Concept, definitions and elements of advertising
The last decades of the newest United States history were marked by a powerful flow of foreign investments, goods and services onto its territory. And all this, accompanied by first-class foreign advertising products, under the influence of which the domestic industry attracting the buyer's attention to consumer products has reached a new stage in its development. Many entrepreneurs use advertising, expecting that this active impact will lead to an increase in sales. In the case of direct advertising, which uses various technological methods (free lotteries, coupons, gifts and bonuses for purchase, etc.) to stimulate the buyer, this view can be considered reasonable. However, at the present stage, researchers of integrated marketing communications have come to the conclusion that most advertising affects indirectly, i.e. it effectively contributes to the formation of demand for the goods during the long-term period by using indirect methods. Typically, the advertising impact affects the state of minds with the goal: to form a certain fame of a brand and to attract interest of buyers to it. And although advertising may not lead to immediate purchase, it is very likely that it will target the target audience for the purchase of the advertised product.
At the moment, advertising producers make extensive use of the latest advances in techniques and technologies of influence on various types of information carriers (speech, visual, audible, sometimes olfactory and tactile receptions). Colorful advertising in the media, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, reference and specialized publications, places of sale and mass stay of people, on television, radio - has become firmly established in the life and everyday life of a modern person. Ways to attract attention and luring shop to shoppers, viral advertising, explosive, volley, demo, argumentative, suggestive or in accordance with the methods of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) are not a complete list of effective arsenal of techniques and technologies used by advertising specialists. For example, the idea of using information hidden from the viewer (an additional one, programmed in the right context "25th frame" on a film that is fixed by a person at a subconscious level) is to avoid critical perception of the imposed advertising influence by the consciousness. In fact, in this case, the technology of suggestion through repeated repetition works.
More experts share people by the way they prefer to perceive external information on "visuals" (more trust in the eyes), audials (for them sound impressions are more important) and kinesthetics (touch, taste, smell). So, the advertising aimed at the first, in its promises will be based on: "take a look ...", "look ...", "note" ... etc.; referring to the second - listen ... & quot ;, say that ... and others; to kiestics & quot ;: - taste, stunning imagination ... or she uses ... & quot ;. Color in advertising also plays a huge role. Applying color production instead of black and white, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the impact to 41%, despite the fact that it is more expensive by about half the cost. And the use of imagery and illustrations further attracts the attention of the consumer, since people tend to think figuratively, following the principle of "saving energy."
Research scientists have shown that the strength of the effect of perception and the impact of the advertising hero on the average person images of the characters have the following gradation: 1st place is occupied by women, on the 2nd - by children, on 3rd - by animals, on 4th - Men. Advertising, according to the western leading specialist in marketing communications K. Frindlender, has the task of provoking strong associations that would stimulate and strengthen memory, combining new facts with previous ideas and impressions. Many promotional products contain a semantic chain: "the problem is a wonderful tool - the solution to the problem"; (for example, commercials with washing or cleaning powders). Copywriters seek to combine the solution of problems with positive emotions.
In general, it should be noted that the problems of advertising impact on consumers, the definition of the essence of this socio-economic phenomenon, the comprehension of philosophical and moral and ethical problems associated with advertising - all this lively occupied the minds and aroused the scientific interest of many foreign and domestic scientists. So, back in 1948, the American Marketing Association developed a definition according to which advertising is any form of non-personal representation and promotion of commercial ideas, goods or services, paid for by a clearly established customer. This definition is as follows: "Paid non-personal communication using mass media, coming from business enterprises, non-commercial organizations and individuals who are somehow indicated in the advertising appeal and who are hoping to inform and/or convince the participants of a certain audience. Advertising includes the transfer of information in relation to goods, services, institutions and ideas. " The well-known French theoretician and advertising ideologist A. Dayan believed that advertising is a "paid, unidirectional and non-personal treatment carried out through the media and other types of communication, agitating for the benefit of any product, brand, firm". Domestic scientific experts in the field of advertising V.V. Uchenov and N.V. Starykh proposed the following definition: "Advertising is a branch of mass communication, in the channel of which are created and disseminated informative-expressive, expressive-suggestive texts addressed to groups of people with the aim of inducing them to the right advertiser's choice and act. " Another United States scientist - researcher of advertising communications, EV Medvedev believes that modern advertising is an actively developing means of intra- and intercultural communication. It forces to attract the attention of representatives of various sciences, since it unites all kinds of speech and images, images and associations. Using a variety of methods of psychological influence, advertising has a huge power of suggestion and is aimed at stimulating social and economic processes. EV Medvedev defined advertising as a "type of mass communication in which informative, imaginative, expressive-suggestive texts of a unidirectional and non-personal nature are created and disseminated, paid for by the advertiser and addressed to groups of people in order to induce them to the right advertiser's choice and deed." .
Federal Law of the United States of March 13, 2006 No. 38-Φ3 "On Advertising" in Art. 3 defines advertising as follows: Advertising - information disseminated in any way, in any form and using any means, addressed to an undefined circle of persons and aimed at drawing attention to the object of advertising, forming or maintaining interest in him and his promotion on the market. " Objects of advertising are goods, means of individualization of a legal entity and (or) goods, manufacturer or seller of goods, the results of intellectual activity or event (including sports competition, concert, competition, festival, based on the risk of play, betting). In our further narrative and work, we will use this definition.
The multiplicity of advertising definitions allows us to highlight its main elemental features, namely:
- informs, agitates and encourages the purchase of certain products;
- implemented using specially prepared events and texts, most often through the media;
- is, as a rule, paid (except for cases of social advertising);
- carries out advertising influence in interests of always precisely known advertiser or person.
Despite the fact that the main purpose of advertising is to influence the formation of strong demand for the advertised product, to establish a connection between a particular advertisement and the number of individual product sales are often very difficult (if not impossible). However, the ratio between funds spent on advertising, sales and profitability, definitely exists. The scientists who conducted the study on the relationship between advertising expenditures, sales and profits, revealed the following.
• Enterprises with a higher relative ratio of advertising spending to sales lead to a higher return on investment.
• Advertising costs and market share belonging to the company are interrelated.
• Those enterprises that do not cut advertising costs in times of severe economic downturn are characterized by the highest growth rates of sales and net income.
• Companies that cut their advertising budgets during the recession have the lowest sales and net revenue gains.
Large-scale scientific research in the field of advertising communications to date allowed specialists to classify this socio-economic phenomenon in the main parameters and establish the elements determining it. Consider them.
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