Consumer Buying Decision Towards Treat Product

For recent years, the current economic climate in the globalization world is getting tighter. This is also impacting the economy growth in the meals industry. Therefore, to be able survive in the industry, maximising income through offering product become every company's priority. In order to achieve that goal, a company need to be in a position to understand consumer purchase decision especially based on a food packaging.

The process evaluating of many choices created by a consumer prior making a purchase is called buying decision. This purchase decision is a intricate act where there are a lot of internal and exterior factors that influence it. One of the factor will be the way the packaging of a product have the ability to communicate and draw in the consumers.

Every customer has a different concept how they look, buy and use something. However, the very first thing that will impact their buying decision will be its product packaging. To the majority of the people, presentation is the essential item that the main purpose is to protect food product from any harmful elements. However the main reason for the presentation has modified, as it seems to be one of the main factors of buying decision made at the feature (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996). Therefore, a good packaging will help to market the product and raise the selling point.

Visual package deal elements help symbolize the brand and the product itself; however there are a lot of factors that could influence it. The few factors included the design, type of material used, color and visual used, and molded of the presentation.

Objective of this study is to observe the affect of the elements that containts in the product packaging. A couple of 4 elements that can be categorize into to. These are Visible and Information category. In each category there are 2 elements. In Visual category there are color and graphic, shape and size. Where on the info catergory there are technology (materials) information and product information. This research is designed to consider which of these criterias affect the buyer most. To simplify the work, modified from Hasanglipour, Yazdani, Nejad and Rayej (2010), a construction is created because of this research.

Color and Graphic

Shape and Size

Product Information

Technology (material)

Visual Category

Information Category

Purchase Decision

Based from the construction in the previous web page, the hypothese for this dissertation paper can be categorized into 3. They can be

H1. Visual Elements of the package affect choice of the product

H1a. Basic color and visual is more appealing compare to flashy design

H1b. Addition of an image of the merchandise on the package deal significantly impact attention of the merchandise.

H1c. Visually greater package significantly influence consumer decision

H1d. Cylindrical presentation is more attractive

H2. Informational Components of the packaging impact choice of the product

H2a. Packaging with clear, cool, organized and

easy to learn information significantly impact perception of the product quality

H2b. Material used for the packaging influences customer decision

Information generated from this research predicated on the hypothesis, should provide marketers with a larger knowledge of the package's capability to connect and the nature of its effects on consumer attention and product choice.

Literature Review

Potato Potato chips and Packaging

Potato chips are deep fried thin slices potato. It really is a savoury food that always dished up as an appetizer, treat or part dish. Potato chips first was dicovered at 1853 by George Crum, a chef in Moon Lake House at NY. Crump was flustered by the customers that keep sending back again his fried potatoes complaining they were too thick and soggy, then decided to cut the potatoes as thin as newspaper. The potatoes was fried until crisp and seasoned it with sodium vigorously. Unexpectedly, the diner was delighted by the new chips and it soon became a regular item sold on the menu and known as "Saratoga Chips".

In 1895, William Tappendon used the chips' make and marketing it to restaurants and grocery store shops. Due to high demand, he changed his barn into the first potato-chips manufacturing plant on the globe. The potato chips were sold to local grocers in Cleveland, Ohio, and since that time massive production of chips started on the road.

Early in 20th century, poker chips were turning into huge bussiness in America. At the begining, chips were scooped away from large bins or barrel in the food markets, packaged in a paper bag and shipped by equine and wagon. However, the chips at the bottom of the bin were no more crispy by enough time the outlets sold them. To resolve the condition, in 1926, Laura Scudder innovated a sealed carrier. She asked her employees to collect sheets of wax paper to iron waxed-paper sheets in to the shape of carrier and iron-seal the top of the totes after filling up it along with chips the very next day. This method reduced the crumbling problem and it placed the potato chips fresh and sharp longer. The mobilisation of the potato chips were easier due to its new packaging. The bussiness widened from U. S. A, and potato chips started to be known in London. In 1920, Smith Potato Crips Company Ltd was formed. Smith packaged them in greaseproof newspaper totes and sold them around London. Within the year, the business expanded and moved to Australia to expand his business. Today, potato chips turn into a mass market product and are packed in a clear plastic handbags, with nitrogen gas blown in prior to closing and lengthen the shelf life and prevent it against any crushing during the distribution.

Function of Packaging and buy Decision

As Prendergast and Pitt (1996) points out that the basic functions of presentation is defined by their role in either logistic or marketing. To maintain food product for an extended shelf life by guarding the meals product from external influences such as weather, bacteriological and transit dangers which can cause damage (Stewart, 1995; Bottani et al. , 2011) is the logistical function of product packaging. On the other hand, in the marketing role, packaging takes on as an attribute to present the whole product and attract consumer at the idea of sales. Pilditch in 1957 is the first who define pack as the "Silent Salesman" that is why the pack need to be lively in conditions of feature. Thus, to attract and talk to the customer through product packaging, a good quality and best design to stand for the brand need to be done. You won't only help develop the partnership to the customers through marketing side, it will also help protect the meals product from any contaminants during or after the distribution programs.

Indeed, a logistic reason for the packaging act is one of the key idea recognized by the customer. To make sure the availability of the "right product, in the right amount, in the right condition, in the right place, at the right time, to the right customer, at the right price" (Shapiro and Heskett, 1985). As consumer always expect for the best to what they spend their money on; in conditions of health and quality control where there is no spoilage or leakage in the offer that will have an impact on the goods. This quality has to be maintained to be able to garner customer's trust to the product's health and quality. As there is no warranty that consumer may not get any food poisoning from a food product that still in the package. For example, when a customer looked at the food rack in a supermarket, they tend to buy product that has more convincing appearance and information towards the HACCP procedure (hygiene purposes) and there is no spoilage in the program.

Aside from logistic factors, there is no way that product packaging could run from its duty as a marketing expert. A study done to children and their parents which resulted that presentation is indeed have a strong influence on children's product preference and parents' purchase decision (Ogba and Johnson, 2010). Silayoi and Speece (2004) stregthen the assertion with their conclusions that visual and informational elements impact purchase decision on something. Thus, in order to assure their product stands out from the others, normally marketers use attractive aesthetic imagery, recognisable personality, coloring and design (Ogba and Johnson, 2010). Even a few of the consumers viewed their shopping trip as a "leisure activity", it is proven by a few of the academics that explained shopping is becoming "a major recreational and a lifestyle activity" (Wells et al. , 2007 ;Bayley and Nancarrow, 1998). Generally, consumers spend longer time while searching for that they viewed for. Considering that the fact of higher possibility of choosing the wrong item anticipated to carelessness, which lead to dissapointment and disastisfaction.

A food company has responsibility for the planning of technology strategy in creating a food packaging as its internet marketer. As packaging talks one thousand words about the merchandise in the customer's eye, a detailed and correct design of a presentation need to be designed that will straight away catch the attention of customer at the first glimpse. It is a delicate decision for a business with an in-depth knowledge of more than just customer's needs and needs ( Vernuccio and Cozzolino, 2010) before and creating the package. To provide the exact message and image of the product to the client, it depends on how all the elements blend together, which become the key success for many marketing strategies ( Silayoi and Speece, 2004).

Kupiec and Revell (2001) possessed done a research which resulted that consumer goal to purchase depends to the amount to which consumer expect that the merchandise could gratify their needs. However, there is a study that shows 73 percents of purchase decision are made at the idea of deal (Connolly and Davidson, 1996). This shows that the purchase decision depends upon what the deal communicate at the feature. The package becomes an essential factor in the buyer decision-making process considering that it communicates to consumer at the time these are actually deciding in the store. Quality common sense is highly influenced by the feature that the program reflected. The bundle mirrored a tangible and intangible note about the product. It shows the product's originality and uniqueness. Since consumer shoot for a good quality of a product, one will be prepared to have the same quality towards a product, judged from its package's quality. Underwood et al. (2001) suggest that consumer will spontaneously imagine aspects of how a product looks, flavor, feels, smells, or tones while they are really viewing something picture on the bundle.

Visual Elements

Graphics and color

In everyday activity, human in their nature seeks tranquility and resolution. By using the five senses, individual perceive and nevigate an object. Precisely the same theory is applied about how purchaser perceive and navigate something through its presentation. Thus, graphic and color of the packaging performs an important role on affecting customer's options.

According to Oxford dictionary, visual is thought as a visual display connected with drawings and design on some surface, such as canvas, paper, wall, etc. Quoted from Evans and Thomas (2004) that "graphical design is the art of planning pictographic and typographic elements to set-up effective communication". Which in packaging, it is to ensure its appeal, at the same time to differentiate and also to provide a clear and specific identity of the product. For instance, something package may contain a logo, image design, color harmony, text message layout, and product picture taking which unite the part into a presentable packaging.

Each of the elements contained in the graphical design has its specific function that affects customer's belief towards a product. Firstly, emblem in a packaging helps to symbolize and identify the company of the merchandise. It helps to provide a certain impression towards something which helps customer to identify it directly. Company logo will come in all kind of forms and size. It could be found in form of word-marks, letterform, grades, symbols, emblems, ect. Because of this, the icon (logo design) should be created in a way that universally comprehended, and easily recognizable.

Secondly, typography is the skill process of arranging, arranging, design and appearance of 1 or even more fonts into an factor of writing (Really good packaging explained). The primary function of typography is to provide a message to the understanding of the viewers to whom it is resolved ( Heller and Meggs, 2001). The purchaser is the main one being addressed in cases like this. Regarding to Heller and Meggs (2001) you can find high likelihood of the purchaser not in specifically thinking about the subject matter. Thus, to ensure the message shipped properly to the client, it is important to create the simplest and easiest to learn typography.

Third, product photography is basically an advertising image of the product itself. Every marketing consultancy of goods must make the general public aware of the product being offered on the market. In order to convey the aesthetic component of the meaning, thus the image shown in the product packaging. The occurrence of the merchandise photography has been demonstrated to increase the probability a purchaser will make use of it as an extrinsic cue (Olsen & Jacoby, 1972) and since an signal of the product quality (Richardson, 1994). Product photography and image layout are associated with each other. Image layout is how the overall agreement and style of the image and other visual components blend collectively on the packaging. The positioning of the product's picture and other visual elements on the package could make the difference between identifying and absent that (Herrington and Capella, 1995). Rettie and Brewer (2000) do a mindset research that your recall of package elements is influenced by the arrangement and setting of the elements on the offer. A study done by Silayoi and Speece (2004) indicate that the positioning of image on the right palm area and product home elevators the left palm side is more effective to help Thailand buyer (Asia) to remember something.

Last however, not least, color is one of the main components that is highly noticable. Color play an important role how it have an effect on the purchaser perception towards something. Color provides information and images consciousness on a product. It's important for the experts (e. g. visual designer) to find out possible color options for a product's product packaging and always remember on how it will affect the buyer.

In presentation, different color has different so this means and could evoke various sense and feelings in consumer. It really is belived that color has changed and it talks its own language- with symbolic, ethnic and psychological meaning (Evans and Thomas, 2004). There was dialogue by Imran (1999) about how color could effect quality perception and Grossman and Wisenblit (1999) mentioned that buyer also learn color organizations, which leads these to like certain color for several product categories. For instance, orange color stimulates hunger feelings, and it could stand for a products flavour such as orange flavoured chocolate. However, retain in mind that all person has different belief towards a concept of what they identified.

There was psychology research resulted that customer belief is affected by the way the brain measure the elements in product packaging design (Rettie and Brewer, 2000), it is important for the marketing expert purposely developed the image created in the presentation to communicate and give a strong effect on consumer decision making process. A research done by Silayoi and Speece (2004) resulted that poor graphic design can cause loses in sales for most consumer compare to attractive graphics. This shows that poor graphic does not have any capacity to captivate the client at the idea of deal, which lead to poor sales.

There are a few types of graphic design, such as typical design and brilliant design. Traditional design is the look that has been used just about everywhere in their field through continued and successful technical or design creativity. It is recognizable and regularly use within the packaging. Alternatively, colorful presentation is a fresh innovation and technological is employed in creating the product packaging. However, a investigated done in Thailand by Silayoi and Speece (2004) resulted that the purchasers prefer to truly have a classic design on product packaging compare to colourful design. The respondents believed that typical design is more reliable and familiar, which is more convincing.

Different people have different ways in responding towards different product packaging. Especially through the evaluation of low involvement product; which is a daily used product that is bought with lowest thought onto it. For this reason, image and color play a critical point in the decision making process as it's the most noticeable factors in the presentation (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999).

Shape and Size

Packaging outside form and quantity affects customer wisdom and decision on buying a certain product. According to Silayoi and Speece (2004), customer judge a product's amount based on its outer visual. In cases like this, outer visual in product packaging is interms of its size, shape and elongation.

According to Evans and Thomas (2008), the size of a product establishes the physical areas of the product packaging; which consists of width, span and height. All of these aspects is normally term as size. Nevertheless, period is the most dominant from all other aspects. Raghubir and Krishna (1999) experienced done a studies, which resulted the elongation of any packaging has an optimistic effect on size perception.

Prendergast and Marr (1997) explained that the bigger package refflects less expensive of the product. Especially, when it comes on judging unbranded product or low participation items, the bigger packaged tended to be chosen. A participant in qualitative researched by Silayoi and Speece (2004) explained that " bigger plans was bought usually as he/she thought it would be value for money. But he/she would only consider the food products".

Purchaser have a tendency to assume that the taller the packaging, the larger the volume. Although, the real content has been mentioned on the product packaging, there is probability of the purchaser might not read the label (Dickson and Sawyer, 1986; Raghubir and Krishna, 1999). Under certain circumstances, such as under time pressure, the likelihood of purchaser will not read the label is higher. This may lead to dissatisfaction, due to the fact that the genuine content is not as much as expected through the product packaging size. As the consumer tend to feel being deceived by the inconsistency of size, this might impact their future purchase decision.

However, there's some customers aren't afflicted by the disconfirmation of package deal size experience. Although, they realize that the actual size is reduced than what it has been shown by the dimension of the product packaging, it might not lead consumer to improve their purchase decision. They will tend to be more careful and browse the label on the product packaging. Furthermore, if the inconsistency of size is not very large, it might not impact consumer to revise their level judgment in the permanent (Raghubir and Krishna, 1999; Silayoi and Speece, 2007).

Other than size, condition of the product packaging also performs an important role on influencing consumer's purchase decision. Certain package deal shapes might stand for a double-win situation, that is, they might be much more likely to be chosen because they are recognized to be bigger, and they also may be used faster (Raghubir and Krishna, 1999). Other than that, packaging shapes are actually included as part of the brand image. Few types of famous packaging figures will be the Coca-Cola container, Toblerone's triangular condition, Perrier container, Pringles canistar cylindrical shape, etc. These unique product packaging shapes are located more attractive compare to common packaging. A studies by Gelperowic and Beharrell (1994) on several children reported that children preferred to attracted by presentation shapes. In contrary, Silayoi and Speece (2007) completed a conjoint examination procedure on Thai consumer, to look for the shape preference for packaging between curvy or upright shape. Through target groups they identified that Thai consumers preferred right shape in comparison to curvy. This confirmed that, overall the participants might become more interested to a packaging that appears normal gives a trusted and familiar sense.

Other than using unique condition to entice customer, customer also identified size and form for its usability. It's important to create a convenient and convenient to carry packaging. Packaging's condition and size is design depending on its usage and marketplace. For example, according to www. smeda. org. pk (2006), potato chips are targeted for children, teens and teenagers. Because of the fact that the prospective market are teenagers and usually consume potato chips for leisure and entertainment, a distinctive yet convenient product packaging is needed to attract the purchasers. A couple of 2 types of famous presentation that are being used to packed potato chips in the market; they are luggage product packaging (by Lay's) and canister cylindrical product packaging (by Pringles). However, for totes shaped packaging, there is certainly high probability on getting the poker chips crushed. Therefore, clylindrical bundle will be more convenient and it may prevent from any destruction.

Informational Elements

Technology Image

The purpose of presentation is to safeguarding food from external influences that could affect the grade of the product. In regard to this matter, selecting the right materials and technology for a certain product allows keeping quality and freshness through the distribution and safe-keeping system (Martinez et al. , 1998; Bottani et al. , 2011).

Relationships between presentation material, product characteristics and product packaging technology are interrelated with each other. In a nutshell, product characteristic decides the type of material and product packaging technology that's needed is for specific product packaging purpose. As stated by Robertson (2006), product packaging materials and technology is categorized as pursuing

Material

There are numerous kind of materials, they are really: metallic, aluminium, glass, paper, paperboard, tetra-brick, polystyrene, tin, flexible motion pictures, polystyrene, plastics, etc

Packaging technologies

Packaging technology is the introduction of further purpose of the packaging. For instance: vacuum, sterilization, pasteurization, protecting fluid, thermal coverage, aseptic packaging, etc.

The evolutions of technology in digesting different type of materials have provided an opportunity to improve food presentation and its function. The development for product packaging is influenced by the current tendency of consumer behaviour and products (Silayoi and Speece, 2007). Whereby, the technology used in the package has an impact on convenience and may raise the product's shelf life. For instance, working customer usually have a tendency to look for microwaved food, which is far more convenient. Because of this, packaging material that is used, have to be compatible with the meals preparation. The materials can be made of aluminium or clear plastic that is heat-resistant. The technology of presentation must meet customer criteria

For potato chips product packaging, there are few materials that are usually used, these are plastic, aluminium, flexible film, tin and paperboard. It really is known that poker chips contains high extra fat content. It is best not to expose poker chips to UV light and oxygen, to avoid from rancidity. Essentially, the presentation of poker chips exclude air as well as light in order to prolonged the shelf life. Thus, a clear view deal is not well suited for potato chips. Furthermore, the poker chips may be observed to be cracked which will decrease its sales appeal.

In the marketplace there are several kind of packaging patterns. Which styles inffluence the kind of material used. For instance, several brand like Lay's, Mister Potato, and Ruffles is using a classic design potato chips bag. This carrier normally used adaptable film materials such as cellophane and/or polypropylene. Both of these materials are used in combination for just one another to give a better cover to the poker chips from changing weather conditions, UV light and oxygen. This materials also provides sparkle which might get customer, sealability, and potential to rip easily (open system).

Other than tote formed, Pringles comes out with a cylindrical packaging designed. This canister shaped (tubular) is made from paperboard-can which its interior split with foil and a resealable plastic lid. This sort of product packaging allows the poker chips to be stacked neatly in the box compare to be stuffed loosely in a bag. The materials also really helps to ensure the merchandise is avoided from breakings, and any exterior condition which could harm or decrease the quality of the product.

Besides packaging material, packaging technology is important too. For packaging potato chips, it is important to exclude air occurrence in the packaging as it might decrease the quality of the potato chips. During the sealing process, the right technology must be applied to prevent from existence of oxygen in it. For instance, vacuum package is actually a possible option. However, due to the product characteristic that is fragile, it is impossible to do vacuum package deal as the chips will crumble under this condition. Thus, another option like pumping air and seal it might be the best decision.

It is important to remember that packaging materials and its own technology have to be presented visually among the communication elements. These communication elements linked to technology all affect the purchase decision.

Product Information

To communicate product information is one of the packaging function. The product information is employed by customers to assist them on the purchase decision process. Product information usually contain nutrition facts, set of ingredients, expiry time frame, meal, ect. Lately, consumer tend to be cautious towards their health, thus, food labeling is important to help them to decide on their product desire. For instance, there are customer who are alergic to peanut. Because of this, it's important to identify evidently this content of the product in the meals label. Thus, customer may avoid certain product that contain peanut in it.

In order to increase the information taken by the merchandise, sometimes manufacturer use small fonts and very dense writing styles to cram everything on the label. This might lead to distress and reduce its readability (Silayoi and Speece, 2004). Furthermore, too much information could cause misleading or imprecise information for the customer too. Therefore, for those customers who are closely rely on the product information they choose on the merchandise that has simple yet appropriate information. Silayoi and Speece performed an analysis on how Thailand people reacted to the merchandise information that provided on the packaging. It is resulted that product information that comes with an appropriate and clear information provide a positive result instead of the vague and messy display of information. Which in a nutshell, which means that consumer tend to value the information on the meals label.

Food and medicine administration (FDA)

Purchase Decision

Consumer Purchase Decision- designed from Blackwell et al. (Consumer Behaviour 9th release)

Purchase decision is a intricate matter which inner and external factors influence the final result of your choice making to buy a certain product or service. You can find 5 major levels of decision making, which may be viewed as follow

Need Recognition

Search for Information

Pre-Purchase Evaluation of Alternatives

Purchase

Consumption

As the model shows, consumers typically proceed through these five major levels during making decision process. There are seven steps in total, after use there are post-consumption analysis and the next is divestment. However, these 2 techniques are usually involved in after use or consuming the goods. Nevertheless, these 2 operations are needless for decision making predicated on aesthetic elements (this thesis based on visual elements); which only happen in the first 5 steps.

The first level of any purchase decision starts off from customers identifying their needs. The needs can be categorized into 2 categories that are high-involvement product and low-involvement product. High-involvement product is something which important to the customer. This sort of product usually involve some financial, social, and/or personal risk where consumer has examined the merchandise carefully for a certain time frame. Examples of high-involvement products are car, mobile phone, laptop, etc. On the other hand, low-involvement product is a product that won't affect the buyer economically, socially, and psychologically. In cases like this, consumer might not take a lot of commitment to search and evaluate the product information as there are alot of variety or replacement. In short, limited decision making is included for this kind of products. Exemplory case of low-involvement products are soaps, appetizers, dairy product, food product, etc.

After discovering the needs, customer start to seek out information relating the goods. Customer could obtain information from 2 different options, internal and external. Internal is retrieving knowledgge predicated on the storage area or experience that customer possessed from a product (or brand). Consumer survey passively by plainly becoming receptive towards the information around them. In addition to that, external means collecting information from internet, market, responses, family, and more. Consumer positively seacrhing for the information realted to the goods by searching the internet, reading food label on the presentation, searching for reviews about the goods, browsing through department stores and shops, etc. This collecting information behaviour is interrelated to the product involvement. As the product is seen risky (a whole lot of factors influence your choice), customers are likely pay more focus on the product (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999; Dholakia, 2001; Silayoi and Speece, 2004), thus on a high-involvement product customer will take their time on searching and comparing the goods from one to another.

By the time everything has been accumulated, customers start to process the info. Corresponding to Blackwell et al. (2001), there are 5 steps involved in processing the information. They are

Exposure

As a purchaser is exposed to the product through communication campaign (e. g Food Labeling, advert). One or more of the senses (5 senses) are stimulated, early processing starts out. For instance, an image on the product packaging that could stimulates brain.

Attention

The more relevant the information to the merchandise chosen, the more appealing it will be. For example, for many who are on diet, a product labeled low-fats tend to be attractive.

Comprehension

When attention is drawn, the info is then examined to get an improved understanding of the message contrary to the consumer's storage area (knowledge). For example, remembering a family group recommendation to this certain product, that gives a positive image to it.

Acceptance

After improving understanding of the merchandise information, the note is either accepted or unaccepted. Which every marketers hoped the meaning is accepted, to be able to check out the next step.

Retention

When the subject matter has been accepted, brain will memorized the knowledge that will useful in the foreseeable future. For example, when consumer aware of the quality of the merchandise and have a tendency to choose the same product from the same brand as they feel the merchandise is more reliable.

After getting an improved undestanding of the product information, the third level of purchase decision process is pre-purchase analysis. At this stage consumer is analyzing for another options during the search process. They have a tendency to compare and consider from different products and brands. For instance, a consumer looking for a potato chips. There are alot of different brands of potato chips offering different flavour, such as Pringles, Lay's, Ruffles, ect. Consumer have a tendency to evaluate and monitor the size, amount, quality and price of the product, from other knowledge that they had about the goods. After assessing and meet their needs, those criterias may have an impact on their brand and product selection.

After selecting the goods and deciding if to purchase, it comes to next stages of buying process. In this process, consumer still has likelihood on changing their product inclination as there could other factors inspired your choice process, such as discount or promotional voucher.

When the purchasing process has been made, consumer consumpt the goods. This ingestion process may causes the analysis of satisfaction degrees of something or brand. This evaluation will decide the probability of the client to patronage a certain product or brand regarding to their satisfaction level.

By understanding the stages of the consumer purchase decision, marketers have the ability to discover what factors that affects your choice process. Which much more likely, involvement of the product, visible and informational elements of the packaging play a substantial role on impacting on consumer decision (Silayoi and Speece, 2004)

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