Chapter 2. CRITERIA FOR COMPETITIVENESS OF GOODS AND SERVICES
This chapter discusses the following criteria:
1) Quality level;
2) social targeting;
5) consumer novelty;
8) The price of consumption.
Criteria 1-7 determine the use value of a product (service), criterion 8 - its value. In this regard, criteria 1-7 can be called value, and criterion 8 - value.
Criteria Quality Level (quality) and consumption price (price) can be considered without exaggeration a priority, since in commercial practice, when assessing competitiveness, they operate basically with the pair "quality-price". Other criteria are used less often for various reasons: because of irrelevance for specific objects, lack of information about them, the inevitability of complicating the methodology for assessing competitiveness.
Nevertheless, when conducting commodity and marketing research, the nomenclature of criteria should be analyzed on the principle of "necessity and sufficiency" based on their relevance and the ability to use to evaluate specific products and services.
When choosing a product, the buyer often faces a dilemma: to give preference to price or quality. In most cases, he prefers quality. One of the western economists said that at present fewer people are looking at the selling price, but they pay more attention to quality, as it lives with the product, and the price is forgotten quickly.
2.1. Quality level and stability
2.1.1. The concept of the level of quality of goods
Quality level as a criterion of competitiveness is a relative characteristic based on comparison of the quality indicators of the products being evaluated and the analog of the competitor's products. To understand the essence of this category, it is necessary to dwell on such concepts as quality, quality requirements, quality index.
Product quality is the totality of product properties that determine its ability to meet stated or perceived needs (1). In practice, specific needs are translated into a set of quantitatively and qualitatively established requirements for product characteristics. The assessment of its quality consists in checking the conformity of products to quality requirements - a list of quantitative characteristics (quality indicators) and qualitative characteristics.
The quality criterion in comparison with the price is the most aggregated characteristic, i.e. consists of a large number of complex and single indicators. This is primarily about complex technical products. For example, the nomenclature of vehicle quality indicators includes 47 complex indicators . Only the so-called technical and operational quality indicators include 224 unit indicators.
Quality requirement is a provision that contains the criteria that must be met. Requirements are specified in such documents as regulations, regulations, standards and specifications.
The specified requirement can be mandatory or voluntary.
Mandatory requirement - the requirement of the normative document, subject to mandatory implementation in order to achieve compliance with this document. In the Federal Law "On Technical Regulation mandatory requirements refer exclusively to the case where the need to comply with these requirements is a general rule prescribed by law. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that in local areas, for example, when the supplier interacts with the acquirer, the obligation may be due to the contract. Mandatory requirements must be strictly observed by all state bodies, business entities, organizations and institutions, regardless of their subordination and ownership.
Voluntary requirement - is a requirement that must be fulfilled in connection with the desire of the supplier (performer). Voluntary requirement can provide achievement of competitive advantage and owing to the determined circumstances (for example, by virtue of the contract of delivery) can become obligatory.
The legislative basis for mandatory quality requirements is US Law No. 2300-1 of 07.02.1992 "On Protection of Consumer Rights" (hereinafter - the Consumer Rights Protection Law), dated 02.01.2000 No. 29-FZ "On the quality and safety of food products" (hereinafter - the Federal Law on the quality of food products), dated 27.12.2002 No. 184-FZ "On technical regulation" (hereinafter - the Federal Law on Technical Regulation) and other legislative acts.
The main carriers of mandatory requirements for the quality of products at the present stage are also technical regulations (hereinafter - TR). Domestic TRs are adopted in the form of federal laws and government regulations. On the territory of the United States there are also TRs of the countries of the Customs Union.
Normative basis of quality requirements are national standards (GOSTs) and standards of organizations. If the main purpose of technical regulations is to protect the life and health of citizens and protect property and the environment, the application of standards is primarily aimed at increasing the competitiveness of products.
The rigidity of the requirements established in technical regulations, standards, contracts, technical conditions, technical specifications for the development of products, for compliance with which it will be checked, determines the level of product quality. Relatively rigid can be considered, for example, the requirements of assembly prediriyaty-customers (automotive, radio and television, etc.) to the quality of component parts; operating organizations that purchase ready-made machinery and equipment (airplanes, freight and passenger taxis, excavators, etc.). Very stringent quality requirements are laid down in their firm standards by commodity producers that are leading the market or are committed to becoming leaders.
The requirements set by the federal executive bodies in the standards for the bulk of consumer goods, usually medium hardness (or below average), because they are the result of a compromise between the requirements of consumers and the production capacity of most enterprises in the country .
As noted above, the quality level allows you to compare the usefulness of competing products. Since the level of product quality is based on a comparison of its quality indicators, it becomes necessary to generalize the quality indicators, study the methodology for calculating the quality level, consider consumer quality indicators, which individually and collectively determine the useful effect when using the product.
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