In business brand is not a new theory. It is used by marketers from very long time to recognize their products from other opponents that have same product category. As Truck Den Heever said " the term brand comes from the old German term "brandr" this means to burn". (Lombard, 2007, p. 18)"A Brand is a symbolic embodiment of all information linked to the merchandise and serves to set-up associations and objectives around it " (Kalakumari & Sekar, 2012)"The traditional American description of brand is, a name, term, signal, icon, or design, or blend of these, which is supposed to identify the goods or services of 1 seller or band of sellers and distinguish them from those of competition" (Lee & Zhang, 2000)
2. 1. 1 Brand id and Brand image
Brand image has been given different meanings from the day it was released in to the marketing discipline by Gardner and Levy (1955). Some researches has define brand image as brand personal information, but in line with the recent studies that have stated that brand image and brand identification are two different principles but they are interchangeable. Additionally, there are four essentials to comprehend and establish the brand image, that are : 1)Brand image is an image in your brain created by the consumer. 2) Consumers use their thoughts and emotions to interpret the concept of brand image. 3) Brand image can be an idea fuelled by knowledge through marketing activities taken from the observation of consumer characteristics. 4) The perception of brand image designed in the mind of consumer is much more important than the actual one. However, Brand image is what sort of brand is recognized by consumers, while brand individuality is just how that the business exposes the brand on the market, and how it would like to be recognized by the clients. Eventually, customers might not exactly have the same image of the brand that the business shown. (Bian X. , 2011) (Price, 2010)
2. 1. 2 Brand Electricity and Market Share
According to Stobart (1994) brand electricity and prominent market show could be happened through perceived product quality. Generally, internet marketers and managers have a great effect on creating ability brands. They understand a need and desire of a specific band of customers they create products and offer the associated services that gratify those needs very well. Effective 'quality control" steps make sure they are doing things right the very first time in delivering those products and services. Therefore, they achieve superior quality when they sell them the high quality with a less cost of lower quality rivals. Then, they advertise and promote the benefits and advantages they got using those products. The customer perceives the high quality and the added value made available from the product. The result : a electric power brand is established and dominant talk about comes after. (Vantamay, 2004)
(get brand vitality conceptual model)
2. 1. 3 Brand equity
According to Kwok Keung Tam (2007), brand collateral is the worthiness premium that a company realizes from a product with a recognizable name when compared with its rivals. when Companies make their products memorable, easily recognizable using its name or icon and superior in quality and trustworthiness, this is the procedure for creating brand collateral. Also, it depends upon the number of people with habitual purchase, by doing so it could also be considered a strategy used by the firm to generate cashflow because people aren't buying just a typical product but they are buying unique value. However, when people are ready to pay more for a standard product instead of top quality one, here the brand fails that means brand equity is negative. This might happen if a company induced a widely publicized environmental devastation or had a significant product recall. So, when the company wants to expand its product line, it must consider the brand equity conceptual model.
(get conceptual model)
For the consumers, brand collateral could present them information about the brand that enhances their confidence while their purchasing process. Nevertheless, the brand collateral could decrease the expenses of offers since when brand equity is positive, brand image is positive too that means consumers don't focus on the short term promotion but overall brand. Brand collateral has five major areas, which are Brand awareness, perceived quality, brand commitment, brand association and brand positioning.
Brand recognition is one of main determinants of brand equity. Brand awareness are made up recognition of 1 particular brand that allows a potential customer to recognize about a specific product or service's life, and confirms that he / she has previously been exposed to it and creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting a product. (Csap, 2010)
In addition corresponding to Kwok Keung Tam (2007) there may be two tasks should be done to attain brand awareness which are namely increasing brand name identification and associating it with the merchandise class. Also, To raise brand awareness some techniques could be useful as advertising and star endorsement.
Furthermore, Using perceived quality strategy can lead to consumer satisfaction, which is shown through recognized performance and expectation. As well, there are extensive explanations said by some scholars, as consumer's notion towards tangible and non tangible characteristics of a product is recognized product quality. these characteristics can include some added value characteristics as performance, resilience, conformance, features, serviceability, looks and consistency etc. Moreover, sometimes the real quality of the product doesn't confirm each one of these characteristics but the recognized quality of a product could be derived from consumer's past experience. (Vantamay, 2004)
A consumer provides brand devotion by purchasing the same product or service over and over again somewhat than buying from other suppliers that sell the same product category. Aswell, brand commitment could be defined as the degree of buying frequently the same brand by the same consumer within a product class.
Brand relationship is " the linkage that exist between a brandname and the other nodes stored in memory" (Korchia, 2007). Every company through consumer buyer research must understand its brand as well as competitors' brands. Such a study studies existing and customers, past customers, skillfully developed, and intermediaries. A solid brand should be difficult to be copied by others, and such a powerful brand is associated with values and values. (Ghodeswar, 2008)
Brand placement occurs when brand occupies a distinct position comparative to fighting brands, in the mind of the client. Companies use this brand positioning online marketing strategy by differentiating the features and characteristics of the brands, or they try to create a particular image of the brand as luxurious, inexpensive, high grade and utilitarian through advertising. Branding it's all about adding psychological value on service, products and companies. Such value could maintain the proper execution of mental links, beliefs, prices, and feelings that individuals relate with the brand. Once a brand is put, it's very difficult to reposition it without destroying its reliability. (Lee & Zhang, 2000)
2. 2 Consumer Behavior
Consumer patterns is "the study of the functions engaged when individuals or teams select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services ideas, or activities to satisfy desires and needs" (Solomon, 2007, p. 7). Quite simply, it is a report targets how, what, why, and why people buy. In addition, it studies how people choose to invest their available resources time, money, and effort.
2. 2. 1 Consumer Buying Behavior
"The buyer buying behavior theory is the individuals and homes who buy goods and services for personal ingestion" (Tam, 2007).
"For companies the buying decision is the most crucial part of their enterprise, yet no person really knows how the mind makes that choice. Buying decisions are created at an unconscious level" (Csap, 2010). Furthermore, there are extensive theories explain the meaning of consumer buying habit, one of these is Role theory. It shows that consumers satisfying a need or desire, for this reason they change their ingestion decisions, their analysis criteria. The 7 P's of marketing stimuli consumer buying action that are product, price, host to distribution, advertising, people, process, and physical information (KHOURY, 2008) In addition, there are many factors called buyer's characteristics that affect the buying tendencies, which are inexpensive, cultural, personal, emotional and social. Each one of these inputs enter in the buyer's middle container, then many consumers' responses noticed as product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing, and buy amount. (Csap, 2010)
(conceptual model vanda article)
2. 2. 2 Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior
Buyer culture, subculture, and sociable school are factors that affect consumer buying patterns.
Culture is the little bit of every population and behavior of people is deeply influenced by their culture. Additionally, Culture is the collection of beliefs, behavior, beliefs, customs and attitudes. Marketers should be cautious by studying every culture because needs, wishes and buying patterns change from country to other.
Culture is divided to numerous subcultures, and each subculture is an organization of people with shared value systems based on common life situations and activities. Moreover, subcultures includes nationalities, religious, racial communities, and geographic areas. Marketers should section the marketplace into different small helpings using these organizations.
Every society has many interpersonal class(upper class, middle income, working course and lower class) that are determined by different facets such income, education, prosperity and profession. These cultural classes are being used by marketers in market segmentation, which is a key point because all similar communal classes recommend same marketing strategy and every interpersonal class its customers shares same hobbies, values and values. (Griffin & Pustay, 2003)
Social factors :
Social factors which can be reference categories, family, role and status also affect the buying habit of consumers.
Reference groups could form the attitude or behavior of your person. The impact of reference point groups varies regarding to products and brands' types. As an example if the merchandise is noticeable as clothes, the impact of guide categories is high. Moreover, there is a one who has special skills, knowledge or characteristics which called head, his opinion is known as by a reference point group in many societies.
Family participants could deeply influence buyer patterns. Hence marketers are trying to know every role of every person in a family, husband, wife, and children. However, they also try to find out who buys a specific product, if husband then they will endeavour to focus on the men in their advertisements. So, here we have to understand that buying roles fluctuate with innovating consumer life-style.
In the world, roles and position change from one person to other because every person is a member of a specific night clubs, organizations or organizations. . . For example a husband is working as a instructor of football team, that means he will buy the kind of clothing that reflects his and status in his work. (Csap, 2010)
Personal factors have impact on buying behavior, including the buyer's time and life routine, profession, lifestyle, and personality and do it yourself concept.
Age and life pattern shape the consumer buying behavior. Purchasing of goods and services of people change as time passes because every stage of life has its interests. Life-cycle of a family group involves diverse stages such as young single, unmarried couples, married couples which assist in marketers to create specific products for each and every stage.
Occupation of any person will affect his purchasing patterns. For example a accounting administrator of a business he should purchase business wear, but a normal or low position employee will purchase cheaper clothes.
Economic situation of your consumer has great impact on his buying habit. The greater the income of a consumer is high a lot more his purchase will be high. However, a person with low income will purchase cheap products.
Lifestyle can be an essential aspect that affect firmly the buying behavior of people. " lifestyle is someone's of living as portrayed in his or her psychographics" (Kotler & Armstrong, Concepts of Marketing, 2001, p. 146). Furthermore, people coming from same subcultures, profession, social category may have quite different lifestyle because lifestyle depends upon customer opinions, hobbies, activities (work, athletics, shopping etc. )
Personality differs from individual to individual, spot to place and time to time. the action of a person it is his personality not what he wears or what he eats. Personality includes some characteristics such as : self-confidence, good attitude, dominance, energetic etc which could be useful to determine selecting products for a person.
There are four factors impacting on the consumer buying behavior, that happen to be Perception, drive, learning, beliefs and behaviour.
Motivation level that affect the buying tendencies. Every person has specific needs such as natural, interpersonal, and physiological needs etc. Moreover, these needs change from one person to some other because everyone has top priority in his needs, and some of these natural needs are pressing more than others. So, These needs that happen to be pressing highly become motive for a person to attain satisfaction.
Perception is an activity to make a important experience in your brain of consumers that have three steps: Select, organize, and interpret information. Furthermore, there are three different perceptual methods. First method which is selective attention, this circumstance is used by marketers to seize customers' attention. Second method is selective distortion, this circumstance is used to interpret the information available about the merchandise in ways to support the customers' beliefs. However, third method is selective retention, which is used to keep information that supports customers' values.
Every customer has specific belief and frame of mind towards diverse products. However, a few of these beliefs and behaviour marketers are interested in them because they have an impact on buying patterns and make up brand image. Additionally, there are some promotions done by marketers to improve customers attitudes and beliefs. (Kotler & Armstrong, Rules of Marketing, 2001)
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