Deep Interviews and Special Techniques
In order to identify hidden motives for making purchasing decisions with respect to a new product, a tool such as in-depth interviews is used.
Deep Interview is a semi-structured personal interview-interview, prompting for detailed answers and aiming to identify ulterior motives for making purchasing decisions (including new products).
There are two main types of in-depth interviews: non-standardized and semi-structured. The difference between these two types is in the managerial role of the interviewer.
When conducting a non-standardized interview , the respondent is given maximum freedom of answers within the topics of interest to the interviewer. Success depends:
• from the establishment of a free and warm atmosphere of communication;
• the ability of the interviewer to conduct a dialogue in such a way as to stimulate the respondent to give detailed, understandable and interesting answers without affecting their content;
• the interviewer's ability to return the conversation to the thematic channel if it becomes unproductive, and to identify the reasons behind some or other comments and answers of the respondent. Such interviews usually last for 1 or 2 hours and can be recorded on a tape recorder (always with the permission of the respondent) for further analysis.
When conducting a semi-structured, or directional, interview , the specialist seeks to discuss a specific list of topics or aspects related to new goods. The moment when you need to ask a particular question, its exact wording and the time that can be spent discussing it - all these parameters are left to the discretion of the interviewer.
Such interviews are especially effective if you need to talk with technical experts. These interviews can be used to collect basic information, such as information on trends in technology change, competitors' innovative activity, etc.
For successful conduct of interviewed interviews, a high qualification of the interviewer is required. First of all, he must be convincing enough to agree on a meeting. "The essential difficulty is to establish contact and trust from the first minutes of the interview, and then preserve this atmosphere. You can provide such an atmosphere, for example, by asking the respondent to comment on some information provided by the interviewer & quot ;. It is necessary to avoid threatening questions in every possible way. A good start to the conversation may be the question: "If you were asked to name one of the most critical problems when operating this tractor model, what would you answer?". Sometimes a higher degree of cooperation can be achieved by offering a service for a service (for example, some research results).
Individual in-depth interviews are also used when working in the consumer market in order to identify key benefits from the new product and generate creative ideas. Currently, three techniques are widely used.
1. Gradual transition technique - involves a transition in the conversation process from product characteristics to user characteristics. You can recommend starting with a comparative analysis of several objects. For example, in the case of cellular companies, the respondent can be asked to compare one of them with two others: "What is the difference between company A and B from company C?" How does company A and C differ from company B? etc. Each identified characteristic is then considered in terms of importance for the respondent.
2. Interview on hidden problems - the emphasis is not on shared values, but rather on sore points. This is not about general issues related to life style, but about subjects of personal concern that are of significant importance for a person.
3. Symbol Analysis - involves analyzing the symbolic value of objects when compared to their opposites. For example, the following question might be asked: "What would you be if you were no longer able to use cellular services?". There may be an answer: "Then I would have to confine myself to ordinary long-distance calls and letters." This means that one of the aspects that can be emphasized in the advertising of a cellular communication company is the opportunity to meet in person.
In line with focus groups and in-depth interviews, there are various special techniques for studying customer behavior. Briefly describe some of them.
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