Cultural Social Personal Psychological Factors Have an effect on Buying Behaviour Marketing Essay

It is essential for a internet entrepreneur to understand that consumers are complex and continuously changing to be able to market a product efficiently. To retain in touch marketers must persistently develop their understanding of users. Understanding consumers is a wide subject as people tend to change their mind very often. That is why some organizations put effort into profound exploration of how consumers think and act before, after and through the buying process. Companies like Apple, Microsoft, Coca-Cola, Pepsi and McDonalds are good example as they plan their strategy relating to results extracted from consumer behavior studies. Therefore it is of vital importance to be able to forecast the change in consumer developments and to make an effort to be before them. The region of consumer habit is huge, and emphasize on the importance of the consumer for the marketing. There are numerous definitions that make clear the problem of the subject

Each consumer is exclusive with different needs and wants and buying alternatives and habits are affected by behavior, and choice that are in turn tempered by mental health and social drivers that affect purchase decision operations. (Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. , 2000).

Consumer behavior can be specific as "the analysis of individuals, groupings or organizations and the techniques they use to choose, secure, use and dispose of products, services, experience or suggestions to fulfill needs and the impacts that these techniques have on the buyer and population. " (Hawkins, D. , Best, R. and Coney, A. , 2001). There is another method of the concept produced by Solomon (2009, p. 33) he identifies consumer tendencies as ' the study of the functions involved when individuals or teams select, purchase, use, or get rid of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy desires and needs. " It is clear that consumer action contains three key elements - pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase. This is summarized in the decision making process formulation (Kotler, P. , 2005)

Factors affecting the customer behavior

The paper provided record on the buying decision process that may provide as a basis to observe what influences buying behavior and exactly how. Steps in decision-making process should be carefully studied by marketing professionals in order to comprehend how information is obtained, how beliefs are developed, and what product choice standards are given by consumers (Mowen, J. C. , 1988)

1. Cultural Factors

Culture, subculture, and interpersonal class are all ethnical factors that are principally important in buying behavior. Culture has a huge impact on person's desires and behavior. It could be thought as the set of values, norms, behaviour, and other meaningful symbols that shape human patterns, as well as the artwork crafts, or products, of that behavior as they are passed from one generation to the next (Mc Daniel, 1999).

Culture

By establishing general perspective, culture provides so called social order. It can be found in our behaviors and sometimes they may be even embedded in our laws. For instance, people are likely to follow certain guidelines and when not they can go to judge and respectively prison. So long as a value or opinion is in line with the society's needs, it is accepted as a part of the culture. It may disappear as it loose its efficiency. For instance it was considered normal the man to be the head of the family but nowadays things change as the present day woman is 3rd party and can easily support her using her potential. It is reflected in opportunities for job, clothes choice, and freedom of speech. It is therefore noticeable that culture change in time quite simply - it is strong. It possesses the capability to adjust to the ever changing environment. During the last century research has detected the incredible scientific progress which gave us the internet and computer. This leads to change in lifestyle as well as culture. The quantity of leisure time has increased comparing to the times of no electronics and transportation. We have changed the conventional work ethic. Cultural norms will continue steadily to change because people necessitate cultural models that solve certain issues inside our life. Nowadays some cultural trends have emerged that impact the buying patterns. For example everybody knows the maxima time is money. Folks are more occupied than before, more determined, with more commitments and time is becoming more and more precious. In different cultures people tend to quit some income for more time. Other example as mentioned before is that modern families' capacity to choose and buy products is inspired by the fact that mostly both people are occupied and the entire income of family members increase. This allows family members to buy more luxury products and should be considered by marketers. It is essential to understand that observing a specific culture provides company a much better chance to sell its service or products. In a few countries for example a color or statement can be in dissonance with the traditions and believes of the particular population. For instance it will be difficult for a marketer to market "Colgate" brand because the sounding of the word when pronounced is similar to the meaning of "hang yourself" in Spanish. That's the reason vocabulary is another essential area of culture that marketers must ingest mind. They are obliged to be careful in translating product labels, slogans, and promotional emails into foreign dialects so as never to suggest the wrong meaning. Another example is the color white which is the normal color for washing machines but in China it relates to loss of life. Therefore some companies like Electrolux and Whirlpool has transformed the color of their products to gray or blue.

Subculture

Subculture can be explained as 'a set of people with distinct tendencies and beliefs within a larger culture' as well as the essence of your subculture, that distinguishes it from a mere communal grouping, is awareness of style and dissimilarities in style, in clothing, music or other phenomena (Hebidge, 1981) A culture can be separated into subcultures on the bottom of demographic characteristics, geographic parts, political regions, political beliefs, national and ethic backdrop. The users of a definite subculture possess values, principles, and customs that isolate them from other users of the same culture. Accumulated, they adhere to most of the primary cultural beliefs, ideals, and style of the larger world. Subculture can be defined, then as a diverse ethnic group that is out there as a specialized segment within a larger, more composite culture. For example, a 17 yr old young lady may be at the same time teenager, Bulgarian, Orthodox ant, and rock-bands admirer. We should expect that involvement in each different subculture would provide its set of specific beliefs, prices, attitudes, and traditions. For instance in Great britain a countless variety of subcultures can be regarded. They can be concentrated geographically, for example you can find many Manchester United followers near the section of Manchester or they can be geographically dispersed, for example police officers or medical employees may be found throughout the united states. It really is of great importance for marketers to identify subculture to allow them to then build up exceptional marketing intend to meet their needs and would like. Based on the Bulgarian Ministry of Culture, the Turkish populace keeps growing in volumes on the place of Bulgaria so going to this growing portion some TV programs have launched information emissions and advertisements in Turkish terms. Nevertheless subculture is not an adequate basic for market segmentation. Marketers need to be aware of not only the subcultural result in buying habit but they also needs to are thinking about that racial and ethnical record interrelate with other characteristics such as personality, lfestyle and interpersonal class.

Social class

Social class can be explained as 'relatively long lasting and purchased divisions in a world whose members promote similar values, hobbies and behaviors'(Kotler, P. , 2005). The idea of the class framework is that individuals' buying action is often strongly inspired by the school to that they belong or even to that they aspire. Basically sociable classes alone do not indicate just income, but also other indications such as education, area habitation or profession. Social classes are different in speech patterns, free time likings, dress and a great many other characteristics. Cultural classes are data for distinct product and brand personal preferences in many areas, including home furnishing, spare time activities, clothing and autos. Some marketers centre their work on one social class. For example Rolex give attention to upper-class to sell their products while Tesco concentrate on middle and low-class. Community classes varies in advertising choice, e. g. folks from low-class tend to like more reality shows and soap operas on television set and people from upper school prefer TV news, newspapers, literature and publications. The drawings from cultural class analysis that are worth focusing on for marketing can be summarized. There are considerable dissimilarities between classes with reverence to buying tendencies and the other thing is a social class system is present in virtually all societies. Because of this assortment, different cultural classes are likely to react in various manner to a seller's marketing programs adapted to specific communal classes.

2. Psychological factors

Attitude

In order to grasp and estimate consumer frame of mind to a brandname and exactly how it impacts buying behaviour and brand image relating to marketing, it is of importance to define attitude A broadly used model in detailing what frame of mind is and exactly how it is related to behavior is Fishbein and Ajzen's (1975) hypothesis of reasoned action. This theory means that behaviour depends upon behavioural intentions, which is a result of a person's attitude into the behaviour and subjective norms encircling the performance of the behaviour. For the understanding of the impact of frame of mind on the buyer it must be identified that behaviour can be discovered - they can be formed by the info bought by experience or by effect of the communal group, including the opinion of a pal about Coca-Cola and the buyer experience of eating the product will contribute to his frame of mind towards Coke generally. Attitudes also have power - a consumer may like something less and may like it very much. Behaviour are always towards an subject and once developed they have a tendency to last and it is hard to be improved - a family group will prefer to go to the same restaurant having at heart the amount of satisfaction. A consumer's frame of mind does not constantly expect purchase patterns. A person may maintain very favorable behaviour toward something but not make use of it because of some other factors, for example if he realizes he cannot afford to purchase the product. If internet marketer is confronted with negative or hostile attitudes, there are two approaches to change the attitude or to change the merchandise.

Perception

Kotler(2005) defines belief as 'the process by which people select, set up and interpret information to create a significant picture of the world. People cannot differentiate every stimulus in their environment. Therefore, they apply selective conception to come to a decision which stimuli to be aware of and which to dismiss. The average consumer is subjected to countless variety of advertisements daily but at the end he selects to perceive only 10 for example. The familiarity of any object, variation, group, amount and smell are alerts that affect consumer's conception. The condition of the program or coloring, such as some ale bottles, for example, can impact notion. People also tend to change information or even to keep in mind information that relates to personal sense. Kotler(2005) identifies these concepts as selective distortion and selective retention, for example people who drink Coke will distort the knowledge linking Coke with over weight and blood problems.

Motivation

Why are people encouraged by particular needs at particular times is discussed by the well-known theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which combines needs in ascending order of importance: physiological, basic safety, communal, esteem and self-actualization. As a person fulfills one need, a higher-level need becomes more important.

MASLOW'S HIERACHY OF NEEDS

Abraham Maslow wanted to make clear why people are motivated by particular needs at particular times. Why does one individual spend substantial time and energy on personal safety and another on going after the high opinion of others? Maslow's answer is the fact that real human needs are assemble in a hierarchy, from the most pressing. In the region of importance, they are simply physiological needs, interpersonal needs, esteem needs first. When a person succeeds in satisfying an important need, that require will cease being truly a current motivator, and the individual will attempt to fulfill the next-most important need. For instance, communities who are lacking in normal water resources won't take an interest in the most recent happenings in the music sector. Maslow's theory helps marketers comprehend how various products match the strategies, goals and lives of consumers. With an improved knowledge of motives, marketers are better prepared to plan attractive products, services or ideas. Corresponding to Sigmud Freud the mental pushes are shaping people's tendencies are basically unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his / her own motivations. Shape, size, weigh, materials, color and brand can all result in certain relationships and emotions, for example lovers of Chelsea would prefer to acquire clothes in blue color correspondingly with their appreciations.

Beliefs

According to Kotler (2005) a perception is 'a descriptive thought that a person retains about something'. A consumer may believe certain restaurant makes the best food and is reasonably priced so that it is expected that he'll continue steadily to have meals there. A notion may also be improved by marketers to make consumers to buy a particular product, for example Coca Cola Company launched Coke No in respond to the common idea that folks get excessive fat when they drink Coke. To improve values or image in regards to a service could be more difficult because service qualities are intangible. Convincing consumers to improve their personal doctors or tailors can be much more difficult than getting them to change brands of clothing.

3. Personal Factors

It is commonly agreed that personality effect consumer's perceptions and purchasing behavior. Marketers assume that personality affects the types and brands of products purchased. For example, a car purchase may think about a number of personality features. Studies of buys show that people generally like brands and products that are appropriate for their self-concept. A man may buy some uneasy, but elegant, clothing to wear outside just because it is reflecting his actual self-concept. . Because consumer want to defend their individuality, the merchandise they pay money for, the stores they support, and the bank cards they carry, the automobiles they drive support their self-image. Personality and self-concept are reflected in lifestyle which is known as a method of living, as recognized by a person's activities, passions and thoughts. Lifestyle characteristics are useful in segmenting and focusing on consumers. The age, intimacy and life-cycle of a person might also donate to building consumer tendencies. Family life-cycle may change the behavior so consumers, for example a vacation can be promoted as low-cost product with recreation purpose to meet the demands of an old couple. A person's occupation can also act as a factor, for instance taxi individuals in Bulgaria tend to have their lunch together using particular restaurant.

4. Community factors

Groups

All the formal and casual groups that effect the buying patterns of an individual are that person's research groups. Consumers might use goods or brands to be known with or to become a member of group. Consumers learn from observing how people of their reference categories consume, and they use the exact criterion to make their own consumer decisions, for example members of certain skate-boarding societies tend to buy shoes from certain brands like DC Shoes, Truck, Osiris. Reference groups can be direct or indirect. Direct groups refer to face-to-face categories and indirect can be linked to a group that the consumer could possibly want to participate (sports clubs, technological organizations, etc. ). Reference point groups present a person to new tendencies and lifestyles which influence behaviour and self strategy. Marketers thrive to identify target customer's reference groups, but the level of reference point group power is different among products and brands. The impact of both product and brand choice is powerful only in the case of cars and color televisions, the affect of brand choice in such items as furniture and clothing and the have an effect on of product choice in such items as refreshments and smoking patterns. Regarding opinion market leaders marketers should keep an eye on those market leaders as they arranged the trend and also have effect to the organizations. For instance hip-hop wear should be designed and advertised based on the style and behavior of the normal artist for the reason that branch.

family, tasks and status

Family members comprise the most powerful primary guide group. The family is the most significant social institute for most consumers and it affect in strong manner worth, attitudes, self concept-and-buying patterns. For example we've two people with the same income. The family that ideals one-time-a-year good-serviced vacations will spend more money to assure that looking at to other family that prefers to be on vacation many times a year and can choose to spread the income. Decision-making assignments among family will probably verify significantly, based on the type of item purchased. Members of the family assume a variety of assignments in the purchase process. Matching to Kotler (2005) the decision making unit contains initiator, influencer, decider, buyer and consumer. For example, when investing in a car for his or her child, initiators could be parents, influencer could be an uncle who is in the automobile business, decider could be the the father, purchasing the car could be made by all of them together and the user is the child. Marketers should remember family buying situations combined with the syndication of consumer and decision-maker tasks among family. They should also adapt to the surroundings as children influence increasingly more the purchase process. Additionally it is essential to understand the roles and status of a person in a world. For example if a CEO of the multinational company has to acquire clothes they'll be representation to his position - he would favor formal expensive suite rather than everyday outft.

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