Case: branding as a concept of conquering the market
Basic concepts and branding theories
Branding originated in the United States in the 1930s. in companies Procter & amp; Gamble and General Foods.
Branding is carried out with the help of certain methods and methods that allow the developed brand to be brought to the buyer and not only to create in its mind the brand image of the product, but also to assist in the buyer's perception of the functional and emotional elements of the product. In this context, branding helps the buyer to speed up the choice of the goods and make a decision about buying it. From this point of view, the main characteristics of the brand are:
• The main content of the brand ( Brand Essence);
• functional and emotional associations that are expressed by brand buyers and potential customers ( Brand Attributes) ;
• the verbal part of the trademark or a verbal trademark ( Brand Name) ;
• the visual image of the brand, formed by advertising in the perception of the buyer ( Brand Image) ;
• the brand's level of popularity with the buyer; brand strength ( Brand Power) ;
• a generalized set of brand characteristics that characterizes his personality ( Brand Identity) ;
• valuation, brand performance ( Brand Value) ;
• The degree of brand awareness ( Brand development Index) ;
• The degree of brand engagement in the target audience and its individual segments ( Brand Loyalty).
Each brand has certain attributes ( Brand Attributes), which can be both positive and negative, can have different strengths and importance for different market segments. Any brand has a main, basic characteristic that defines its essence ( Brand Essence). All attributes of the brand together constitute the brand identity ( Brand Identity). At any given moment, any brand has a certain image ( Brand Image) - a unique set of associations that are currently in the minds of consumers. These associations express what the brand means right now, and are a momentary promise to consumers from the authors of the brand. In particular, the brand image can form an advertising campaign. It is important to note that the brand image is what is currently in the minds of consumers, while the brand identity is a much longer term concept.
A trademark, a trademark, should acquire fame on the market and trust in buyers to become a brand. At the same time, a brand is not only a trademark, consisting of a name, graphic image (logo), and sound symbols of a company or product. The concept of the brand is broader, since it also includes in addition: a product (service) with all its characteristics; set of expectations, associations perceived by the user and attributed to them ( brand-image ); information about the consumer; promises of any advantages given by the brand's author to consumers.
One of the popular theories of consumer associations in branding is the theory of brand identity, the founder of which is D. Aaker. According to Aaker, ideally, all consumer associations caused by the brand are generated by brand identity, defined as the "unique set of brand associations that the brand developer" seeks to create or support.
Brand identity can be studied but 12 items grouped in four directions:
• brand as a product (category boundaries, product properties, perceived quality, specific usage, user specificity, link to country or region);
• brand as an organization;
• brand as a person (brand identity, brand-consumer relationship);
• The brand as a symbol (visual images, metaphors, legacy or traditions that embody the brand).
The structure of the brand identity includes a core and an extended identity.
Core identity is the fundamental, sustainable essence of the brand, which remains unchanged. Enhanced identity includes brand identity elements that are linked together in related and meaningful groups, giving identity structural completeness. Keller, who also distinguished the "core" and secondary knowledge of the brand, such brand identity elements are called secondary associations & quot ;, and their integration into the brand notion system is seen as one of the means of forming brand equity.
The term brand image for Aaker - this is how buyers and others perceive the brand. The brand image is usually passive and turned into the past, the identity of the brand should be active and facing the future, reflecting the associations that the brand seeks to achieve.
Aaker also uses the term brand position (Table 11.1). The brand position is part of the brand identity and value proposition, it is actively communicated to the target audience and shows its advantages over competing brands. According to Aaker, the creation of a brand identity can in no case be reduced to the development of its positioning, since the identity of a brand is a much more global and broad concept that can not fit in a phrase from several words.
The concepts describing brand-related associations in the terminology of D. Aaker
How the brand is perceived now
Brand Developer's Opinion on how it should be perceived
Part of brand identity and value proposition, which is actively communicated to the target audience through communication
The complexity of the Aaker system is that not every brand identity needs to be used in all or even some positions that are grouped into the four above groups.
Another interesting theory in the branding system is the brand identity theory "Leo Burnett Brand Bilif Systems", created by the agency "Leo Burnett". This is the system for finding a specific linker between the brand and its audience, based on four elements: the product category, the essence of the brand proposal, the cultural space and the specific target audience. Differentiation is the final characteristic of the brand; In the absence of a differentiating feature, the brand value is low. If the brand is not perceived as different from others, then it will not be easy.
Acker differentiation is: a) value proposition; b) associations associated with the organization; c) brand identity. In other words, the term brand differentiation is the projection of Aacer's term brand identity to the market situation.
The success of a brand in the market can be explained by a set of characteristic features of a person's personality, with which this brand is associated. Along with such characteristics as gender, age and belonging to a certain social class, the personality includes human qualities - warmth, care and sentimentality.
The brand personality is measured if not in absolute terms, then in comparative formulas. For example, the brands Hallmark & quot; and Kodak are highly rated by the property "sincerity", and "Marlborough" and Lives - for "masculinity".
Perhaps the first use of the brand is known to mankind since the days of Ancient Egypt, when artisans put their brand on the bricks they made, in order to then determine the creator of each of them. There are also documented evidence of the appearance of trademarks in Greek and Roman lamps, Chinese porcelain. Trademarks were used in India already in 1300 BC
Branding was actively used in the Middle Ages, when shop craftsmen marked their goods with a special brand. This was necessary, as the population grew, and more than one blacksmith, mason, shoemaker or carpenter appeared on the same territory. However, the real flourishing of the branding idea came in the second half of the 20th century, and it was due to quite natural reasons - the appearance on the market of a large number of similar products.
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