According to the results, those individuals who were advised that Flora margarine was made and advertised by Unilever before they examined Flora's brand personality actually didn't perceive the seven brand proportions of Flora in a different way from those who were not educated of the little bit of information. Therefore, showing individuals who Flora margarine is one of the Unilever brands does not make sure they are consider Flora margarine as more enterprising, qualified, ruthless, masculine or chicer, although ratings of the five brand sizes of Unilever were greater than those of Flora. Similarly, on the other palm, however the other two measurements of Flora, agreeableness and informality, outscored those of Unilever, people who had been told that Unilever made Flora did not evaluate these two brand personalities of Flora lower. Therefore, the spillover does not occur from the organization brand onto the average person product brand. Likewise, telling people that Flora margarine is one of the Unilever brands has no effect on their judgements about Flora's brand personality features.
In terms of the efficient areas of Flora such as "best for heart", "lower cholesterol", "keep heart healthy", "taste nice", "simple to use", "socially liable" and "environmentally friendly", revealing the partnership between Unilever and Flora will not encourage visitors to appreciate more (or less) on the functions of Flora margarine. Thus the organization brand of Unilever brings neither advantage nor harm to Flora when informing individuals who Flora is manufactured by Unilever.
In value to people's satisfaction with and purchase intent of Flora margarine, declaring that it is a Unilever brand does not have any impact as well. There was no sufficient evidence showing that you might feel more satisfied with Flora or would become more likely to buy Flora when he/she was advised that Unilever was the parent or guardian brand.
In brief, revealing people that Unilever produces and trading markets Flora margarine will not have an effect on their judgements about the brand personality of Flora, their evaluation of the product's practical aspects, their overall satisfaction with the merchandise or their purchase intent of the merchandise.
Nonetheless, corresponding to extra examination, people who were not just told but also alert to the actual fact that Flora margarine was made and sold by Unilever rated highest on Flora's five personality proportions (enterprise, competence, elegant, ruthlessness and machismo) and its two functional features (socially liable and green), indicating that reminding individuals who Flora is a Unilever brand actually can boost people's evaluation on the five proportions and two practical aspects of Flora. And this occurrence could be explained by the theory of priming impact. The following part will create and clarify this effect briefly.
5. 2 Priming Effect
Priming result was comes from mindset and has been analyzed widely and deeply in many academics branches of psychology (Tipper, 1985; Bentin et al. , 1985; Dehaene et al. , 1998; Schacter and Buckner, 1998; Sheeder and Balogh, 2003). Regarding to Fiske and Taylor (1984), priming effect occurs when. For instance, if one is used to classifying people into "fun" and "not fun", he/she might be more likely to adopt that aspect as the standards to determine people in other contexts even some less appropriate ones such as perceiving whether a lecturer give a good speech (Fiske and Taylor, 1984). Priming phenomenon is also a most important source of evidence to explain growing activation process where presentation of 1 item speeds response to a related item (Ratcliff and McKoon, 1988). For instance, when "bread" is activated, "butter" is much more likely to be known faster than other less related terms (Matsumura et al. , 2003). Mast and Zaltman (2005) described a primary as
Priming has fascinated marketers' interests as well since priming can be employed in advertising or promotion to make people unconsciously give attention to what marketers expect these to. A good variety of experiments and studies have been conducted to demonstrate priming results in the framework of marketing also to demonstrate its implication for marketers.
Mandel and Johnson (1999) conducted two experiments concerning how website qualifications of shopping sites inspired consumer alternatives of products (car and sofa) and information search process because of this of priming result. The results signify that peripheral cues in electronic environments do impact significantly after customer options since those individuals who had been primed on quality features such as comfort (couch) or safeness (car) tended to choose the product that outstood on quality, while subject matter who have been primed on price were more likely to choose the cheaper product. Furthermore, people would search for information relevant to the feature that was primed earlier than irrelevant information, showing that priming make a difference the order where people look for the information of product features as well. Therefore, it is suggested that online shopping sites contain backgrounds, shades or other elements that are regular with the announcements a company gives and which stress product attributes a company distinguishes itself for. In the same way, Yi (1990a) looked into the priming effect of contextual materials on the evaluation of ambiguous goods in print ads and discovered that the primed characteristics were more accessible to customers than unprimed ones. Therefore, the contextual priming can transform how people interpret ambiguous product information in advertising and further have an effect on their overall diagnosis of products. In Yi's another research (1990b), in addition to the successful recognition of cognitive priming impact (i. e. , attributes) on consumers' evaluation about the advertised brand and buy purpose, affective priming of ad context including the affective shade of an article was found could significantly have an effect on advertising effectiveness and purchase intention as well. Specifically, people would feel more positive about the advertisement and their purchase purpose would be stronger if the ad framework primed positive feelings weighed against priming negative ones. What's more, Forehand and Deshpande (2001) argued that contact with an ethnic leading would cause consumers of the mark market to enhance ethnic self-awareness and to have significantly more favourable analysis of the spokespeople and advertisements, while people of the nontarget market would answer less favourably.
In addition, Herr (1989) initiated two tests to identify the effect of priming upon automobile price judgements. According to the end result, both assimilation results and contrast results were diagnosed. Besides, the price priming only generated the difference in themes' price judgements alternatively than other elements such as prestige, dependability and quality, indicating that priming effect is specific to the category primed. It was also uncovered that scarce preceding understanding of the priming related dimension held by people could bring about no priming induced wisdom effects. Furthermore, Pryor and Brodie (1998) replicated closely Boush's (1993) research which worried how priming different features of existing brand in advertising slogans affected consumers' perceptions about the brand extensions. Both bits of research proved a brand expansion would be perceived as more similar to the existing brand products if the slogan primed features that they distributed in keeping. And considering that the fictitious brand was seen as positive a brandname extension would be more positively examined if the slogan primed attributes that they shared. However, Stafford (2000) proposed a third element (consumer knowing of manipulation intent in identifying assimilation/contrast effects caused by priming) in addition to the other two factors (feature-matching between category exemplar and judgement concentrate on and specific cognitive resources in making category-based comparisons). He argues that even though characteristics of exemplar and aim for are matched distinction judgement is also likely to happen if people are aware of the manipulation intent. And he further shows that the two-factor theory might be appropriate for brand extensions of low-involvement products since advertisements which focus on the feature overlap between your extended brand and the mom brand could gain the extensions. Nonetheless, given the fantastic likelihood of increasing customer awareness of the persuasive intent in marketing communications, advertisements are suggested to be designed being understated rather than being blatant, usually, a distinction judgement might result. Therefore, the suggested three-factor priming is way better to be considered as a cautionary story when marketers apply priming in promotional practices.
The above studies briefly provide a standard picture of how priming result can be applied in marketing and its extensive benefits. Specifically relating priming effect to the analysis at hand, the information stating that Flora margarine is manufactured and sold by Unilever can be regarded as the prime that may get conceptually related things into a situation of heightened convenience. And the finding that only people who were already aware that Flora margarine was one individual product brand of Unilever assessed Flora's brand personality proportions higher than others might be discussed by that scarce previous understanding of the priming related dimensions presented by people could result in no priming induced view effects (Herr, 1989). Since individuals were unaware of the relationship between Unilever and Flora, that they had no sufficient understanding of the conceptually related items. Thus simply revealing people the information could not generate the expected final result, the other condition that you needs have enough prior understanding of the partnership between Unilever and Flora should be found as well.
5. 3 Implications
Based on the studies, there are several implications for marketers in Unilever.
First, since people rate the five brand personality measurements and both functional capabilities of Flora higher only when both of both conditions are satisfied: knowing Flora can be an individual product make of Unilever and being reminded of the info, it appears that Unilever's conviction to implement corporate and business branding strategy is in the right record. According to the precise approaches of corporate and business branding, Unilever sets its blue commercial logo in the rear of the packaging of most its product brands to demonstrate its great variety of product brands. Besides, in it advertisements of its product brands, the emblem and the slogan of Unilever appear in the end as well. Additionally, in its recognized website, the section called "our brands" lists most of its individual brands including food brands, personal good care brands and home care and attention brands. Many of these approaches are capable of assisting Unilever to achieve a wider acceptance and greater awareness of its specific brands one of the audience, which can help to meet the first condition that more people will have the data and information of the relationship between Unilever and its own individual product brands. Furthermore, in line with the qualitative work that was conducted, proof also indicated that almost all had heard about Unilever but hardly ever understood anything or any individual brands of Unilever. So Unilever acquired better boost people's acceptance of its corporate and business brand and broaden people's awareness of its relationship with its individual product brands as well. Therefore, the finding of the present review can support Unilever's decision in starting building its corporate brand.
Second, regarding the five measurements of Flora margarine (business, competence, trendy, ruthlessness and machismo) which were rated higher because of this of priming result, if Unilever expect to improve customers' evaluation of Flora margarine in any of these five personality dimensions, simply showing them Flora is a Unilever brand will not work. Instead, in order to attain the expected result, reminding people via various communication channels that Unilever produces and markets Flora is required, aside from Unilever's effective corporate and business branding where people can be aware of the relationship. For instance, regarding in-store promotion, one strategy can be delivering the leading stimuli "Unilever" custom logo at the entrance to the supermarket or at the spot where Flora margarine are located. As well as other common marketing methods such as Tv set commercials and newspaper advertisements also can be applied to remind people of the information.
Third, since the two functional aspects, socially in charge and environmentally friendly, have long been perceived by the public as requirements to evaluate the performance and reputation of organizations specifically those big organizations like Unilever, obviously relating the organization brand Unilever to individual brands Flora is effective. Enhancing people's acknowledgement and knowing of the fact that Unilever is the father or mother make of Flora margarine by consistently conducting commercial branding and additional reminding people of this fact will make people consider Flora margarine as more accountable to the culture and friendlier to the surroundings. Thus people will have more positive and favourable attitudes towards the merchandise Flora margarine. Furthermore, as a food brand, it is likely that people would consider Flora healthier as Flora is regarded as more socially in charge and environmentally friendlier. Nowadays, many brands are perceived as a poor performer in CSR and therefore being criticized and boycotted seriously such as Nike and Gap. It is assumed that Flora will not have problems with those unwanted situation.
In addition, the finding uncovers that three personality dimensions, agreeableness, venture and competence, favorably influence people's satisfaction with Unilever while ruthlessness will generate negative influence. And agreeableness is the brand personality aspect that can most noticeably contribute to consumer satisfaction of Unilever. That is also steady with the finding in Davies et al. 's research (2003) which proves that agreeableness is the most important determinant in both customers' and employees' satisfaction with organizations. Therefore, during the process of Unilever's building its corporate brand, it is strongly recommended that Unilever associates its brand personality directly with the three personality sizes, agreeableness, organization and competence, especially agreeableness. The organizations can be offered in all sorts of communication programs to highlight an agreeable, enterprising and skilled Unilever, which can improve people's overall satisfaction. On the other hand, although ruthlessness is not necessarily regarded as the negative brand personality aspect using business areas, for instance, development sector (Davies et al. , 2003), in cases like this it will have a negative impact on consumer evaluation of Unilever's image. Therefore, Unilever should be aware of the potential relationship with ruthlessness.
Finally, a confident forward spillover from corporate brand (Unilever) personality sizes onto the individual brand (Flora) ones has been demonstrated in the present study but with the problem that people should be aware of the relation between the two brands and become reminded of the piece of information, instead of simply being up to date of the info.
In conditions of theoretical contributions, to begin with, this analysis shoulders a pioneer role in linking three research streams (brand personality, commercial branding and brand extensions) together to investigate how a real-world corporate and business brand (Unilever) influences its specific brand (Flora). Earlier books mainly explored the way the identified quality or other tangible features of corporate brand affected specific brands, however, the present study emphasizes the intangible brand personality. Second, as earlier researches believe that corporate branding can benefit specific product brands and a solid corporate and business brand will spillover certain capabilities onto specific brands, the present study proves that simply informing people of the relationship between the corporate brand and its own specific brands is insufficient to perform the expected end result. Instead, making sure that people are already aware of the connection and further reminding folks of that are two conditions should be met in order to perform the expected effects. Finally, the study provides additional data to generalize corporate and business character level (Davies et al, 2003).
5. 4 Restrictions and Future Research
Several limitations in the present study need to be dealt with and future research directions are stated consequently. First, since the study centered on a real corporation and one of its individual food brands, one have to be careful to generalize the studies to other contexts or situations. And future research could be conducted to explore if the findings of the research can be generalized.
Moreover, the present research mainly worried Flora margarine, one food make of Unilever. However, Unilever has a multitude of product brands including food brands, personal care products and home maintenance systems. Future research is recommended to involve its other individual product brands such as personal maintenance systems or home health care brands to research how commercial brand influences individual brands and also to see if the same finding can be discovered. What's more, Flora margarine can be viewed as as a product without the gender desire, future research could also choose Unilever's individual brands that explicitly for women or men to explore the consequences of commercial brand on specific brands. Furthermore, since Unilever can be an international corporation and the study was only researched in the UK, future research could be conducted in another country to investigate whether culture variations could have different influences on people's understanding of Unilever and Flora, and to probe whether the same finding could be discovered in another ethnic context.
In addition, the suggested study only investigated how corporate and business brand influences its individual brand, future research could check out whether specific brands can generate impacts on corporate brand as well.
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