5.4. Communication Barriers
A communicative barrier is usually understood to mean anything that hinders effective communication and blocks it. This problem is very urgent because unsuccessful communication can be fraught with serious trouble for its participants (the information transmitted was not received in full, distorted or not accepted at all).
One of the deepest misconceptions is that people believe that it is enough to express their thoughts so that others properly take it. This error is based on the assumption that the transmitted message reaches its destination without any changes. In fact, it often turns out not so: some say one thing, while others listen to them and understand something different, different from what the interlocutor meant. This is because all messages are exposed to numerous noises and interference, significantly reducing the effectiveness of communication.
In every kind of human activity - in politics, economics, culture, etc. - there are their own barriers, due to the specifics of these activities. Different types and levels of communication (verbal - nonverbal, oral - written - electronic, interpersonal - group - mass, etc.) also create their own specific barriers. Therefore, there are various attempts to systematize communication barriers.
As the basis for the classification of communication barriers, it is advisable to identify the environment (external conditions) of communication, the technical means of communication and the person himself as the main character of any communicative act.
Q. Shepel highlights six of the most obvious barriers:
o discomfort of the physical environment in which the message is perceived;
o Inertia inertia, i.e. concern of the listener with other problems;
o antipathy to other people's thoughts, stereotyped consciousness, ambitiousness
o language barrier - a significant difference between the vocabulary, the lexicon of the communicator and the communicant;
o professional dislike - incompetent intrusion of the communicator into the professional sphere of the communicant
o rejection of the image of the communicator.
There are four types of barriers in the literature on psychology and communology:
1) phonetic - inexpressive fast or slow speech, speech-patter, accent, speech with a lot of sounds-parasites, etc.
2) semantic - difference in the meaning systems of words;
3) stylistic - discrepancy between the communicator's speech style and the communication or communication style and psychological state of the communication partner;
4) logical - a complex, incomprehensible or incorrect reasoning logic.
5.4.1. Environment as a factor of the communication barrier
The barriers to communication include the characteristics of the external physical environment, creating uncomfortable conditions for the transmission and perception of information:
o acoustic noise - noise inside or outside the window, repair work, slamming doors, phone calls, etc. Their negative impact is enhanced if there is poor acoustics in the room, and the interlocutor speaks too quietly or in a whisper;
o a distracting environment - a bright sun or, conversely, a dim light, the color of the walls in the room, the landscape outside the window, pictures, portraits, i.e. all that can distract the attention of the interlocutors;
o temperature conditions - too cold or too hot in the room;
o weather conditions - rain, wind, high or low pressure, etc.
Each of these factors can affect the effectiveness of communication due to its influence on the individual psycho-physiological characteristics of participants in the communicative process.
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