23.3. Goods expertise: organization, rules and procedures
The content of the examination depends on the theoretical basis, the set of methodological, technical and scientific and legal provisions.
When conducting commodity examination, various methods of research are used. The procedure for carrying out the examination is a sequence of certain operations performed by experts. The number of operations, their sequence, content are determined by the objectives of the examination and the characteristics of the object of expertise.
Professor S. A. Vilkov divides the expertise of the product into several stages:
- a preliminary study of the goods and accompanying documents;
- determining the feasibility of research in accordance with the goal;
- conducting the basic research of the goods;
- processing of research results;
- the formation of an expert opinion.
Preliminary research includes: external examination of the goods, study of accompanying documents and an expert task; assessment of the suitability of goods and documents for the purpose and objectives of the examination; obtaining samples (samples) if necessary; preliminary study of the conditions and procedures for conducting the examination, which depend on the type of examination, its procedural and organizational forms.
Based on the results of the preliminary study of the objects, the possibility of conducting an examination or refusal from such an examination is determined. The conclusion of the expert on the impossibility of conducting an examination should be argued.
The main research is carried out according to the established program, previously selected research methods (tests) and measurements, which are rules for the application of certain principles and tools for research, testing and measurement.
The methodology of research (testing) and measurement is an organizational and methodical document that includes the method of research, testing and measurement, means and test conditions, sampling, algorithms for performing operations to determine one or more interrelated characteristics of the properties of the object, data presentation form and estimation of accuracy, reliability of results.
The choice of methods for determining the quality indicators of goods is carried out based on the requirements and recommendations of regulatory documents (technical regulations, standards).
If the object of examination is a consignment of goods, it is preliminarily determined whether a batch of goods will be subjected to a selective or continuous inspection. The choice is made taking into account the goal set by the customer, and the requirements contained in contractual (contractual) conditions.The
Selective method checks are based on the conclusion of a survey of one or more samples. Sample - a certain minimum number of packaged units that constitute the representative part of the batch and selected for the initial sample, designed to assess (control, test) quality according to established or pre-defined rules .
The sample size (number of samples, mass or measure of samples), methods of packaging and storing selected samples (samples) must comply with the requirements of normative and technical documentation.
The selection rules set the size of single and cumulative samples and samples, depending on the size of the batch, the sampling and sampling technique, indicating the place of their removal, the size of the samples for different tests. Verification of the quality of goods by selective method with the dissemination of the results of the examination for the whole lot is allowed in cases stipulated by contractual (contractual) conditions or requirements of normative and technical documentation. If the contract (contract) does not provide for quality control by the selective method, then continuous inspection, is performed. checking each item in the lot.
Depending on the type of expertise and the task set by the customer, samples can be selected directly by the expert; a commission including an expert and representatives of enterprises; directly by the representative of the customer. The correctness of the sampling depends on the reliability of determining the quality of the whole batch, since the results of the evaluation of the sample are transferred to the whole lot.
The complexity of the trial of samples is due to the unity and opposites of the whole and its parts. In any consignment of goods there are single specimens with increased, medium, and sometimes even low quality. The ratio of such goods in each party is individual and random. Therefore, it is important that the sample has a certain degree of reliability, similar to the product lot from which it is selected, and heterogeneity. For this, the following requirements must be satisfied: optimal sample sizes; representativeness of the sample; uniformity of sampling operations. Selected samples (samples) must be packed and sealed with an organization seal.
Sample - is the minimum allowable part of a batch of goods selected from it according to established rules and designed to assess quality according to established or agreed upon rules.
To characterize samples, the following concepts are used: point, combined, source sample, average sample, sample.
Spot - is a single sample of a certain size, taken from one place in a batch. The sample size, depending on the object and destination, ranges from a few milligrams to a kilogram. For selection of point samples, various devices (selectors, probes) are used.
The combined sample is a collection of point samples selected from a single batch. The size of the combined sample depends on the number of point samples, and the representativeness is based on how far the number of samples and the locations of their selection established by the rules allowed to form a sample reflecting the actual quality of the whole lot with a certain degree of reliability (or within the permissible error).Initial Sample is the installed portion of the pooled sample or a collection of samples designed to determine the quality of the batch.
Medium sample - part of the original sample selected for laboratory testing.
The sample - is the part of the average sample selected to determine the individual quality measures of the product.
If the lot of goods has heterogeneity, experts establish the availability of goods of different quality categories and their specific weight. When detecting goods with defects, experts select samples of goods with the most characteristic defects. Based on the selection results, the expert draws up an act of the established form, which is signed by the expert and the authorized representative of the applicant. If necessary, an acceptance certificate is issued in the prescribed form.
Selected samples (samples) are transferred on the application for testing to a testing laboratory. They must be labeled with the name of the goods, the date of sampling (samples), lot size and other data indicating the belonging of the selected samples (samples) to the lot submitted for examination. Samples are supposed to be sealed or sealed.
The act of sampling (sampling) is compulsorily drawn up, which, together with the selected sample (breakdown), the expert passes the examination to the customer for sending to the test or for storage as an arbitration sample (sample).
The expert checks the quality of the samples of the goods presented. In the working journal he makes notes about the presence, nature, size and location of the defects discovered and, where possible, the cause of their occurrence; determines the level of quality, except for cases when the task of examination provides for a different procedure. On the products that have been rejected by the expert and have defects that meet the requirements of normative and technical documentation, the expert puts:
- for consumer goods - if agreed with the customer, if possible, without impairing the presentation of products - personal stamp
- for equipment and for metal products - a personal brand.
When checking the technical condition of devices, machines and equipment, parts and assemblies having the manufacturer's seals shall not be opened without the participation of a warranty workshop or a representative of the manufacturer, unless otherwise stipulated by the terms of the contract (contract).
If the conditions of transportation and (or) storage of goods, which led to the formation of defects, violate the conditions, the expert can carry out the quality examination only after the customer has brought the goods into a state in which it is possible to objectively determine the quality. The refusal of the customer to comply with these conditions may be grounds for the cancellation of the application.
The expert systematizes the results, counts the quantity of the product, the quality of which corresponds to the requirements of normative documents, and the quantity of goods that do not meet these requirements. Based on the protocol, which reflects the results of laboratory tests, he draws up an examination report. The protocol is an integral part of the examination certificate, it is a document certifying the fact of the research, testing, their conduct and the results obtained, which have the value of evidence and can be used in litigation.
The examination report is drawn up on forms of a uniform form (contract expertise), on the organization's forms in any form or on forms of other forms of other types of examination (customs, consulting, evaluation).
The original copy of the document is compiled by the expert in United States with his own hand or on the printer clearly, without blots and abbreviations of words (except for the generally accepted ones).
The act is issued in several copies and signed by an expert. The head of the subdivision visits a copy of the document on which the applicant signs when receiving the act.
The act may be attached: the act of sampling (samples), test reports (analyzes), data of organoleptic studies, photographs, as well as other materials used in the examination. The data for each completed application is entered into the data bank and stored for several years. The results of the examination are drawn up on the basis of the records made by the expert in the workbook during the examination.
The examination report contains a protocol, stating parts and conclusion.
In the title of the protocol part the number of the examination certificate corresponding to the registration number of the order is indicated. The results of examinations of several batches of goods, carried out along one side of one customer, the expert draws up separate acts, registration numbers. In the points of the protocol part of the expert examination report, the expert shall indicate the information corresponding to the names of the item. In the absence of data to fill out an item, it is not filled, which is recorded in the statement of the act.
In the ascertaining part the act of examination describes the progress of the examination of the documents presented; the methods and the results of the examination (examination and (or) examination of the subject matter of the examination, the calculations made, etc.), the dates (in the examination of fresh fruits and vegetables, saw-timber and timber-also hours), are stated reasonably, start and end of the product check.
The stating part of the contract examination certificate is signed by the expert and representatives of the organization that participated in the examination. If representatives of organizations do not agree with the content of the act, the latter must sign it with reference to the dissenting opinion attached to the act of examination. In the event of refusal by the customer's representatives to sign and give a special opinion in writing, the expert shall have the right to issue an examination certificate without their signatures, having made the corresponding record in the examination certificate.
In conclusion , the expert, in response to the task at hand, should formulate conclusions. The conclusion is drawn up briefly, concretely and reasonably proceeding from indisputable and objective data, and so clearly that it does not require additional explanations of the expert, it must correspond with the ascertaining part of the act. The conclusion is signed only by an expert.
The examination certificates are printed on the computer, the number of copies is coordinated with the customer, all copies of the act must be readable.
The issued certificate of expertise and the annexes to it are certified with a seal (circular stamp).
Corrections in the protocol or ascertaining part of the contract examination certificate must be certified by the signature of the expert and the signatures of the customer's representatives; other certificates of expertise - the signature of the expert. Corrections made in the conclusion of the certificate of expertise, it is necessary to stipulate and certify the signature of only an expert.
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