Keywords: consumer behaviour in fashion, fashion consumers
David Holloway possessed always been alternatively rebellious and he stayed so during his time studying fashion. However, he produced annual selections which stunned his professors with their inventiveness and focus on details. During his time at university David developed his skill as a tailor, so in his leaving collection (2005), the outcome was not only inventive, it was also technically very well made. David was employed by a major fashion house and put in 2 yrs producing ground-breaking designs, elevating the house from the simply advanced to the cutting edge of fashion. David was in demand on the UK fashion scene. He was runner up in the "DESIGNER of the entire year" competition in 2007, having been the victor of Best New Fashion Designer of the entire year" in 2006, but as he was often said "awards don't always put money in the till.
Freeway fashion ltd designed and made David Holloway's designs on the market at a variety of specialist high and retail outlets and also created designs for further mid market outlets on a commission basis. The 2008/2009 earnings year had been problematic for freeway fashion ltd. No new ideas were observed in the offerings at the spring and coil 2010 collection and sales were static.
In spite of having scarce time, information, and resources, I've tried my best to fulfill all certain requirements of the survey and sought to apply my knowledge of Consumer action as a process.
- TASK 1 7
Importance of fashion in people's lives
- TASK 2 14
Role of celebrities in the adoption
- TASK 3 19
Way to cope with changing profile customer
Innovators of fashion design
Reference group theory
- TASK 4 28
Research method for Freeway Fashion Ltd
Non- consumer research method
- TASK 5 39
Monitory system for Freeway fashion ltd
- What is fashion and how is it manifested in the clothing market?
- What are the consumer motivations to be and staying in fashion?
- Why is fashion important in people's lives?
Fashion is definitely changed by sociable and cultural frame of mind, place, time etc. Fashion designers design fashion by considering customers needs, current situation and a variety of colors, habits, and styles. This is a complete picture of clothing market in Bangladesh.
- Fashion an over-all term for a presently popular style or practice especially in clothing. Fashion clothes express somebody who is he or she what he or she value.
- Fashion is actually changing just a little elusive, extreme, and seductive. It has the power to change a graphic and create a social statement. The fashion industry is the merchandise of modern day.
- From the designers perspective the key was keeping in melody with all energetic changes happening in the market and then translating those into required products when the customer acknowledge.
- Ancient Bengali fashion apparel generally used unstitch although Bengali knew regarding sewing. Bangladeshi feminine wears traditional clothing such as sari. There are many varieties of fashion clothing available in Bangladeshi market.
- The fashion market of Bangladesh is witnessing strong development owing to a population, an increase in disposable earnings, which is resulting in increase in ingestion and therefore the rapid expansion in organisation retail.
Characteristics to express fashion in clothing market:
Clothing is one of the codes for reading population. Selecting the right clothes is the above all step in creating an overall style statement. The style magazines and the fashion shows are of great help identifying what is chosen or not.
Fashion is manifested by regular change in form where the function remains constant. In clothing market, fashion is always change by consumers buying desire factors and decision making process.
In Bangladesh, the style clothing is manifested by the several ways of considering, social groupings, and motivation factors etc. the culture of fashion is inextricably associated with a place or public senses to a community and in clothing market. Fashion can be involved, time and space subject. The fashion market is apposite for exploring the challenge posed by market behavior as it relates to creativity. The style industry is manifested in several ways. The exterior sociological factors have affects on customer such as family, friends, neighbor, other casual and noncommercial resources, social school and cultural and subcultural memberships.
Age: this remains one of the primary determinants of people's buying behaviour despite communal changes which have taken place, including the slump in "teenage fashion. '
Gender: also a significant factor affecting a person's choice of clothing, gender remains important since there are incredibly few honestly unisex fashion item - even trousers are publicized as either womanly or masculine.
Occupation: clothing can be chosen to reflect one's professional position and choice of buying.
Consumer motivation is an internal declare that derives person to choose and buy products or services which fulfill mindful and unconscious desire or needs. The fulfillment of these demands can then motivate them to make a repeat purchase or even to find different goods and services to raised fulfillment those dreams.
In Bangladesh, the style clothing market is determined by how necessary a purchase is to a person his motivational levels can vary greatly from low to high. Motivational factors include knowledge of purchase, position factors and overall expenditure and value.
The hierarchy of needs of Maslow (1970) provides a platform within which to explore the role that fashion plays in traveling and motivating.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Physiological needs:
Physiological needs are those necessary to preserve life. These is prompt the purchase of a winter cover in winter season by way of a person. This model may appear slightly out dated in the current fashion society regularly individuals are finding it much easier to gratify this lower level need resulting in increased emphasis being located upon how they are viewed popular society.
- Safety needs:
These relate to both physical and mental safety, although this might in general be a minor issue for fashion marketers. Some purchases will involve a top level of safe practices awareness, such as taking into account the flammability of children nightwear. Here consumers feels to purchase good clothes.
- Social groups:
- Roles and status
Social needs can exert a robust affect on fashion purchase, as is exemplified by the complex issues mixed up in teenage purchase of T-shirts.
This implies the necessity for popularity from others. Prestige or the desire to boost consumer's reputation is a motivating force across the whole fashion spectrum, from neighborhood fashion to haute couture.
This is often interpreted as the manifestation of creativeness or some type of spiritual fulfillment. The style consumers can be viewed by this motivational power at the job in both creative dresser. Consumer sustains the high
- Image enhancement
- Social uniqueness
Importance of fashion in people's lives:
Fashion appears to be ubiquities and a long term dimension of individual behaviour. Fashion is new delight for consumer. Fashion is something which is special we package with everyday. Clothes produce a wordless method of communication that people all understand.
Express personality: Fashion is a means by which consumers can point out their personality. So that it is easier to evaluate and realize others personality by the help of fashion.
Social uniqueness: people always seek to be unique. It is easier to express or act uniquely if one highly maintain own fashion avoided criticism.
Image enlargement: fashion is important since it allows consumers to job the image that they want others to see. Consumer can boost their beauty by wearing fashion clothes.
Spread culture: Fashion play an important part inside our culture. In Bangladesh, women think of saris - sari isn't just worn in Bangladesh nowadays but others countries such as Mexico and African people like to wear saris to receive the feel of Indian subcontinent culture.
Increasing confident: Fashion must make the buyer have the best. When somebody wears stylish clothes that fit his / her properly and it can truly add an improvement of confidence.
Position in modern culture: fashion must make position the consumer in his / her contemporary society. Fashion clothes increases the social status of a consumer who wears classy clothes.
Fashion has become a part of your life. No person can continue to be untouched without fashion. People must have some idea and kind of fashion to show their life in present modern culture. It is vital at on a regular basis and no-one can't think or stay without fashion whoever is conscious.
- What is the role of star and peer pressure in the adoption of fashion clothing?
- What are the stimuli for purchase?
- What is the role played by the media?
Adoption of fashion: fashion adoption is an important concept in the fashion industry. Fashion is defines as a method of clothes or behaviour in the latest style. Fashion adoption is not related to years, education or marital position, i. e. demographic variables, but is corrected with fashion purchasing, journal, readership, and frequency of shopping for clothes.
Role of celebrities in the adoption of fashion clothing:
Celebrities have greatly influenced consumers in this ten years. International stars like Medona, Beyonce and Sara Jessica Parker have grown to be more influential role models for customers.
Celebrities provide role models where people can evaluate themselves and can be utilized as images to which they can aspire.
Brand understanding: superstars create brand consciousness among consumers and individuals life-style.
Fashion image: fashion image relates consumers' belief about fashion's beneficial, unique, and strong related associated that fashion products might reap the benefits of. Celebrities help consumers for enhancing their images.
In fashion, consumers follow a certain norm in order to get the majority style of movements. Celebrities happen the eye of the world updating on what fashion they have adopted.
New development: latest fashion trends are always started on what fashion clothes are worn by the celebrities and models.
Enhance uniqueness: stars will have their own identity in creating their own style of fashion. So consumers try to make self uniqueness learning the stars life.
Role of peer pressure in the adoption of fashion clothing:
Peer is generally acknowledger siblings or good friend. They are a lot of people that an individual keep in mind when making a purchase. Peer communities are important because they notify and make individuals aware of specific products and brand for adopting fashion.
- Peer influence on the attitudes, thoughts, and actions of an individual.
- Peer influence on products purchase decision.
- Encouraging the person to change their attitude and help receive the new fashion.
- Peer pressure is just about the strongest impact on adolescent brand alternatives which is symbolic best for clothes and adoption fashion.
Stimuli: Stimuli are happenings in environment that effect behaviour. Consumer buying behaviour is inspired by numerous factors. Decision making questions such as what, why, how, where and when consumers buy are inspired by three major conditions.
Stimuli for sale are a mechanism to bring into entropy the four different images of self applied described by Freud. Freud's theory of personality is based on the theory that much of consumer behaviour popular is determined by forces outside recognition. Personality stereotypes may change overtime. You can find three degrees of awareness: conscious brain, preconscious mind, unconscious mind.
- The id:
The id is the Freudian framework of personality that contains unconscious mother nature. This identification is conceptualized as a warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives.
Here consumer has no real perception fact and seeks to satisfy his / her needs.
- The very ego:
The very ego is conceptualized as the individual's inside appearance of society's moral and ethical codes of carry out. In this stage the individuals satisfies needs in a socially suitable fashion.
- The ego:
The ego is a consumer's conscious control. The ego is dependant on the reality principle. The ego functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious brain.
Freud's personality theory of consumer personality believe that customer drives are generally unconscious and that consumers are generally unacquainted with their true reasons for buying fashion products what they buy.
- The role of media:
The mass media, including all types of TV stations, radio, paper, magazine always play a vital role in our modern fashion life. They have got transformed our life very much.
- Mass media impacts consumer's fashion by demonstrating stars fashion life, fashion shows etc
- Mass press have a great contribution to form consumer's means of thinking.
- Mass media enhances our recognition about fashion by whenever we watch on Tv set, radio.
- How do fashion centered companies offer with changing customer information for his or her products?
- Who will be the innovators and early on users of fashion products?
- Explain the role of COO (country of origin) effect in relation to fashion design and outsourced making?
- What influence does research group theory have on the possession and brand fashion goods?
Ways to cope with changing account customer:
Fashion centered companies need to deal with their changing account customer because of their existing and services. These companies should think about ways to expand the fashion market via existing and new products, in existing and new market segments.
Market penetration: (existing market and existing product)
This strategy is seeking a more substantial market show in market in which company has already offerings.
Attracting potential buyers of competing offerings(elegant product)
Stimulating fashion product trial among potential customers
Fashion Market penetration
Fashion Product development
Fashion Market development
Fashion Diversification Existing
Fig: 4P's of marketing mix
Product development: ( existing market ands and new product)
Fashion companies create new offering for existing fashion market segments.
Product enhancement- enhances the value to customer of existing fashion clothes.
Product line expansion- broad the prevailing type of offering by adding different craze, sizes, forms, colors etc.
Fashion market development : (new market, existing product)
Fashion companies are adding its existing offerings to customers than other those that the fashion company is currently serving.
Carefully consider rival advantages and weakness and competitor relation potential
Modification of the basic offering
Change in sales effort and advertising
Diversification: (new market, new offering)
Fashion companies can develop of offerings new and introduce those offerings to new customers not previously offered by these organisations.
Growing trend lately.
Positioning is how a product appears in relation to other products in market. Brand can be positioned against competitor's brand.
It is a communal research technique which involves the direct observation in natural setting. It is very flexible to research workers because they can transform their approach whenever they want. Fashion established company can package with this strategy by exploring the actual wishes and needs of customer.
CRM (Customer romance management):
CRM strategy helps the fashion based companies enhance the profitability of the connection with customers. To achieve success with CRM companies need to match products and promotions to leads and customers life cycle. Fashion companies can gather customer data by CRM
Market growth rate
Key factor success
Fashion structured company always need to cope with present customer and also they want to cope the new customer or rival customer. to boost the customer development rate, company should make perfect strategy for staying core customer and changing fashion image of company.
Innovators of fashion products:
Innovators are early on users of fashion products. The adoption process commences with a tiny numbers of visionary, imaginative inventions. They are the first individual to adopt an innovation.
- Willing to consider risk
- Youngest in age
- Have the best social status
- Have great financial lucidity
- Closest contact to technological sources
- More cosmopolitan
- More do it yourself confident
- Better educated
- More active beyond their community, etc.
Early users of fashion products:
Early users are the second fastest category of individuals who take up fashion products.
- Younger in age
- Higher social course or status
- Well educated
- Socially frontward than past due adopters
- Reliant on group norms and beliefs than innovators.
- More apt to be opinion leaders because of their close affiliation organizations.
Country of Origins:
Country of source is the united states of manufacture, creation or development where products comes from.
Role of COO effect popular design:
Differentiating products from the opponents
Impact on consumers' quality perceptions of products: brand image, brand personality, brand associations, communication communications - effect the understanding of customers about the quality of a brand.
Preference for and willingness to buy products
Effect of affinity and animosity toward the country of origin: country organizations do lead to customer bias. Such bias is dependant on the image of the country in customer's heads. Economy, technology, riches index, regulatory mechanisms, authorities, business background of any country accocunts for the image of a country on the customer's brain.
Consumers' product evaluations and choice: The very reason an organization indulges in branding is to aid customers to make purchase decisions by providing cues on quality, trustworthiness and value in regards to a product.
Effect of country-of-association
Consumers' condition of familiarity about the merchandise: As the COO information can be found, consumers will notice as relevant information and deliberately utilize it in their analysis of products.
Whether fashion clothing is considered as luxury good to the consumers
Exert its influence on product common sense.
Role of Country of Origins (COO) in outsourced production:
Decrease in development costs
Use of advanced skills
Reference group theory:
A research group is group of individuals (or even one person) which gives a spot of evaluation or research for the buyer in the forming of values and attitudes, which in turn affect buying behavior.
Reference-group theory asserts that people's self-evaluations are established not only by their objective position but also by their position in accordance with specific individuals with whom they compare. Because a person's self-evaluations can grow or fall depending on which group he appears to when making comparative judgments, specifying the conditions under which people select one or another comparative reference-group would appear to be essential to a more complete elaboration of reference-group theory.
Influences of guide group theory on the possession and make of fashion goods:
Normative social affect: it's the desire to confirm to the anticipations of someone else or group.
Informational social influence: it is an influence to simply accept information from another as facts about certainty.
- Influence on marketing studies
- Influence on the behaviour of those people who put it as a guide point for assessing their own fashion.
- Influence on consumers analysis, aspirations, or patterns
- Influence on product selection, brand analysis and choice, brand devotion, and perceptions of product quality.
- Reference communities can be critical source of brand interpretation. Consumers use guide group as a way to obtain information for implementing fashion.
- Consumers may form self brand associations to the brands used by reference organizations to that they belong.
- Consumer may avoid associations derived from communities to which reference teams do not belong.
- Based on where Freeway Fashions are positioned on the market, what kinds of market research might you recommend they use to be able to stay current with leading edge fashion tendencies?
- How you would derive your customer sample body(s) and what might they be asked? How could you deal with trade and retail thoughts and opinions?
- What forms of additional non customer research could you recommend to the company? Should Delphi method type research techniques be consider?
Research method for freeway fashion Ltd:
Freeway fashion ltd was born in Sept 2007. freeway fashion designed and produced David Holloway's designs for sale at a variety of specialist high and shops and also created designs for mid market outlets on a fee basis. The economic regression began to affect the fashion industry and David's second time was no profitable as first years. Both reasons for declined the revenue are - individuals were more careful in their purchase and David's design was appealing to only a different types of people.
- survey techniques,
- and observation
Qualitative research method includes depth interview, concentrate group, metaphor examination, collage research and projective techniques. Freeway fashion ltd administer this techniques by experienced interviewer. This technique helps to discover new ideas, develop promotional strategy.
The major steps in the buyer general market trends include
Define the goals of research: it is first and difficult step for Freeway Fashion ltd to carefully design the target. Objectives help to define the sort and level of information needed.
- To segment the market for Freeway Fashion ltd offerings
- To assess consumers attitude towards this organisation services and quality
Collecting extra data: extra data includes both external and inside data. It can be obtained cheaply. Freeway fashion ltd should collect the data from buyer and also from external fashion consumer market.
- Internal sources
- Governmental sources
- Periodicals, magazines, books
- Commercial data
Designing major research: if Freeway fashion ltd needs descriptive information then it undertakes quantitative method.
If this company needs new ideas such as setting or repositioning of fashion clothing then it undertakes qualitative research.
Collecting most important data: data collection device include questionnaires, personal inventories, and frame of mind scale.
Analysis the data: Freeway Fashion Ltd has to analyse the qualitative data and supervise the examination in quantitative research.
Preparing a report on the finding: after analysing data, Freeway Fashion ltd should have to prepare a written report.
Gather information about the competitors' creator offerings.
Collection new idea about international trend
Check customers' sales development in fashion clothing market
Observe customer's response and behaviour
Observing customers expectations
Take market experiment
Give importance in innovation
Monitoring the customers sales in the UK and globally
Measurement consumer satisfaction
Organized sampling and study method etc.
Sampling: sampling is the method in which individuals are chosen. A sample is a subset of the populace that is employed to calculate the characteristics of the complete population.
Random or probability sample-
Sample framework: this identifies lists, indexes, maps or other information of population that a sample can be selected. The sampling body should coincide with the population of interest.
Freeway Fashion Ltd
Marital status: single committed others
Age: love-making: men/female
Present customer's section:
Quality of the product
Design of the product
Consistency of product
Length of life of the product
Speed of delivery
Friendliness of sales stuff
After sales service
Suggestion: (if any)
Past customer(lapsed) section:
Not good (N)
Quality of the product
Design of the product
Consistency of product
Length of life of the product
Speed of delivery
Friendliness of sales stuff
After sales service
Competitor's customer section:
Which fashion product do you prefer or want?
Which facility do you want?
How often will you visit our service?
What product price do you need?
Have you any query about Freeway Fashion Ltd?
Deal with trade and retail judgment:
The buying of goods resale is a thoughts and opinions of retail trade establishment. Market competition drives Freeway Fashion ltd at searching for new suppliers or trade. Medium size retail and trade practically analyse their gross margin so this fashion organisation try to handle these businesses. Freeway Fashion ltd enables to deal with trade and retail opinion by sampling method.
Non-consumer Research method:
Focus group interview:
Focus group interview is a qualitative research method where a small test of respondents discusses chosen topics as a group. They are focused in two ways. First, the folks being interviewed are similar for some reason. Second the goal of the interview is to gather information in regards to a particular topic guided by a set of focused questions.
- Interaction among group associates refines opinions, offering more detailed, exact information
- The approach is stimulating boosting the likelihood of obtaining more important comments
- Respondents in a public can be urged to speak out more than they could individually
- Spontaneity is increased, with less pressure to provide desired answers
- Securing reactions from a random test can be difficult.
- People may cover behind majority view
- Strong views can eclipse those of others.
- Like interviews, the moderator may bring in bias
- They can be expensive- securing an example, playing participants, by using a central location and paying the moderator
In depth interview is a study technique where individuals are interviewed individually or a tiny group. It really is designed to discover a consumer's underlying attitudes and / or motivation through long and relatively unstructured interview.
- Eliciting individuals experience, opinions, feelings
- Addressing sensitive topics
- Provide a shortcut to community norms
- Develop research tools
- Provide a brief history of behavior
- More details
- Needs an experienced interviewer
- High cost
- Difficult to analyse the information and data
- Third person test
- Word association test
- Sentence completion test
- Thematic apperception test
- Story completion test etc.
Consideration of Delphi method:
The Delphi method is well known way for forecasting. A -panel of carefully decided on experts is asked to answer a series of questionnaires. The approach can be designed for using in face-to-face conferences.
Structuring of information movement:
The primary efforts from the specialists are gathered by means of answers to questionnaires and their observations to these answers. The -panel director of Freeway Fashion Ltd manages the interactions among the participants by finalizing the information and filtering out unrelated content. This avoids the dangerous effects of face-to-face panel conversations and resolves the most common problems of group dynamics.
- Free of interpersonal pressure, individuals influence, personal dominance
- Allows sharing of data and information among participants
- A well decided on respondent panel
- Gathering together all the information from the previous tasks, and based on my evaluation of the patterns of retail consumer behavior toward fashion type products, consider:
- How you may set up a monitoring system to ensure fashion based companies, such as Freeway, do not miss out on trends happening on the market?
- Who is the purchasing device and what specific competitive benefits do they might need?
- How could you offer with any specific CB blockers in the advantages of fashion based mostly products, especially given the appreciable price premiums involved?
- What marketing strategies might you put in spot to make sure all prospective customers are aware of your offer?
Monitory system for Freeway Fashion Ltd:
Freeway Fashion Ltd Company should gather information from general population sources, such as
- News paper
- Fashion magazines
- Fashion articles
- Fashion show
- Fashion structured web site
- E commerce hyperlink
Conversations with customers:
This fashion centered company should gather information off their existing customer by sampling.
Hiring third parties to acquire fashion:
This company should seek the services of third celebrations such as concentration group, some of competitors who'll give information.
Freeway fashion ltd make an effort to get the trimming services from various types of magazines to assess new trend and design.
Freeway fashion can be developed their fashion design network by organizing fashion shows where many fashion house and designers are performed.
Liaison with fashion school:
Freeway Fashion Company should make relation with fashion colleges which are located in UK and also speak to the international fashion school by mailing or using internet to get the latest information about fashion products.
Ensure the durability of product
Less price than others competitors
Provide innovative design
Segmentation of product
Well sales service
Good cut etc
Good income margin
Conformance of order in term of size
Conformance of order in color
Quality fashion offerings
Innovative fashion design clothing
Limited sizes of offering
Less occurrence in changing design, etc
Maximize category profit
Way to deal with CB blockers:
CB blockers usually influence the customer behavior, market strategy, buyer behaviour, emotional intelligence etc. These blockers have a great affect of purchasing and non purchasing activities. Fashion are inserted a very crowded market with products that are design different, different brand, but theoretically equivalent to others on the market, and aiming top quality position.
CB blockers influence the customers when they buy brand product. Blockers always give the product information through the mass media. Others competition sometimes play role as CB blockers, they feature appropriate price of fashion clothing product to the customer for bringing in. So Freeway Fashion company should try to offer a lowest suited price to keep the present customer and also concentrate on the new customer.
Freeway fashion should build-up new market sections to target the entire fashion customer of UK. Because CB blockers always get the data about customer expectation plus they try to accomplish customers demand.
Competitors always try innovating new design with low prices so Freeway Fashion ltd should make a monitoring system to cope with customer by innovating new design with less competitive price.
CB blockers affect the extravagance behavior through advertising.
If Customers pay extra price for brand image they seek alternative goods for rewarding demand, CB blockers usually get this scope to cope up these customer by giving alternate goods through media.
Marketing technique for freeway fashion ltd:
Freeway fashion Ltd must use the mass media to provide new product information to tha ultimate consumer.
Using cultural networking site:
Now young generations are using public networking site. So this fashion company should use these types of sites advertiseing their fashion clothing product.
Social media enables
Share this company's skills and knowledge
Tap into the wisdom of consumers
Enables customers aiding customers
Engages potential clients through customer evangelism
Instant communications: Freeway Fashion has to use mobile networking system to provide instant information to the client.
Sponsor: freeway Fashion ltd try to sponsor in athletics, indoor game, outdoor game, etc.
Using celebrity image: Freeway fashion ltd can boost their revenue utilizing the super star image.
Organized fashion program: It is a very effective way to enhance business reputation by arranging fashion event, fashion show, fashion completion.
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