Characteristics of the process of buying and selling in the industrial market
The process of purchasing in an industrial environment
After studying this chapter, the student must:
• factors for selecting suppliers on the B2B -market;
• buyer's motivations for B2B -market;
• Factors determining the buyer's behavior in the industrial market;
• stages of the decision-making process for purchasing;
• The main models of the sales process on the B2B -market;
• the roles of the purchasing center & quot ;;
• Models of how to buy to B2B -market;
• factors affecting the procurement decision process;
be able to
• apply forms of organization of supply of products;
• Generate vendor databases;
• Evaluate suppliers to the B2B -market;
• build a model of "selling solutions";
• analyze the situation of procurement in the industrial market;
• The mechanism for choosing the supplier by the customer and the intermediary;
• a tool of the Japanese service system "just in time";
• types of organization of deliveries to B2B -market;
• method of ranking of supplier companies;
• the relationship of roles in the decision-making process.
Vendor selection factors and buying motives
The factors of the supplier's choice include the characteristics of the product, its value, the image of the company, the long-term relationship, the adaptation to the requirements of the buyer, the structure of the assortment, the warranty and post-warranty service, the terms of delivery, order and payment, as well as the location of the client.
Accordingly, you can select three groups of buying motives .
1. Economic feasibility , which consists in fulfilling the purchased products of its destination, increasing the profit per unit of expenditure and reducing the price. For example, the group of companies Kramos won the tender in May 2013 for the supply of steel frameworks with the decorative facing of the windscreens of the Multifunctional complex of the football stadium "Spartacus", including substructures based on the spherical-spiral spatial system, the lining of red and white glass diamond-shaped panels and the installation of transparent glass panels in the media- screen, including by offering a competitive price and the timing of production.
2. The organization of supplies and their nature , which includes ensuring the rhythm of deliveries, completeness of deliveries (for example, when buying new technology or new equipment), warranty and post-warranty service, provision of additional services, for example, delivery, credit, etc. So, the company Geocosmos in August 2014, won a tender for the supply of equipment such as Trimble for OAO TNK-Nizhnevartovsk. " Seven companies-suppliers of geodetic equipment participated in the tender. At the same time, the tender commission of OAO TNK-Nizhnevartovsk recognized the terms of delivery proposed by the company "Geocosmos", the best.
3. Reduction of possible risks , which is achieved by establishing long-term and stable relationships that are not affected by various types of factors, for example political ones. For example, National Leasing Company in 2014 won a tender to finance the acquisition of equipment for the ^ D-Cinema. The customer under the contract was the Municipal Cultural Institution "Neiva Cinema Center" in Novouralsk, Sverdlovsk region. For the company National leasing company this was the first experience of financing such equipment, which turned out to be successful, as early as mid-August 2014, two more contracts were concluded for the supply of equipment to the cities of the Sverdlovsk region.
In the process of making a purchase, an industrial buyer is guided by the following motives, which determine his behavior:
1) the division of responsibility, which is achieved in the process of collective decision-making;
2) the existence of a positive experience of relations with this company or with other companies;
3) the formation of order delivery from several suppliers;
4) the participation of management in the decision to supply;
5) possible disagreements in the purchasing center in connection with the distribution of roles and the weight of their importance.
In general, the factors for selecting a supplier by customers and intermediaries can be represented as follows (Figure 10.1).
Fig. 10.1. Factors for selecting a supplier by customers and resellers
It's important to remember!
At the present stage of the development of the relationship between the seller and the buyer, the Japanese service system is actively gaining popularity "just in time!" when the supplier's representative is in the warehouse of the customer and controls the level of the stock of production, thus ensuring the rhythm of deliveries.
The first given system was applied by the Japanese automobile company Toyota , and specifically - T. Ono, who later became vice-president of the production company. At the same time, the supplier is increasingly required to supply not individual parts and assemblies, but already assembled semi-finished products.
The behavior of an industrial buyer is determined not only by motivations, but also by certain factors (Figure 10.2).
Fig. 10.2. Factors determining the buyer's behavior in the B2B marketplace
So, the manufacturer must constantly monitor the possible impact of macro and microenvironmental factors and accordingly develop a strategy to counteract the influence of these factors. Also, the manufacturer company, in order to anticipate consumer behavior in the industrial market, it is necessary to analyze the features of the organization of the buyer company, its working methods and resources; also the authority and status of negotiators, their age, level of education and official position are exposed to analysis.
In general, the analysis of the factor of the choice of the supplier and the motives of the purchase should be carried out regularly for the timely adaptation of the manufacturer to the market requirements.
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