Basic requirements for the development of questionnaires...

Basic requirements for the development of questionnaires

A questionnaire is a questionnaire designed to obtain any information, drawn up according to a certain form.

The questionnaire begins with the introductory part, which indicates: who conducts the survey, for what purpose, and gives instructions for completing the questionnaire. The introductory part should emphasize the respectful attitude to the respondents (interviewees), create a desire to answer the questions. Be sure to indicate the anonymity of the poll.

Further in the questionnaire contact questions are located. Their task is to interest the interlocutor, to introduce the course of problems studied.

Each set task must correspond to a block of basic questions that can be divided into closed (structured), which includes all possible answers, and the respondent (respondent) simply chooses one of them, and open (unstructured), giving respondents the opportunity to respond in their own words. A compromise option is half-open questions that contain a set of the most common answers, but at the same time give the respondent the opportunity to express or clarify the point of view in the event that none of the answers seems to him sufficiently suitable (Tables 6.2, 6.3).

Table 6.2. Types of Closed Questions


The essence of the question


Alternative question

It is suggested to make a choice of two alternative answers

Do you want to study at this university? yes-no

Question with a selective answer

There are three or more options to choose from

The main advantage of studying in this institution of higher education is: high quality of education the possibility of finding an acceptable price for education

A question with a scale of significance

We need to assess the importance for the consumer of a particular characteristic of the educational service on the proposed scale

Compared to other characteristics, the price of training is for you: the most important is the importance is the value does not matter

Question with the Likert scale

The degree of agreement or disagreement with a particular statement should be indicated

Do you agree that innovative educational technologies are used in this university? Strongly disagree Disagree I can not say I agree

fully agree

A question with a rating scale

It is suggested to evaluate the feature on the presented scale

You think that the quality of education in this institution:

5 (excellent)

4 (good)

3 (satisfactory)

2 (bad)

1 (very bad)

Semantic Differential

You need to select a point (score) on the scale between two bipolar concepts

Mark in each line the place of the educational program A of the university X, the university K and the ideal educational program for you M

Table 6.3. Types of open questions


The essence of the question



Allows any verbal form of the answer

From what sources did you receive information about the institution?

Selection of verbal associations

The respondent is called individual words in order to clarify the associations that arise in him

What associations do you have with the word informatization & quot ;?

Completing a proposal

Suggested to complete an unfinished proposal

I want to study at this university, because ...

End of the story

It is suggested to finish the unfinished story

My father graduated from this university. He received the specialty of an economist, and then ...

Ending a picture

Depending on the information presented in the picture, express your opinion

In the figure, two characters, one of which expresses the idea of ​​passing the training practice, it is necessary to complete the answer about another character

A special role in the questionnaire belongs to control questions. Their purpose is to verify the validity of the data. Comparison of answers to these questions gives information about the sincerity of the respondent. It is necessary to emphasize that the control question should not follow the question, the answer to which it controls. This is due to the fact that the respondent's response to each subsequent question is influenced by the content of the response to the previous one.

When constructing a questionnaire, the most complex questions that require analysis, reflection, memory activation, should be placed in the middle of the questionnaire. By the end of the work with the questionnaire, the complexity of the questions should be reduced.

Finalize the questionnaire final questions. Their goal is to relieve the respondent's psychological stress (for example, "Have you tired of our conversation?").

The last section of the questionnaire also includes questions that allow to determine the socio-demographic portrait of respondents (sex, age, place of residence, social status, education, income level, etc.). At the end of the questionnaire, you should thank the respondent for participating in the study.

Fundamental requirements for the formulation of questions:

• Questions should be simple and understandable;

• Questions should be unambiguous;

• Questions should be neutral (do not direct the response to a particular side);

• A logical sequence of questions must be observed.

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