In the last mentioned half of the 20th century an instant progress of the global market resulted in a significant upsurge in the quantity of brands and products present in most, if not absolutely all, establishments with a give attention to the end consumers. Companies are obliged to recognize the underlying cosmetic reasons for the consumption as consumers get access to numerous alternatives. This alteration triggers a need for differentiation in order to beat your competition by offering products that not only fulfil basic needs but also add value to the lifestyle customers desire to be an integral part of. Such "brand intangible" features of the brands that not include any explicit qualities, are essential for providing exclusive cosmetic experiences because of their customers.
The objective of a company is to make an image, a sign of acknowledgement and quality (Schmitt & Simonson, 1997). Positive thoughts created in consumers' brains can provide devotion and top quality price setting in the future as people are eager to come back to the brands that previously delivered reliable satisfaction. The growth of advantages of a strong brand is crucial (Keller & Lehmann, 2006). The company behind the strong brand may, for example, gain easier usage of new markets by utilising a brandname extension- the procedure where novel products are released under the prevailing brand. This strategy effectively stimulates a feeling of acknowledgement and approval the consumer may have towards the initial brand line.
The professional mane care industry help as an example where creating an visual experience plays a big part in influencing consumer behavior. For instance, we've experienced that many styling products often serve little utilitarian purpose and aren't automatically useful from a useful point of view; nevertheless the products seem to create intangible value and significance for an individual. Professional styling products are being sold exclusively in locks salons and departmental stores in which a symbolic atmosphere is created. The whole buying process is shaped around creating a social connection, impulse and sense. As a result mane product customer isn't just inspired by the companies' aesthetic end result but also by becoming emotionally connected with organisational ideals and values. People often purchase products spontaneously without the clear concern whether a certain product is in fact needed or worthwhile the price paid. Mick & DeMoss (1990), suggest that this self-gifting trend is provoked by the endeavour to inspire and indulge, relieve stress or maybe do something nice for oneself.
"What is hot and attractive about rinsing money down the drain?"
She finishes with the affirmation that,
"There is no difference between expensive products and inexpensive products, and I say that unequivocally. "
Why do people buy expensive styling products although there are cheaper, easy to get at hair care and attention alternatives? Does the answer snooze in getting cleaner, shinier locks or to obtain a confirmation that folks by using the products will feel beautiful and even easily fit into the picture organisations create? Finally, are there winning strategies for organisations to pursue in order to beat the competition in this multi-billion industry?
This essay talks about the consumer buying behavior for hair care products. This newspaper also talks about how marketers treat these consumer behaviours using L'Oreal for example.
Consumer buying behaviour
Society, individuals and organisations build a never-ending cycle in which the three largely impact each other. In order to be a part of the society, people have to fulfil certain unwritten norms and communicate in a manner that is widely accepted and comprehended by other people of that same culture (Bowditch & Buono, 2005). Consequentially, individuals often base their buys on these premises - to fit in within the group. Regarding to McCracken (1986) this is a cause for organisations to constantly redevelop their product lines in order to match the objectives in contemporary society. When this occurs, social norms are offered in products. When these later are purchased this is is once again shifted, this time to the client, and the ongoing cultural group of world, individuals and organisations transform once again (please make reference to the number below).
Figure: Copy of cultural interpretation, McCracken (1986).
Beauty is a topic which is difficult to grasp especially since it is perceived differently and related to various cultural or cultural norms. Beauty might be observed as a powerful tool that will help one to achieve higher ambitions that will be significant for future expansion and development (Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994). According to Eco (2004), the term beautiful expresses something that we are fond of, enjoy considering. Because of this a feeling of personal fulfilment as well as indulgence is created (Prettejohn, 2005). Hair styling has emerged as one of the key fashion points in recent years as individuals, specifically young consumers realise that styling hairs in a trendy manner comes with an effect on people's perception of their fashion sense. Hair styling is particularly interesting for consumers because hair is taking care of of appearance which is often set in several styles as compared to rest of the face that your individuals can do little about except for wearing make-up.
Aesthetics is defined by Berthon, et al. , (2009) as a science of belief that depends on our ability to distinguish value or relevance in the thing appealing and therefore develop flavour.
In advertising beauty is made by visual images and symbols which can be interpreted by consumers (Vacker, 1993). Because of this, as Schmitt & Simonson (1997) express, aesthetics can be utilized as an important tool for organisations to distinguish their products with. However, feelings can be easily abused by organisations and hence produce a bogus view of the "scientific real truth" (Jensen, 1999). For instance, illusions can be shaped by companies, that declare that certain products are better than others and this customers gain more for the money they pay. As a result the companies will neglect the reality as long as consumers are persuaded that the information is accurate. Jensen discusses the condition further by declaring that a incorrect rationality is eventually created in order to justify the acquisitions made. There is certainly extensive scientific records that cosmetic experience undoubtedly influences consumer behaviour in a number of ways (Berthon, et al. , 2009; Hirschman, 1983).
Further, by using experiential and sensory marketing strategies (Schmitt, 1999), closely studying consumer attitudes and choices (Gupta, et al. , 2008), creating symbolic (Levy, 1959) and emotional (Bauman, 2001) values organisations can produce a luxurious and overpowering feeling of desire (Belk, et al. , 2003) that maybe result in both increased profits and improved consumer value. Thus, it is vital for organisations to identify what consumers desire, often before they actually know that themselves, and use the marketing ways of improve that desire.
L'Oreal's online marketing strategy involves using attractive models with different hairstyles; Using these models L'Oreal creates a wrong perception among people that using L'Oreal's products can make them appear to be the models. L'Oreal's models use considerable makeup which focus on the actual fact that L'Oreal's consumers are incredibly sensitive about the look of them and could use great deal of constitute as well.
Another key facet of L'Oreal's marketing strategy for hair maintenance systems is using models with different pores and skin colours. This could be a strategy to increase the aesthetic selling point of L'Oreal's hair care products.
One key facet of L'Oreal's online marketing strategy is to market a single hue of a mane colour. For example; when it advertises red wild hair shade, all the models in the advert will be wearing different tones of red hair shade only.
2. 1 Emotional experiences
Franzen & Bouwman (2001) declare that specific perceptions and stories are linked to psychological reactions. The cognitive area of the human brain reflects, analyses and makes decisions, the mental part of the brain, on the other palm, reacts spontaneously on the recognized external stimulation. When a person is exposed to new information the brain has to bother making a choice whether or not, or even to what level he has to pay attention. Emotional experiences are real impulses that cause real human behaviour and it is possible to recognize two types of recollections of mental experiences; implicit and explicit emotional experience (Franzen & Bouwman, 2001). People understand most marketing unconsciously and superficially nonetheless they are still affected by it in the future purchasing behaviour. Because of this a notion of the brand is seen as unconscious and implicit unless it was already connected to concrete activities which have resulted in explicit cognitive recollections (Franzen & Bouwman, 2001). L'Oreal's online marketing strategy is to advertise L'Oreal as a wholesome brand rather than as specific product lines which means that when consumers actually make a decision to purchase any product they will probably bear in mind L'Oreal brand.
Through a multi-sensory experience, created by sensory perceptions, people react to exterior stimulations as well as they respond to emotional images that happen to be either consciously or unconsciously. This creates choices for hedonic intake which is, as discussed by Hirschman & Holbrook (1982, p. 92), a occurrence that: ". . . designates those facets of consumer behaviour that relate with the multi-sensory, fantasy and emotive areas of one's experience with products". It is essential for companies to recognize the symbolic meaning of consumer goods which are increasingly becoming an integral part of our consumer individuality and image. Symbolic interpretation of hair care products such as wild hair colour is to provide the hairs a color which suits the personality, feelings, occasion and all of those other attire. This is often witnessed in case of air colour advertising by L'Oreal normally the merchandise are publicized using models who are putting on the clothing and makeup which fits the hair coloring. Thus, L'Oreal attempts to symbolise hairs as one part of the body which must be outfitted like rest of the body to make the look complete.
All these adverts highlight hairs as the primary area of the look. By highlighting the hairs as the most important part and noticing that it is possible to alter the appearance of hairs (by styling and colouring), L'Oreal will try to mention the message that it's possible to attain the model looks. Quite simply, the highlight will be the hairs which have been cured with L'Oreal products meaning the looks of the model in the advertisement are due to L'Oreal's product and hence the consumers can receive the same looks if indeed they use L'Oreal products.
2. 2 Consumer behaviour and human being needs
When clarifying the buyer behaviour several authors describe acquisitions from a need-goal point of view (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000). With some difference in terminology they describe what sort of need is created for a human being, for example, a feeling of food cravings or the aspiration to become an esteemed member of society. Maslow (1943) reveals a hierarchy of needs and argues that the particular level below is definitely more important than the main one above. The cheapest level contains what could be called innate or primary needs and higher up in the pyramid will be the acquired or secondary needs. These example of being an esteemed person in society fits into the second highest of these levels labelled "esteem").
Figure: Maslow's pyramid. The levels signify various areas of the hierarchy.
Needs work as motivation to reach a goal that can be common or product-specific (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000). A generic goal to cleaner wild hair would be shampoo; something specific goal would subsequently be shampoo from one of the various brands on the market. L'Oreal's marketing strategy targets both. For instance, for hair colouring products, the general strategy can be good and trendy looks while the product specific strategy can be to market L'Oreal head of hair shade products. L'Oreal thoroughly uses its brand in marketing L'Oreal products
2. 3 Marketing
Gagliard (1996) points out that when the item is being experienced in a physical, tangible truth it is recognized through sensory encounters. Organisations can, in this framework, be seen not only as physical configurations that produce products but also as a brand with the capability to nourish and promote people's senses. Artefacts can be defined as a form of meaning, existing either individually of its originator, or being recognized by the senses. Through these, organisations can donate to promoting their goals.
According to Franzen & Bouwman (2001) a brandname can be explained as an indicator or a symbol of reputation in form of logos, product labels, names and colours which evokes organizations in people and is commercially linked to saleable goods and services. It is a way to obtain value to both consumers well as the companies. By maintaining a solid brand companies achieve devotion and continuous future sales. L'Oreal invests significantly in advertising L'Oreal brand. In fact, the brand L'Oreal is spotlight of almost all marketing and sales communications that the firm undertakes regardless of the product. By highlighting the name 'L'Oreal experts' the company is designed to send a sign that it's expert and hence reliable at producing the particular product. L'Oreal also uses the word 'Paris' in its branding; this is to relate L'Oreal with Paris, the Meccah of fashion. Associating a brand with Paris automatically symbolises a higher end fashion product which strategy is correctly employed by L'Oreal to effect its customers who may display desire for French fashion.
Around the very core of the product there are always a more or less equally valued traits. Not merely is a hair shampoo a hair-cleansing device but there are several other aspects that are taken into account during the creation process. Such traits include quality, design, package, colour, smell and much more. L'Oreal packages its products in high quality packing with glossy masks. Addititionally there is product specific packaging; for hair shades the packing will contain the face of the model with the same color as the main one in the pack. This is helpful packing as L'Oreal seeks to educate the buyer about how the hair can look after colouring using that one colour. This is often done to lessen customer's disappointment; for example, if complete picture is not given, consumers may use the colour and then find that it does not look just how they hoped it to which can lead to divorcing the brand totally. In order to avoid this, L'Oreal, or in simple fact most of mane colour manufacturers provide an image of a model with the same hair colour.
Gardner & Levy (1955) define the brand as greater than a label, established to distinguish the company from its opponents. Instead they view it as a symbol which makes up a complicated net of varied attributes that are sent out by the company. Later these are interpreted and re-valued by the customers and results within an overall public image. For the business, the feelings and attitudes the customers have towards the brands are essential not only to promote and sell any current products but also to try and launch services under the same brand umbrella. This view of the brand as symbolic that creates recognition, loyalty and organizations has later become known under the summarising meaning brand equity (Kotler, et. al. , 2005).
As Franzen & Bouwman (2001) sets it, "brands that succeed in strategically linking feelings to them are usually linked to products that have something regarding these emotions. " Quite simply, when the emotional response reflects the brand as well as the very product itself, the brand-owner has been successful in what all companies seek to do today, to make a unified subject matter to the buyer.
2. 3. 3 Sensory marketing
Consumers react to the overall product or service characteristics, both tangible and intangible, made by a total product offering. Through sensory marketing, appealing to the consumers through smell, music, design and style, companies not only differentiate their image and create a strong personality but also develop an overall sufficient personal experience. The number below shows the way the physical senses; either separately or in a combined way, creates an experience and response from the consumer.
Figure: Senses attributing to a put together customer experience, Hultn et al. (2008).
Figure: The Casual Chain Interconnection Atmosphere and buy Likelihood, Kotler (1973).
The place facet of advertisement is dealt with by L'Oreal by providing its products through departmental stores and locks salons.
2. 3. 4 Experiential Marketing
This theory claims that consumers are seen not only as rational decision makers, worried about features and personal benefits, but as psychological human beings, happy to accomplish something extraordinary, say for example a memorable and gratifying experience (Schmitt, 1999). That is a technique often used by L'Oreal who seeks to market the note that by which consists of products you'll be able to achieve model looks. As mentioned earlier, this is performed by highlighting the hairs in the marketing images to suggest that hairs the most critical areas of particular model's looks and that the looks of the hairs is because of the sold L'Oreal product. In other words, use this particular product and you could look the same.
By making the uniqueness effect and selecting certain attributes that purchasers value, organisation are granted with superior price which surpasses the excess costs necessary for the differentiation (Porter, 2004).
Figure: Difference in price consumers are inclined to cover professional and retail products.
The physique above shows the purchase price difference in products which consumers are happy to pay. The question mark represents the unidentified factors that permit consumers to buy professional head of hair care products at such a high price in comparison to retail alternatives. L'Oreal mane coloring products are in mid to expensive range and cost more than many of its rivals. The products may be strategically listed a lttle bit high to increase their symbolic value. For example, if hair care products are costed to low, consumers may understand the product as low standard. Bringing up the prices An excessive amount of would have an impact on the usage level; consumers will either not buy or won't use the merchandise that frequently. The situation with the second option is the fact if the consumers have a tendency to become satisfied with their looks without using these products, they might stop the intake of these product entirely. It is important for these businesses to keep up the desire to have these products and hence products are priced to stimulate consumption.
In final result L'Oreal uses it online marketing strategy according to 'desire' aspect more than anything else. It chooses the targeted consumer segments and addresses the desires of this consumer section by using appropriate marketing signals. L'Oreal's online marketing strategy involves demonstrating to the customers that it's possible for them to attain the same looks as the models in its adverts by using L'Oreal products.
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