Certificates of safety of goods in the sphere of circulation and operation
The process of purchasing a safe product (like a genuine product) is a probabilistic process, and therefore is determined by the place of sale. The opportunity to meet a dangerous commodity is higher when buying from trays near the metro, in the markets, at train stations, in trains or in crossings. It is in these places that the spontaneous traders who have no permission to trade and can not be.
An example can be the practice of implementing the summer forest berries. The latter, possessing extremely valuable properties, can have a very serious drawback - a high content of radioactive elements, since its collection for mass sale is often carried out in radioactively contaminated areas. Therefore, at each collective or grocery market of the city berries should be checked in laboratories of veterinary and sanitary examination, in which the presence of strontium and cesium-137 is established with the help of a special radiometric device. It is no coincidence that the berries collected in radioactively dangerous regions are trying to sell the so-called illegal traders who do not have the appropriate permits for the sale of products. They can trade in the market itself, and on the approaches to it (which happens most often), and in other places of spontaneously arising trade. Berry from such vendors, as a rule, buy low-income, ignorant and frivolous buyers. It is said that "the cheapest blueberry is only in Chernobyl."
The safety certificate is the accompanying documentation - the above-mentioned certificates of conformity, as well as the conclusions of the supervisory authorities (fire, veterinary, sanitary and epidemiological supervision, etc.). Evidence of the safety of a number of goods (cars, antiques) can be documents on insurance. As is evident from the chain of risk management (presented at the beginning of the paragraph), the insurance procedure is called to reduce the severity of consequences from damage or theft of a work of art, accident or car theft.
For the qualified consumers, the origin of the documents mentioned above matters. So, in 2.7.4, the example of cars shows how the level of the experimental base of the test center that issues the above documentation determines the degree of reliability of safety information.
The most important factor in the security of food services is the organization of trade in perishable foodstuffs. Unfortunately, for many United States stores (even chain stores in the capital), the following picture is typical: goods; an infrequent practice of marking out products whose shelf life is on the verge of expiration.
In connection with the foregoing, the practice of trade in the countries of Europe, the USA, and Japan is of interest. The brutal competition of store owners excludes the availability of an expired item on sale. In many countries, the trade in overdue goods is punished with such a fine that the company becomes bankrupt after it is levied.
In foreign supermarkets for a day or two before the expiration of the sale period, the products are discounted by 30-50%. In a number of shops in France, when buying one or two similar products, three or four items are released for free. In a number of American cities, there are shops in which all overdue goods are sold for $ 1. In some stores in Germany and Spain, special shelves with expired goods (free of charge) are organized.
In shops selling biologically pure goods, as well as in supermarkets, positioning themselves as sellers of the freshest products, a special trading regime is established. So, in a number of London supermarkets, the closer the end of the expiry date, the higher the discount on the product. It is not accidental that people who are not rich visit the store a couple of hours before closing, when prices for dairy products, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish are significantly reduced. Some shops work on the following principle: to realize everything that is laid out on the counter on this day. The basic discount during the working day is 20%, and half an hour before the closing it can reach 95%. In Japan, a number of restaurants buy foodstuffs in the stores with an approaching expiration of their shelf life and, on their basis, organize a buffet at low prices.
Thus, within the existing validity periods, a significant change in the value of a food product, perceived as a different degree of freshness (safety) of the product, is possible.
A generalized criterion for security of banking services is reliability, which is determined by property and information security.
Property security provides individuals with a guarantee for the safety of deposits and is determined by quantitative (size of capital, liquidity level, annual balance sheet characteristics, etc.) and qualitative characteristics (license availability, deposit insurance), and indirectly based on the investment area, the composition of shareholders of the bank, etc.
In the global market of banking services, customers pay attention to the preservation of the secrecy of bank deposits, which can be attributed to the characteristic of information security. The world leader among reliable banks are the banks of Switzerland. Their main competitive advantage is the increased security of bank secrecy.
In May 2004, in Brussels Switzerland and the EU signed an agreement under which Swiss banks are exempted from sharing with the European authorities confidential information about their customers' accounts. Thus, Switzerland once again confirmed the right to bank secrecy in its own country. The image of the most reliable defender of customer deposits allowed this small country to concentrate in national banks about a third of the total sum of all world conditions stored abroad.
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