Consumer Behavior Towards Fashion Marketing Essay

1. 0 Introduction

The name of research is "consumer tendencies towards fashion". In essence, Fashion is an art form. Many people are utilizing clothing showing or conceal something about them. In general, people use fashion expressing them, showing as an extension of personality. People can also use fashion to disguise their genuine self which the ways of men and women observe them is different compare to the conception of their own. Fashion assertions can be made with clothes, accessories, shoes, hair, makeup, and mobile phone (Nellis, 1999).

In this particular research, the more focus about the style is clothing. From the Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs, the first need is physiological needs such as food, clothes and dwellings (Salleh and Hamat, 2003). It offers seen that clothes is important to the people since it is a basic need that desire by people. As we realize, people unable to living if they without the essential need which is clothing. You can find multiple reasons about why people need clothes such as to guard against changes of weather in frigid, rainfall or snow, to improve appearance, to express emotions and spiritual.

Mostly, the style of clothes for the study is a concentrate on certain brand. Three brands are advised: Padini, Giordano, and DKNY. Padini Notion Store is multi-brands stores, which provide customers with time-saving rather than get bored with so a lot of things in to the shop (http://www. padini. com). Giordano's theory focuses on the idea that as cool as well. (www. wikipedia. com). DKNY concept products includes outerwear, informal designed items, sportswear, jeans and shoes (Nygaard, 2005).

1. 1 Track record to the Research

In these modern times, fashion clothes industry as known as apparel industry in Malaysia has a higher competition within the industry. It is because attire industry in Malaysia is in monopolistic competition framework. Thus, the industry is very competitive within the different brands. In Malaysian, there are many brands such as Padini, Voir, G&H, Soda pop, Giordano, DKNY, Polo, and etc.

Furthermore, the clothing industry has slipped in the Malaysia economic during yr 2008. In 2008, sales of the textiles' portion increased by 4. 5% to RM4. 6 billion from RM4. 5 billion in 2007, whereas sales in the garments segment lowered by 9% to RM2. 8 billion from RM3. 1 billion. Besides, during the financial slowdown in the entire year of 2008, which led to reduced consumer purchasing power in the USA, the continuing boosts in the costs to do business due to raised prices of petrol, raw materials, utility charges and freight charges, also have an impact on the business enterprise drop in sales.

Stand 1. 1: Sales of Textiles and Clothing Products


2008 (RM billion)

Change (%)

2007 (RM billion)

Textiles and Apparel

7. 6

0. 2

7. 6


4. 8

4. 5

4. 5


2. 8

-6. 3

3. 1

Source: Team of Statistic, Malaysia

The clothes industry has enjoyed an important role in our economics. Malaysian economical can go further better if apparel industry can increase consumer purchasing habit towards fashion clothes. During the economic slowdown, it is very tough to increase consumer purchasing behavior so the relevant industry must more understand the consumer's needs and wishes in order to increase consumer purchasing tendencies.

What is fashion? Fashion is the style and explains the popular clothing style. Many styles are popular in many cultures at any given time. Important is the idea that the course of design and fashion will change more rapidly. The term "fashion" is generally used in a confident sense and negative sense (www. wikipedia. com).

Stand 1. 2: Fashion of Negative and positive Sense

Positive sense

Negative sense


Fads and Trends



Sources: developed for this study (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fashion)

To be able to understand the research of consumer behavior towards fashion, this research comes out some independent variables, that happen to be brand recognition, self-concept, and product quality might impact fashion adoption. Fashion adoption is based on certain brands, that happen to be Padini, Giordano, and DKNY.

Brand recognition is approximately the name of the brand does not exist in the consumer's mind when the individuals are not aware of the brand. Besides, brand consciousness might affect the consumer purchasing behavior just because a consumer might purchase the brand that they are popular. In other words, consumer might choose the brand they can recall and identification (Waters, 2009). For instance, consumer would not have any purchase action or intention towards the brand if indeed they have no idea about the brand.

Furthermore, the self-concept is relevance with the image leading them to the specific purchase behavior and various people will have an alternative self-concept (Health insurance and Scott, 1998). For instance, people purchase and take in the products because this product is reflecting their own image. Self-concept might effect consumer purchasing tendencies because differing people might desire different things.

In addition, some consumers might prefer high quality products. Therefore, consumers may have been purchasing habit towards fashion if indeed they perceived high quality product add up to fashion clothes. In other words, they might purchase fashion clothes if indeed they prefer the high quality products. Different consumers will desire different product quality so that product quality might play an important role to this research.

1. 2 Research Problem

Since the clothing industry is the sales drop for the last season (2008) so that I'd like to perform this research, which is consumer habit towards fashion. Thus, Malaysian economic expansion if the relevant companies have comprehended consumer's needs and would like. On this research, it will show how different consumer behavior impact fashion adoption. In other words, this means what the factors to have an effect on fashion clothes purchasing behavior. In order to discover the factors might have an effect on fashion adoption, so that this research is come out some independent parameters to know whether the relevant factors will really affect fashion adoption or not. The prospective population because of this research is Multimedia University university student because the study is to comprehend the University university student tendencies towards fashion. Private University or college student sometimes appears like not poor so which i believe that this target human population is playing an important role because of this clothing industry.

Therefore, the challenge statement of this research is to examine the factors that cause fashion clothes adoption. Consumer tendencies is seen like play an important role in this research since it might influence the style adoption. Therefore, fashion industry will not understand the consumer's need and want if indeed they hardly understand consumer's habit towards fashion.

The trouble attended to in this research is

Does the brand understanding affect fashion adoption?

In view of many brands of fashion clothes, I would recommend to conduct a simple survey to ask what the very best in mind of consumer about the brand. However, I choose the most well-known brand name which provides frequency by the buyer. Therefore, I can design the review instrument in the simplest way since it has seen that brand understanding will affect consumer purchasing habit. For example, the customer will only choose the product which the brand in their head.

Would the self-concept of consumer towards the style adoption?

Different self-concept would like to prefer different things so that I would like to observe usually what kind of brand which the customers favor. Furthermore, it will can know that why they choose particular brand. They might want to particular brand is due to their perception towards the brand.

Do consumers understand high characteristics of product wish to fashion adoption?

In view of several fashion clothes are eating by the consumers, I would like to have a simple question to ask consumers, if they favor certain brand is basically because they are the quality products focused. Therefore, I am going to more understand about consumer's attitude.

1. 3 Targets of Research

The main target of this research is to regulate how the brand understanding, self-concept, and product quality will give the effects on consumer habit towards fashion. Nevertheless, there are several goals to complement the key objective which is included
  • To examine the relationship between brand consciousness and fashion adoption.
  • To assess the significant between self-concept and fashion adoption.
  • To determine the partnership between product quality and fashion adoption.
  • To identify all the 3rd party variables will contribute to the adoption of fashion.

1. 4 Justification for the Research

According to O'Cass (2004), materialism, get older, and gender are the variables might affect the consumer action towards fashion clothing. This materialism is relevant with fashion clothing because it allows the achievement of worth. Normally, consumers choose something that based on their age. Besides, gender will influence fashion clothing because as the research women tend to be prefer to get fashion clothes (O'Cass, 2004). Therefore, I perform this research by using different self-employed variables, that happen to be brand recognition, self-concept, and product quality because I assume that there are the factors might effect the fashion adoption.

Furthermore, relating to Evan (1989), the study is more about self-concept, and fashion branding (brand understanding). The factors which reviewed by the researcher are affecting fashion adoption. Therefore, difference between product quality and fashion adoption were studied in the particular research.

Furthermore, from a report done by Hogg, et al (1998), the goal of the study was to research the belief and analysis of top quality clothing among young consumers in the 7-10 age groups. Therefore, I'd like to conduct this research of consumer behavior towards fashion on the list of college or university students in the 18-25 age ranges. It is because the different generation might have different results.

Besides, Birtwistle (1998) found that the product quality is participating in an important role in the purchasing tendencies towards clothes. Therefore, in this research of consumer habit towards fashion also talk about whether product quality will influence fashion clothes but addititionally there is will focus two more impartial variable which never done by this researcher which is brand consciousness and self-concept.

1. 5 Technique

After the research problem and purpose have been established, therefore it give a direction to be able to understand why and exactly how I will conduct the research of consumer behavior towards fashion. Besides, questionnaires-based study was selected. This is because fashion adoption would allow the researcher to explore a substantial amount of issues. The procedure of the way the sample is collected is the questionnaire was created with questions. For as soon as, the populace is targeted and the sample size is chosen. A review is conducted to gather the data from the sample. This survey is conducted through hands distribution method.

Data collection methods that are being used include two categories which are principal data collection and secondary data collection. For supplementary data collection, it is gathered mostly through online information directories. Online databases which have been utilized are Emerald Information, and other internet sources. Moreover, secondary data will provide platform in completing the research. While under principal data collection, survey is used to obtain needed data. As compared to other data collection methods, review method allows the collection of large amount of data within an economical manner.

Next, is the info analysis consists of descriptive evaluation, hypothesis testing, trustworthiness research and multiple regression research. Descriptive research is carried out to design response to question of who, what, where, when, and exactly how. You can find two types of descriptive studies which is cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies (Burns and Bush, 2008). Hypothesis screening is a statistical procedure used to "support" (accept) or "not support" (reject) the hypothesis based on sample is really the only source of current information about the population (Burns and Bush, 2008).

Reliability estimates were driven for the scales based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Cronbach's coefficient alpha is one of the most used reliability reports to test the reliability of every varying (Sekaran, 2005). Multiple regression is an enlargement of bivariate regression research and there is several independent variables is utilized in the regression formula (Burns and Bush, 2008).

1. 6 Outline of the Job Report

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter presents the launch of the study subject matter which is consumer patterns towards fashion. Track record of research had been described which can be focus on history of industry and slim down to research problem. Furthermore, research problem, purpose of research, justification for the research, methodology, outline of the task report, delimitation of scope and chapter summation are stated in this chapter.

Chapter 2: Books Review

In this section, the literature review is concentrate on the consumer patterns towards fashion. Besides, provides an extensive review of international journals, information, and articles from online and offline resources. All of the reviews in this chapter are related to the problem of the study that will guide to build the conceptual basis and hypothesis of the analysis.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter explains the methods found in executing this research at length. Besides, it presents the development of the research framework which proposed the partnership between dependent factors and independent variables. Furthermore, express for the sampling design and data research. Next, is the info analysis contains descriptive analysis, hypothesis testing, consistency research and multiple regression research.

1. 7 Delimitations of scope

This research will be focusing on fashion clothes for the certain brands as known as garments industry and the buyer habit as well. This research scope is bound to students in an exclusive school which is Multimedia University between your age group of 18 to 25, on the patterns towards fashion. Nowadays, fashion clothes acquired become a necessity among college or university students and assumption is manufactured that 50 percent of the students would like to fashion adoption. This study will provide the student's belief on fashion clothes, which will be ideal for fashion clothes improvement.

1. 8 Chapter Summary

In an overall, this chapter presented the intro of the research theme which is consumer tendencies towards fashion in details. At this chapter, it is all about a qualifications of the research, research problem, purpose of research, justification for the research, methodology, outline of the job statement, and delimitation of opportunity. For the reason that we have to understand the concept of this research before we proceed to the next section. To begin with, is mentioning why I'd like to start out this research, the goal of the research, what the challenge of the research, the type of the method I use to analyze, and which scope prefers for the study? I have evidently identified each one of the titles in section 1. Thus, all the titles had been recognized and will proceed to next chapter, that may describe the indie and dependent parameters in detail.

2. 0 Introduction

In Section 1, I've discussed quite issues which related to fashioning adoption. All of the issues that brought up in the section 1 are essential contributors to the study. Because of this, to more understand these issues, an examination of books on the related study was completed. As given that, literature review provides the theoretical basis for the development of the research framework of this research, which will be discussing within the next section which is Chapter 3. This chapter consists of the four variables which can be brand recognition, self-concept, product quality, and fashion adoption.

2. 1 Brand Awareness

Friedmann (2000) referred to a brandname is not sales or is not really a method to cheap customers. A brand has the so this means to the customers, organization, and employees. Brand is an emotional link between your company and customer. It is something what folks are purchase when they are purchasing the business product. The most important part of brand's identity is when the promises are made by the company to the clients. A fantastic of brand recognition is performed when the business is scheming expansion in advertising, campaign, public relations and sales function. Brand awareness can build steadiness and repetition. For example, people bought brands that they are known and trust (Friedmann, 2002).

From researcher of Waters (2009), brand consciousness refers to the ability of a customer to identify and recall a name of brand, image or other draw link with the particular brand. Brand consciousness is seen very important since it is an potential to reinforce the value of market in the most competitive market when the vendors able to maintain and build brand consciousness (Waters, 2009). Brand awareness is something similar to the recollection that kept in the customer's head. Customers are easily to recall the name of the brand when the storage area is saved. Brand recognition is important to promoting products because it will usually get increased sales compare to competition if the business's products maintain the highest brand recognition.

Brad (2009) talks about brand awareness is one of the most important motorists of strong brands. As past research has shown brand awareness to have a high relationship with purchase habit. Top-of-mind brand understanding for the merchandise or service category is most correlated with other relevant manners. Brand awareness is important because no people ready to purchase the merchandise if no-one ever heard the business or the merchandise (Brad, 2009). Generally, consumer has less understanding of the brand after they purchased the product so the company should build-up brand awareness to be able to encourage replicate purchase.

As Evan (1989) Areas, the consumer usually has very small knowledge of that your manufacturer was when clothes is bought. Therefore, retailers can develop store image measurements to build up customer's loyalty in order to encourage repeat purchase (Evan, 1989). Usually, customers would like to purchase the product that they know about the brand. This is one way the brand recognition uses to impact the consumer's decision. Because the brand is stored in the consumer's brain so the consumers wish to consume the brand of the product because of their very existence.

Moreover, in line with the Esch, et al (2006) was let's assume that brand knowledge such as brand awareness and image will be an affect consumer response to the brand. The consumer's respond to the brand will separate into two different conditions, that happen to be current habit and planned future habit. Current tendencies can make reference to the purchase of the brand which they are consuming and future behavior identifies the consumer's purchase intention to the brand in the foreseeable future (Esch et al, 2006). Brand knowledge sometimes appears will impact consumer's decision making, if they want to acquire the brand because people wouldn't normally like to buy the brand they are without the data of the brand.

Furthermore, Esch, et al (2006) needs brand satisfaction and brand trust required brand knowledge, which is brand consciousness and image. However, there is no point if the buyer already stores the brand in ram (Esch st al, 2006). The satisfaction and trust of the individuals are the outcome that your consumer have been consumed the product of the brand. For example, people would feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction after they bought the certain brand. On the other hand, the trust is built when the brand is rewarding the promises. For instance, the brand is mention that the material of the clothes is 100% in cotton as the truth the clothes is 100% in cotton so the trust is built in this type of condition. As important here, brand knowledge has to consider first before an results of the brand satisfaction and trust. It is because the consumer would not feel anything if they're not aware of the brand.

Also, the researcher of Esch et al, (2006) finding brand consciousness will influence brand image and brand knowledge, which can be brand recognition and image will affect the current consumer purchase tendencies. However, brand image will influence consumer's repeat purchase (Esch et al, 2006). With this researcher, was found that brand awareness played a main role in the brand knowledge because it will have an impact on brand image. The image of the brand does not exist when the consumers are not aware of the brand. For example, people unable to turn out the image of the brand at heart if they're not aware of the brand. Furthermore, brand understanding will affect the existing consumer purchase tendencies. This is because people only will purchase the brand which they are well known. In other words, consumer will purchase the brand they can recall and reputation. For instance, consumer wouldn't normally have any purchase behavior or intention for the brand that they have no idea.

In this brand awareness research, three brands are advised: Padini, Giordano, and DKNY. These brands are created in Malaysia. Padini Principle Store as known as "one-stop-shopping". All the brands in only one store and the shopping option are establish to make a fashion revolution. The brands are Padini, Seed, Vincci, PDI, Padini Authentics, P & Co, Miki Kids & Miki Maternity. The Padini store contains large selections from all the brands. Multi-brands store provide consumers to create a personalized look with time-saving and never get uninterested in so many things to look for in just one store (http://www. padini. com). Giordano's principle focuses on the idea that as cool as well. The brand methodology innovative and modern black, white and grey monochromes in a number of styles. Giordano has its manufacturing section where a lot of its own clothing styles are produced. Giordano also makes basic and sensible men's, women's, and children's T-shirts and trousers, especially denims (www. wikipedia. com). DKNY principle was initiated in 1998, and the range includes outerwear, everyday personalized items, sportswear, jeans and shoes (Nygaard, 2005).

In amount, brand awareness is about whether a consumer capability to popularity or recall for the certain brand. This will depend how the company to use the technique to build brand awareness. Brand awareness is a good technique to build before the company launch the merchandise. For example, P1Wimax can create the brand understanding when they begin to promote the assistance. Nowadays, a whole lot of people find out about the brand which is P1wimax. With the secondary data, brand understanding is one of the factors to affect consumer purchase intent.

2. 2 Self-concept

According to the Allen (2000), self-concept is how exactly we see and feel about our very own. We will buy and consume those products that represent our image to be able to let other folks see what image we prefer. There are four basic proportions to the self-concept such as a genuine self-concept, ideal self-concept, private self-concept, and social self-concept (Allen, 2000). These self-concepts are reasons of consumers to consume the products. Real self-concept is a notion which that they see themselves. For instance, I am a Multimedia system University student. That is my perception and how I illustrate to others. There are lots of marketers target segments by different assignments in consumer daily lives. For example, Toyota's minivans promote the products utilizing the slogan "It's about your loved ones" (Allen, 2000). Parents realize the self-concept and want to get because of matter their children's safeness.

Ideal self-concept is a perception of how they prefer to be. Many consumers purchase and take in the merchandise because they think they are simply closer to their ideal self-concept (Allen, 2000). Private self-concept is a perception of how you act. Marketers use these product images to relate to their self-concept. For instance, Starkist Tuna is something as "Dedicated to Living Well and Eating Well". Consumers would like to buy and take in Starkist Tuna if they feel they are health conscious. People will say that individuals are healthy when that people are consuming the product (Allen, 2000).

Social self-concept is a perception of how people see ourselves that we are preferred to. Normally, teenagers want other people accept the look of them so that marketers are marketing clothing brands among young era (Allen, 2000). Expanded self is a notion of us through our possessions. Possessions are important aspects that we have. Usually, property are things that belong to us, or things that people have received through work hard (Allen, 2000).

Furthermore, Goldsmith et al, (1999) clarifies the self-concept pointed out the people keep toward theirs manner. The self-concept based on their self-respect or the individual value. It's also includes self-image, or the understanding of folks about what they can be like. Marketers can certainly to estimate the decision about the consumers select products and brands to suit or match their image because the self-concept in the normal sense of self-image (Goldsmith et al, 1999). Different people have their own different self-concept. Individuals only can do something that the individuals inclined to do because this is him or her own behaviour. It's correlation with self-image because the various self-concept has their different self-image.

In addition, Self-concept is a mixture of the physical and mental and clothes are putting on for efficient reason or psychological enhancement (Evan, 1989). Physical is something that the other people can be viewed which another mean is appearance. Generally, many people dress very well or with the functional of friendliness because they would like to show the look of them or in the frosty season. But, some individuals might not brain of their appearance in order that they will dress simply. Mental improvement is to improve the people feeling. For instance, people will feel happy if the people wearing the brilliant clothes.

Additionally, as Goldsmith et al, (1999) research, the results show that female fashion innovators have a distinctive self-image (Goldsmith et al, 1999). Certainly, differing people have their different self-image. For the moment, people will desire the different needs with the different self-concept. For example, student will desire a simple style when they were in college but after 3 or 5 years when they are graduated, they would like to require a formal style when they will work. The people's self-concept might change by the time to time or with the several condition. This is one way the self-image which relationship with self-concept will affect consumers to adopt the fashion.

Additionally, Health and Scott (1998) say that, the analysis of self-concept is relevance with the image of individuals that lead them to the specific purchase behavior patterns. For instance, consumers may buy a particular product because they want this product to improve or change their own self-image. Besides, marketers easily to develop effective manner to various aim for markets with different self-concepts if marketers have an understanding of the self-concept is influencing on purchasing tendencies (Health insurance and Scott, 1998).

To conclude, the self-concept is the idea in what we desire for ourselves and different people will have the several self-concept. For example, people purchase and take in the products because this product is reflecting our own image. The certain image is depended how exactly we desire or how we would like to let other people observe. Through the info obtain, the self-concept has effects on purchasing action because differing people prefer different brand.

2. 3 Product quality

According to Sebastianelli and Tamimi (2002) research, the partnership of how firm defines quality and product quality proportions are essential to its competitive strategy. Product quality involves eight proportions: performance, features, trustworthiness, conformance, strength, serviceability, appearance, and perceived quality. Besides, explanation of quality has five techniques: transcendent, product-based, user-based, manufacturing-based, and value-based.

Desk 2. 1 Garvin's Eight Proportions of Product Quality




Basic operating characteristics.


Characteristics that product basic working.


Probability of a product will operate over time.


The level to which a product's design and operating characteristics meet proven standards.


Expected product life.


Speed, courtesy, competence, and ease of repair.


How something looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells.

Perceived quality

Reputation and other indirect steps of quality. For example, brand, advertising, and etc.

Source: Garvin, D. "Competing on the Eight Sizes of Quality. " Harvard Business Review 65(6), 1987, 101-109.

In the stand 2. 1, you can find the different role for the eight measurements. Normally, a person or a company struggles to achieve the merchandise which consists of of eight proportions of product quality. For example, a customer purchase the clothes because of perceived quality, means the customer is asking for the brand name or image so that the customer may not consider of the durability, consistency, or features. In this example, we may say that is trade off, whenever we choose something then we may lose something.

Five major approaches to determining quality are discovered by Garvin (1987)
  • Transcendent methodology- "quality is synonymous with innate brilliance" and it is "utter and universally recognizable. "
  • Product-based approach- "quality is a precise and measurable variable"
  • User-based way- "quality is the attention of the beholder".
  • Manufacturing-based way- "quality is conformance to executive and manufacturing required".
  • Value-based methodology- "quality is identified in conditions of costs and price".

Furthermore, Guiltinan (2000) finding, consumer determined for the brand's price or quality is depending how the info about different in price and quality. Besides, brand can succeed to effect consumer's choice if the consumer is dependant on quality-oriented. In some situation, many best value seekers would like to buy high brand when the price of the mid brand is increased (Guiltinan, 2000). It offers seen that information about price and quality is participating in an important role to impact the consumer's decision making. For sure, it will be a good result if the info is positive, whereas negative information will impact consumer's brain, which does not purchase the brand. In this particular researcher, show that consumer's choice will be afflicted if they're quality-oriented. Quite simply, we can say that consumer's purchasing action is depending how they're perceived quality. For example, consumer will purchase fashion brand because they think quality add up to the brand, means that individuals purchase the brand due to quality.

In addition, from the marketer's perspective, product quality is based on specs, feature, function or performance of a product (Yoon and Kijewski, 1997). As we realize, different consumer has their different needs and would like so that professional is to promote the merchandise by different attribute which in product quality to satisfy consumer's needs and desires. For example, a consumer needs attribute in lovely taste so the marketer must promote the product which in sweet taste to the buyer.

In addition, Wong and Zhou (2004) state governments, identified quality towards brand influence on buying behavior is greater for low social compliance group compare to the high communal compliance group. In general, there are differences in consumers' buying habit between high and low sociable compliance. High communal compliance has been high peer or group pressure to the folks who are making decision (Wong and Zhou, 2004). In this particular research, shows that product quality has effects on the consumer's decision making who is less effect by group. Quite simply, folks who are with out a group preferring will care about the product quality. Therefore, the product quality must be improving in order to meet the needs and needs of the consumers. Often, consumers would not like to take in the brand.

Also, from the researcher of Tsiotsou (2005), the results show that purchase intentions are low in the low identified quality group and high in the high perceived quality group. However, consumers have the bigger objective to buy sport shoes again if indeed they perceive the quality of sport shoes (Tsiotsou, 2005). Through the study of the researcher, purchase motive of consumers is brought on by high perceiver quality. People wish to buy it because of the product quality, and it also will build the repeat purchase.

In quick, product quality is important to build a marriage with customers because it can influence customers to create purchase. Different consumers will desire different product quality so that product quality isn't just about the strength of the merchandise, but it must consider also for the feature, performance, and etc. An excellent quality of product is the factor to effect the buyer purchase behavior. As we know, people would not like to get and consume the low quality of product when there is similar price.

2. 4 Fashion adoption

Fashion is something talk about in mind which how exactly we point out ourselves every day. Even many people say they do not caution what they wear but it is change for the moment. Nowadays, fashion world is change. Individuals are easily to get new fashion ideas from music, videos, catalogs, and television. Videos also influence what people wear. For example, people want to acquire something if indeed they think is nice take care of they watch the movies about how folks decorate. Fashion is a self-expression of the folks in their life. Whether they favor hip-hop or Chanel-chic, it's a way to express how they wish to be. Therefore, consumer life can keep interesting by fashion adoption. You can find many reasons about why we wear (http://www. pbs. org/newshour/extra/ ).

  • To guard against cold, rain and snow.
  • To enhance perspective attraction
  • To express thoughts. For instance, we dress effectively whenever we happy.
  • And expressing religious

According to Dewsnap and Hart (2004), the research is to investigate how category management applied into fashion marketing. Especially the article of review is to get the role of consumer tendencies in category management. That is to identify how the supplier and merchant collected consumer intellect use in to the management planning process. This research is the focus on the target which is to further develop the debate in the fashion marketers that may consider the adoption of category management. The category management would enable fashion industry to kick off the "right products" to the marketplace, and promote the merchandise in the right way (Dewsnap and Hart, 2004). It could optimize the sales if the particular products can promote to this place.

Sources: Basuroy et al. (2001, p. 17); based on Joint Industry Survey on Efficient Consumer Response (1995)

Furthermore, fashion is a term that always contains any product or market where there can be an factor of style. You will find following characteristics of the fashion market (Christopher et al, 2004)

Desk 2. 2: Characteristics of the fashion market



Short life-cycles

The product is often temporary, capture the disposition of the moment. Normally, the period of commercial may very well be very short such as seasonal, in a few months or weeks.

High volatility

The products aren't often steady to sales. It might be an effect by the weather, pop stars or footballers.

Low predictability

The products are difficult to forecast. Therefore, the merchandise are demand in less.

High impulse purchasing

The products are available when the buyer made a decision of purchase on that point.

Sources: developed for this review (Christopher et al, 2004)

Besides, Christopher et al (2004) also identify the fashion market is incredibly competitive and always need to "refresh" product runs to mean that there is to expand the amount of "months". It really is naturally providing a problem to logistics management. Additionally, there's another tendency that has added further difficulty to the management of fashion logistics. In business, the period of forecast depends upon the time requires to design, make and ship the products as known as lead-times. Organizations could seek to successfully in fashion markets if in a position to manage three critical lead-times

Table 2. 3: Critical lead-times popular market

Critical lead-times



How long does indeed the business to achieve market opportunity and also to utilize the chance into a product or service also to take it to the marketplace?


How long does it take to gratify a customer's want and to deliver the product to fulfill customer?


How long will it really take to change the output of the business in response to unstable demand?

Moreover, Brengman and Willems (2009) state governments, fashion store style attributes could simply declare by respondent. For instance, chic, elegant, top quality, selective, snobbish, stylish, and upscale. The consumers can characteristic such a personality to fashion chains. As respondents suggested that a nicely store interior designed, well-known brand with high-quality clothes is paramount to becoming the superior personality (Brengman and Willems, 2009).

Table 2. 4 Superior attributes of fashion store

Sophisticated traits



In order to perceive as "trendy", a fashion store should have brand clothing, high prices, and a nice interior. The item in that store is not offering typical clothing and the store may get yourself a formal impression.


Fashion store is regarded as "elegant" is determined by spacious, noiseless and well-organized environment.

High class

A "top quality" fashion store can be recognized by its attractive interior and its quality goods in the higher prices.


High-quality brands look like the primary cue indicative of "selective" sellers. These stores only offer quality clothing and deliberately restrict their variety to particular brands.


"Snobbish" stores are costly and differ from strictly "chic" stores in that they give goal to brands over quality.


Attributing a "stylish" personality to a store can be based on several characteristics, like a nice store interior, a stylish selection and quality clothing.


A store is"upscale" is based on the higher cost range and the exclusivity of the brands (e. g. artist brands or haute couture clothing).

Sources: developed for this analysis (Brengman and Willems, 2009)

Furthermore, Brengman and Willems (2009) demonstrate, a keen fashion store can be acknowledged by its multi-colored store design, background music, younger clothes and friendly sales staff that not interfere in the customer's shopping experience.

Stand: 2. 5 Enthusiastic features of fashion store

Enthusiastic traits



"Congenial" fashion store, the customers expect to be served by friendly salespeople, in a homely store environment, plus they able obtain the clothes they like.


"Daring" store is brightly colored interior design and non-conventional clothing assortment, which evidently different compare to the challengers.


"Energetic" stores provide bright colored interiors, nevertheless they often change their store design to keep it young and enthusiastic. The stores frequently update, never to be perceived as a static fashion store.


"Enthusiastic" fashion store is vibrant goods, young salespeople and music in the store. Colors in the store design also look like important.


"Friendly" fashion store fulfilled the clients who require assistance, the store specifically welcoming toward children with play area for kids, and being friendly toward all the visitors generally.


"Lively" fashion store can be identified by its brilliant store design, with bright lighting and noisy music. The store design also changes frequently. Lively fashion stores are expected to catch the attention of high numbers of visitors and also to produce substantial profits and their success is spread via word-of-mouth.


"Welcoming" fashion stores are nice display-windows, an open door and a spacious. The background music makes shopping relaxing.

Sources: developed because of this study (Brengman and Willems, 2009)

Also, Fatt (2001) exhibited, fashion designers must consider the next factors in order to achieve fashion entrepreneurship in Singapore.

Stand: 2. 6 Factors of succeed in fashion entrepreneurship



Satisfying Market Needs

Market research for the latest developments in the fashion market must be completed so that new designs can be created as fast as change of trends to meet up with the needs of customers.

Customer Goodwill

Goodwill improves the reputation of the business. To gain customer goodwill, quality and service are a concentration in order to build the good romantic relationships with customers.


Capital is important because is to up grade the grade of clothes designed and gratify market needs. Financial skill is also important in controlling capital. For example, to acquire cash at minimal cost, to forecast financing needs, to prepare budgets, and to manage cashflow.


Know-how is the skills in starting a fashion business and includes specific know-how associated with the design of an clothing to general business skills. A fashion businessperson needs not just a routine knowledge of fashion but also willing interest and skill in this field. Talent means the capability to design one's own distinctive style.

Risk Taking

A successful fashion businessman is often eager to take chances to achieve his or her goals.


A certain level of publicity is essential to set-up customer awareness of the designer. For example, fashion shows in hotels or restaurants, newspapers and magazines. Taking part in fashion design competitions generates free publicity for the designer and the winner will certainly gain the most from the promotion.

Sacrifice and Commitment

Generally, successful internet marketers trust themselves and their products. They have got an interior locus of control, as they do not believe that success or failure is governed by fate or good fortune or external pushes.

Visionary Leader

A visionary leader not only has command attributes but also tolerance and quick thinking.

Sense of Humor

Humor can help one to maintain good customer associations and lead employees effectively.


Flexibility means the ability to modify patterns to meet changing conditions. Besides, flexibility in managing the business enterprise, a successful artist also needs to compromise on his / her design. Thus, there should be a balance between imagination and commercial viability in design if the developer hopes to endure popular business.


To maintain a competitive advantage, designers must establish high requirements in their designs. That is important in an intensely competitive fashion business where only the best may survive. Indeed, high quality work is vital to get customers' confidence and trust and to ensure do it again business.

Sources: developed because of this analysis (Fatt, 2001)

As the final outcome, fashion is the style and details the popular clothing style. Many fashions are popular in many civilizations at any moment. Important is the idea that the course of design and fashion changes quicker (www. wikipedia. com). The researcher also show how category management to improve sales, characteristics of the style market, fashion store style traits, enthusiastic traits popular store, and factors to success popular entrepreneur. Basically, this fashion adoption is dependant on certain brands that are Padini, Giordano, and DKNY. In other words, fashion adoption as know as fashion branding. There is intended that what types of fashion brands which the consumers choose to?

2. 5 Section Summary

In the overall, this chapter shown the review of books and reviewed in details. As of this chapter, it is all about the independent variables and dependent parameters. It is because we must understand the fundamental concept of the parameters before we proceed to the next section. First of all, it's advocated some of the factors will influence fashion adoption, which is brand consciousness, self-concept, and product quality. I have defined each of the factors, which also will be our independent variables for the study. Thus, all the parameters have been recognized and will check out next chapter, which will describe the techniques used in conducting this research at length.

3. 0 Introduction

In the literature review, I have been recognized the factors which would add the fashion adoption. However, for this analysis, the factors that people have identified not essential will be the factors to contribute in the fashion adoption. Therefore, a test against all these factors has been conducted and the effect will much add in this review. In section 3, is going to present in depth of the method used in doing the research. It is a challenge for this study to combine all these parameters to become tested against the fashion adoption.

3. 1 Theoretical frameworks of the buyer action towards fashion

I have researched all the parameters in the chapter 2. For the moment, I am going to develop the research frameworks as known as a model. This model is displaying how the several patterns of consumer that contributes to the fashion adoption. The study framework is contains two parts, that are independent variables and dependent factors. The independent factors included brand awareness, self-concept, and product quality and the centered adjustable is fashion adoption.

With this study, combines three of the several consumer habit which is brand consciousness among certain fashion brands, the self-concept to impact fashion adoption, and identified high product quality to select fashion in the study framework. These 3rd party factors are illustrated and recognized the important habit could cause the fashion adoption.

By the end of the research, which make of the merchandise is more prefer by the affect of brand consciousness will known and the way the respondent's behavior to decide by their brand consciousness. Whether they could have purchase goal when they know about the particular brand. Second unbiased variable is the self concept, through the study, we will know the self-concept of the various consumer will have their own decision, if they would like to fashion adoption and why they would have purchase objective to fashion clothes. The past independent variable is product quality, which would like to know about would the consumers recognized high product quality in order that they will choose to fashion adoption. All these independent factors would have an impact on the dependent variables which are fashion adoption.

Separate variables Dependent variable

Sources: developed because of this research

3. 2 Hypotheses development

Based on the books review and research construction formed, nine specific hypotheses are developed within these components from the overall body work. The null hypotheses are
  1. H1= Brand recognition will have a significant positive influence on fashion adoption.
  2. H2= Self-concept will have a significant negative effect on fashion adoption.
  3. H3= Product quality will have a substantial romantic relationship with fashion adoption.
  4. H4= All of the variables will have a significant effect on fashion adoption.

3. 3 Sampling design

3. 3. 1 Goal population

According to the Malhotra (2009), the target human population is the assortment of elements that provide the information that your researcher is seeking. It is important that the researcher to define concentrate on population if the data collect is to handle the marketing research problem (Malhotra, 2009).

Within this research, the analysis will be focusing on fashion clothes for the certain brands as known as clothing industry and the buyer action as well. This study scope is limiting to students in an exclusive university which is Media University between the age group of 18 to 25, on their behavior towards fashion clothes.

3. 3. 2 Sampling design method

Sampling design method is a mean for selecting people or items from a human population for a survey. You will find two types of sampling techniques, which are non probability sampling and probability sampling. In this particular study, non-probability test is using to execute the review. Types of non-probability sampling are convenience, judgmental, quota, and snowball. Under the types of non-probability test, the convenience sample is used in this research. The convenience sampling is a type of non-probability sample where the population is chosen easily predicated on the convenience of the researcher. Respondents are determined because they happen in the right place at the right time (Malhotra, 2009). The task of the way the sample is collected is the questionnaire is designed with questions. For as soon as, the population is targeted and the test size is chosen. A study is conducted to acquire the info from the test. This survey is conducted through side distribution method.

3. 3. 3 Sample size

Sample size refers to the amount of elements to be contained in the study. You can find two types of sample size, which is qualitative and quantitative research. In this particular study, quantitative research is applied. Quantitative research looks for to quantify the info. It seeks data based on large and including some statistical analysis form (Malhotra, 2009). On this research, there is certainly using a method to get just how many respondents are needed as follows

50+8m= respondents

50+8(4)= 82 respondents

The formulation is exhibiting that, you have the minimum variety of the respondents which is 82 respondents for the study.

3. 3. 4 Sample procedure

After the study problem and goal have been place, therefore it provided a way in order to know the way the consumer action towards fashion. Next, I'd like to analysis the extra data analysis. I have provided some idea and support through the books review.

Besides, questionnaires-based study was chosen among many types of different research methodologies. It is because fashion adoption would allow the researcher to explore a significant quantity of issues. Furthermore, Questionnaires-based review consists of two types, that happen to be cross-sectional design and longitudinal design, but I am only using cross-sectional design in order to save time since it means one time collection and I believe that the cross-sectional design that I've done is valuable and reliable.

3. 4 Data Collection

Data collection methods are being used to include two categories, that happen to be main data collection and secondary data collection. For extra data collection, it is accumulated mainly through online information directories. Online databases that have been seen are Emerald Understanding, and other internet options. The usage of extra data is important since it could be obtained quickly and economically. Free gain access to provided by the college or university computer lab has kept a whole lot of costs and time. In addition, secondary data tends to provide the construction in completing the study. When come to most important data collection, survey is used to acquire needed data. As compared to other data collection methods, study method allows the assortment of a huge amount of data in an inexpensive manner.

3. 4. 1 Extra Data

Secondary data have previously been accumulated by someone other than the researcher and for a few other goal than the study project accessible. Secondary data make reference to the procedure of searching for and interpreting existing information relevant to the research objectives. Secondary data will be the data that contain been collected for a few other purpose. In general, collection and Internet are full of secondary data, such as information found in books, journals, newspapers, special records, bulletin, newsletters, etc (Burns and Bush, 2008).

3. 4. 2 Principal Data

Primary data refer to information that is developed or gathered by the researcher, specifically for the research project and accessible (Burns and Bush, 2008).

3. 5 Data analysis

The data evaluation will be a focus on section 4 and this study will be heading to use some solution to analyze the info from the respondent. The info which gathered from the questionnaire were then examined using descriptive analysis, reliability examination, hypothesis evaluation and multiple regression research.

3. 5. 1 Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive research is performed to design response to question of who, what, where, when, and how. When we wish to know who our customers are, what brands they buy and in what amounts, where they choose the brands, when they shop, and exactly how they found out about our products, we choose descriptive research. Descriptive research is also attractive when we desire to task a study's results to a larger population. In case a descriptive study's sample is representative, the studies enable you to predict some variables appealing such as sales (Burns and Bush, 2008).

There are two types of descriptive studies, which can be cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies. Cross-sectional studies strategy units from an example of the population at only one point in time. Longitudinal studies repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population over a time frame (Burns and Bush, 2008).

3. 5. 2 Hypotheses Testing

It's a statistical treatment used to "support" (accept) or "not support" (reject) the hypothesis predicated on sample is the sole way to obtain current information about the population. Because our sample is a possibility sample and therefore representative of the population, the sample results are used to determine whether or not the hypothesis about the population parameter has been supported (Burns and Bush, 2008).

Reliability Analysis

Reliability estimates were decided for the scales predicated on Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Cronbach's coefficient alpha is one of the most used reliability reports to test the reliability of each adjustable. It verifies the internal regularity or average relationship of items in a review instrument to evaluate its reliability. In general, reliabilities significantly less than 0. 60 is considered to be poor, those in the 0. 70 range, appropriate, and those over 0. 80 good (Sekaran, 2005).

Multiple Regression Analysis

It's an enlargement of bivariate regression analysis and there is more than one independent variables is utilized in the regression formula. The addition of unbiased variable makes the regression model more reasonable because predictions normally depend on multiple factors, not just one (Burns and Bush, 2008).

3. 6 Chapter Summary

This chapter identifies the methods used in conducting this research in detail. Besides, it presents the development of the research construction which proposed the partnership between dependent variables and independent factors. Furthermore, identify for the sampling design and data examination. Next, is the data analysis includes descriptive examination, hypothesis testing, stability examination and multiple regression research.

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