of iPhone owners when coming up with purchase decisions. These findings are similar to the methodology findings and it is critical that business managers apply marketing and creation strategies which element in social factors which impact your choice making process. This will likely ensure that they replicate success which has been seen in Apple Inc. in the past couple of years.
However, the weaknesses of the research should be studied into account when coming up with decisions predicated on this research newspaper. The weaknesses in research strategy and overall time and source constraint should be carefully evaluated when making decisions on the basis of these report results. Future research should give attention to strategies which business managers should apply to take advantage of the social makes which influence demand of products such as iPhones. The study findings will permit businesses experience success through motivating consumers to make decisions to get products they develop. It is also imperative to take on a study on why many people are not influenced by social causes which effect most consumers when making purchase decisions. Over 20% of consumers in the study were not inspired by social affects to acquire an iPhone. It's important to study this market segment in order to build up effective marketing strategies that may attract this market segment to products produced by a firm.
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