Classification of PR types
The first advertising agency, according to some researchers, was published in the United States in 1840, and the public relations bureau - in 1912 with the American telephone and telegraph union. At present, the advertising and PR agencies have been greatly improved, the range of their interests, as well as the methods and methods of their professional activities, has expanded. Now in the United States there are about five thousand PR-agencies, and approximately six thousand different American companies have full-fledged structural PR-units. If we consider the indicators of our Motherland on this issue, then we, of course, lag behind by an entire order. But it should be noted that the dynamics of development and improvement of the professional space in the field of domestic advertising and public relations is quite high, despite the political, economic and financial world shocks.
Historical world experience has shown the expediency and great effectiveness of guild, professional associations and various associations. Similar guilds are designed to perform the following functions:
1. Bring into a professional single space.
2. Accumulation and control for the information field of the given space from the point of view of the interests of the society or the commodity market.
3. The implementation of lobbying activities in the legislative and administrative and management apparatus in the interests of its members.
4. Participation in the formation of positive public opinion about members and the association as a whole strengthens their image.
5. Conducting conferences, conventions, seminars, trainings, studies and other necessary activities.
6. Establishment and development of international relations and communications in the global market of advertising and PR services.
The following PR associations of the United States are among the most authoritative and well-proven in the eyes of the world professional community:
- United States Association for Public Relations (RASO), founded in 1991 as a public non-profit organization with the legal personality of a legal entity;
- The Association of Consultant Companies in the Field of Public Relations (AKOS), founded March 16, 1999 as the first United States professional association of PR agencies and companies implementing services in this field.
Within the framework of the activities of these professional associations, not only narrowly applied activities are carried out to realize the pressing problems and tasks that arise in the PR community. Scientists and researchers are also engaged in theoretical research and research aimed at understanding and understanding the philosophy of professional PR. For example, within the framework of the RASO, a Declaration of ethical standards for public relations activities, based on the principles of the Code of Professional Conduct and Ethics of the International Public Relations Association (1PRA), adopted at its General Assembly in Venice in 1961, was mandatory for all members of this association.The association of consultancy companies in the field of public relations, based on the experience of ICCO (The International Communications Consultancy Organization - an international committee of associations of consultancy companies in the field of public relations, established in 1986 by a number of European national PR associations), proposed to the attention of the PR-community a full list of PR-services taking into account the peculiarities of the United States market. This list includes all possible types of work that can be combined with one word combination - public relations.
PR marketing support "B2C" - it's about marketing events and PR campaigns aimed at building positive public opinion in relation to product brands and communication of properties of goods and services (target audience: consumers - individuals), including relations with the media.
- PR marketing support "B2B" - marketing activities and PR campaigns aimed at forming a positive public opinion in relation to product brands and communication of properties of goods and services (target audience: consumers - legal entities, partners, competitors, etc.), including relations with the media.
- Corporate Communications - PR campaigns aimed at forming a positive image of the company in the business environment, positive attitude of employees to their own company, including relations with the media, corporate social responsibility, corporate charitable programs .
- Financial Communications - establishing and maintaining effective information contacts with social and community groups interested in the company's stable financial position and high performance. Include the disclosure of financial information (primarily for public companies), aimed at forming long-term and trusting relationships with investors, lenders and analysts; building business communication in the spirit of a positive image of a financial institution based on information openness and transparency.
- External relations - to establish and maintain friendly relations with key audiences and leaders of public opinion, state bodies, non-governmental organizations and local authorities, including media relations, advocacy, lobbying, on issues of public importance, position and image of the company.
- Crisis communications - communications aimed at mastering a complex situation, eliminating risks and uncertainties, allowing to control undesirable for the company processes. They include the prediction and prevention of the crisis, monitoring and analysis of factors affecting the company's processes, identifying potentially dangerous for profits, image, competitiveness of the company, development of anti-crisis measures.
- Internal communications - building communications between managers and subordinates in the vertical and between different divisions of the company along horizontal vectors of the direction of business interaction. Includes an established feedback system, the creation of intracorporate publications, intranet portals, etc.
Next, we will dwell in more detail on the types of PR-programs required for the implementation of many functions of public relations activities. It will deal with the following: relations with the media, corporate relations, management in crisis situations, relations with personnel, financial relations, social and community activities and relations with the local population, as well as commodity propaganda.
1. Relationships with the media.
Until quite recently, the absolute majority of PR specialists were absolutely sincerely confident that their professional success depends solely and completely on effective relations with the media. But in modern conditions of communicative mobility and activity of the population, with the development of technical means of communication and their general availability, there are more convenient and effective conditions for information impact on the target audience. A direct appeal to the consumer, often expressed in the form of an equitable dialogue, bypassing the intermediary services of the media, can almost completely eliminate obstacles and communication barriers that distort valuable information for the PR-specialist. Modern realities are such that along with professional journalism, experts quite reasonably speak of a civic journalism competitive with it. But, despite this, while professional journalism is completely discounted. Specialists in the field of PR establish personal relationships with those means of reporting information that specifically cover the situation in a particular industry or company, since they are the ones who traditionally set the tone and often are the legislators of a certain "fashion" in the information space. PR-managers provide specially prepared information materials in the form of plot ideas, press releases and all sorts of other news blocks intended for the public. PR services and units often perform a social function as a source of information or offer an independent expert when journalists are required to receive reliable information from the experts' mouths, and also participate in the training of senior management of corporations or firms in how to give interviews and how to answer questions representatives of mass media.
The relationship between the news dissemination tools and professional PR specialists can be both cooperative and competitive. A journalist in his work is usually guided by the "right of the public to know" no matter what. Such an approach can often lead to irresponsible steps (for example, in extreme or crisis situations, when the provoked panic actions of the crowd lead to horrific consequences, etc.). This sometimes contradicts the personal loyalty of PR specialists to the interests of the client or the contracting authority. Successful public relations are built on reputation; when this reputation is lost, the person in charge of Public Relations can not work effectively at all. That's why the way to the media lies through honesty, accuracy and professionalism. Part of the professionalism of a practicing PR specialist should be an understanding of the mission and values adopted by the news distribution organizations.
2. Corporate Relationships
The practice of business interrelations and relationships between different companies and corporations in planning their response to important social and social and economic problems is called problem management . For the advice of top managers in the field of relations with other stakeholders on the issues of the company's general reputation, image and positive image in the eyes of various target audiences of the public in professional circles, the term corporate relations is adopted. Public relations specialists help to establish corporate relations and relations of their organizations with other market participants. They participate in the formation of public opinion and expectations of the public about the social and economic activities of the company, and also explain these opinions to managers.
In accordance with corporate relations, the strategy and tactics of corporate advertising are defined, which is understood as advertising used by the client company to create positive expectations and a favorable opinion in relation to it. The purpose of such advertising is not to sell an article of a specific brand, but to strengthen the image of its funding organization, so in practice very often, despite the fact that the form of the message is advertising, it is usually controlled by the company's PR department.
3. Crisis management.
In the process of vital activity of almost every organization, regardless of the form of ownership, magnitude and other possible parameters, for an objective or subjective reasons, there may be some event that is negatively perceived by the public. However, the crisis does not necessarily have to destroy the reputation of the company. Subject to careful preliminary preparation, the company is able to cope with the crisis situation without compromising its reputation.
By crisis management, or crisis management , means the management of the company's communications in the event of a crisis or catastrophes that could adversely affect its performance or reputation (emergency oil spills, train or aircraft crashes, failures in management, detection of a dangerous concentration of carcinogenic substances in products, etc.). Public Relations in a crisis situation are so integral to business that, for example, many Western and large domestic insurance companies are considering the costs of hiring a PR company specializing in crisis management as part of their corporate obligations.
Given the importance of activities aimed at overcoming the crisis and avoiding its negative consequences, an anti-crisis plan for the normal functioning and life of the firm should provide for all kinds of crises that a company may face and detail the duties of people in such situations. Therefore, some enterprises, especially large ones, hire a foreign company that specializes in the development of crisis management plans and trains the staff accordingly.
Sometimes PR specialists of the company independently prepare an anti-crisis plan. In the event of any difficult situation that could provoke a crisis, the public relations department employees should take into account the possibility of various troubles and, in order to prevent this, work out an action plan for all key employees of the company, and bring the necessary information to various interested groups. This PR-personnel appoints a representative who cautiously tells about the incident and answers all questions of the victims, their families, media, lawyers and authorities. The Crisis Communications team identifies someone who will provide a place of work for reporters, transportation, telephones and computers, as well as food if necessary, etc.
4. Relationships with staff.
Employees of any organization are not just people united in one space by their own professional activities and connected by some kind of production relations. Employees are a key factor for successful business in any field of activity. A careful leader will not disparage his capital. The personnel of the company is that active part of capital investments in business, which works, creates material values. If the active part of capital is bad, it experiences tension or discomfort - this inevitably leads to an increase in the mass of the passive part of capital investment in the business. It becomes more expensive. Therefore, taking care of their employees is simply economically viable.
Relations with the staff are internal communications of the company with its employees. They are built on the basis of programs to motivate employees to perform their best and most effectively their professional duties. Such programs can be implemented by employees of the HR department or PR department. Personnel relations specialists offer six keys to a successful program of relations with staff.
• Security: : How safe is the company and my work inside it?
• Respect : Do I recognize myself as a person who does something worthwhile?
• Participation : "How much can I tell about the processes I participate in?"
• Opportunity to speak: Is there any way for me to express my ideas?
• Recognition: What awards are given for good and faithful service?
• Promotion Opportunity: Is there a chance to move forward?
If the relationship between employees is built competently, then such a company will soon achieve a high level of intra-corporate moral and moral relations among its employees, a strong motivation for their own work and productivity. All these factors can help in strengthening the company's initial positions, as employees help establish positive relationships with consumers and other stakeholders in this segment of the product market.
5. Financial Ratio.
Relationships in the financial and economic environment because of its specificity and importance for the purposes of any type of business are an integral part of social and public relations and ties. That is why relations in the financial sphere are part of Public Relations, where PR specialists, competent in financial and economic matters, interact with various financial structures and communities, as well as with state bodies for control and regulation of financial activities of various companies and organizations.
PR-specialists working in this field, first of all, should take care of building partnerships and strong professional ties with stock brokers, investors and the financial press. This is all the more necessary, since this medium has a wide range of information on specific financial activities, for example, such as mergers or changes in the direction of the companies' activities, and the impact of such changes on fluctuations in the stock prices of the company, etc. Another primary responsibility and responsibility for PR employees working in the financial and economic environment is to participate in the creation of the company's annual balance sheet, a document that must comply with strict government regulations and disclose the image and position of the company to potential and existing investors .
6. Socio-social activities and relationships with the local population.Public relations specialists, whose activities are mainly focused on projects of a social and public orientation, are most often forced to carry out their professional activities in the sphere of relations with the state and the government and work closely with federal, regional, municipal government bodies. Mutual relations with the local population means maintaining positive social ties with all stakeholders of society within the framework of a single harmonious system of civil society. Work on the impact on public officials and various public and political figures, aimed at forming in them an interest in making the necessary socially significant and humanistic decisions (those actions that are necessary for a fruitful and successful implementation by the company-customer of its business functions) is called lobbying and is one of the activities in the social sphere of Public Relations. PR specialists, responsible for relations with the local community and the relevant media, agree on socially significant PR activities at the local level and are engaged in their implementation. They search for and distribute sponsorship fairly and deal with local problems such as the consequences of humanitarian and environmental disasters and other disasters, as well as the results of wrong actions and company activities that are dangerous to the environment and can threaten people.
7. Commodity propaganda.Programs Public Relations, which are aimed at creating a positive image of a PR product and achieve a positive reputation for various products produced by companies, are called commodity propaganda. This PR-activity is especially important when releasing to the market a new product that is not yet known to the consumer. For example, a positive response in the mass media about a new film, store, restaurant or book is an example of successful commodity propaganda. PR-specialists in commodity propaganda closely interact with representatives of the company from the marketing and advertising departments in the implementation of advertising strategies ATL- and BTL-systems for managing sales promotion, for example, in working on product design and its strategic positioning in the market to increase the number of sales. Specialists in commodity propaganda know how to organize special events used for important announcements and launches of new products.
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