Defining Marketing

Keywords: marketing, meaning, kotler, alderson

Defining Marketing

Marketing as described by Philip's Kotler is a social and managerial process by which individuals and organizations obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others (Key points of Marketing, pg. 10). Regarding to Kotler marketing is all about understating the needs, needs and needs of the clients.

In 1957 Alderson identified the idea of marketing as an exchange process between consumer and company (Principles of Marketing, 3rd edition, pg. 5). But so far as this definition is concerned it reaches very basic level and it does not give any idea related to the people areas of marketing that occur before products. In short it does not give a reference to the habit of consumer and company before exchange of goods or services.

Successful marketing is not a simple process somewhat it is just a complex process which has critical and in depth analysis of both market makes and consumer patterns. In Key points of Marketing 3rd model pg. 3 writers says that, marketing in fact, covers an extremely wide range of essential business activities that enable you to get the products you need to do want, when you wish them, but at prices you can afford, and with all the information you need to make informed and satisfying consumer selections.

Following are a few of the critical marketing ideas that are necessary to comprehend before evaluating and studying the marketing activities of firm in a industry.

Needs, Wants and Demands

Simple Marketing System

Marketing Combination (4 P's)

Needs, Wishes and Demands

Kotler describes individual need as a state of was feeling deprivation (Ideas of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 10). Humans have many different needs. These includes basic physical needs like food, clothes etc. Kotler defines these needs aren't developed by the marketers. The product/services should be designed keeping in the needs of the marketplace at heart. That service/product can match the need of the consumer.

Want is the form that a human need needs as shaped by culture and individual personality (Guidelines of Marketing 2nd edition, pg. 10). A need can be satisfied by different means. For example the basic need is food. To fulfill that need a person may eat burger, salad, fires etc. So they are related to the social exposure and personalities of the individuals.

When the individuals wants are backed by the buying power they become demands. Consumers view products as bundles of benefits and choose products that give them the best bundle for their money. (Rules of Marketing 2nd edition, pg. 10)

Simple Marketing System

Kotler's model provides clear view of exchange between consumers and companies. This model shows the delivery of goods and services in exchange of money (Rules of Marketing 2nd edition, pg. 10).

Information and communication exchange between your buyers and retailers is the main element part of successful marketing. If the Brand or a product is communicated to the consumers then it's the consequence of successful marketing and in return if the consumers act in response, then it gives seller insight into the success or inability of that service or product.

Marketing Combination (4 P's)

The Marketing mixture was first created by McCarthy in 1960. It really is an acronym that is super easy to remember and now this acronym has become extremely popular as 4 P's of Marketing. According to this the demand of the product can be classified into 4 groupings. The marketing blend is the set of controllable tactical marketing tools that the company blends to produce the response it would like in the prospective market. The marketing combination contains everything the firm can do to effect the demand because of its product (Concepts of Marketing 2nd edition, pg. 109).

˜ Product - Whatever can be wanted to a market for attention, acquisition, use or usage that might gratify a want or need (Principles of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 110). This area protects everything regarding the creation, development and management of products (Key points of Marketing, 3rd release, pg. 25). This group also addresses the non tangible facet of the merchandise like after sales service, ensures etc.

˜ Price - The money charged for something or service, or the amount of the ideals that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service (Principles of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 110). Costing is very important and essential part of marketing combine. The price of the merchandise or service may portray it being truly a quality item or a desirable one (Key points of Marketing, 3rd release, p. 26). Prices of the product is utilized to get competitive benefit in the competitive market.

˜ Place - Place includes company activities that produce the product available to concentrate on consumers. (Guidelines of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 110). Place in the marketing blend is concerned with distribution stations, market intermediaries and consumer service levels. It gives the perception to the methodology and option of product and service to the consumers.

˜ Promotion - Advertising means activities that communicate the merits of the merchandise and persuade aim for customers to buy it (Concepts of Marketing 2nd release, pg. 110).

Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior is known as the analysis of when, why, how, where and what folks do or do not buy products. It mixes elements from mindset, sociology, social, anthropology and economics. It tries to understand the customer decision making process, both individually and in teams. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral parameters so that they can understand people's wants. It also will try to assess influences on the consumer from teams such as family, friends, reference point groups, and contemporary society in general. (www. wikipedia. com)

Another description of consumer behavior is given by Blackwell, Miniard and Engel. Consumer tendencies involves the actions people carry out when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services (Consumer Tendencies, 9th Model, pg. 6). So in this section the action and the influencing pushes can be analyzed.

The basic purpose of this analysis is to discover that the way the possible client behave or react to the different marketing and advertising activities. To be able to achieve the advertising goals successfully company need to promote a Unique Selling Point to its customers. So understanding the consumer patterns is very necessary to be able to achieve these goals.

A successful marketing campaign will contain all those factor that finally influence the buyer behavior. There is a time when the marketers were able to understand the action of their customers due to the daily selling. However the scenario is very much indeed different and sophisticated now. The markets have grown and the consumers also have grown. Additionally, competition in the market segments has become strong. So now the companies spend big money to understand the behavior with their consumers.

Kotler details a style of Consumer Buyer Patterns. First, the buyer's characteristics effect how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer's decision process itself influences the buyer's patterns (Concepts of Marketing 2nd edition, pg. 230). So, the marketing consultancy has to check out the behavior of the consumer very deeply. Corresponding to the Kotler's model the buyer buyer tendencies have two parts. First, the characteristics of the buyer or the ability of the consumer to perceive the message that is conveyed by the business for its certain service or product. Secondly, the decision making procedure for the customer also effects the consumer behavior.

According to the model detailed by Kotler there are several factors that influences the consumer buyer habit. These factors include cultural, social, psychological and personal factors.

Cultural Factors

The group of basic beliefs, perceptions, wishes and behaviors learned by a member of world from family and other important institutions (Ideas of Marketing 2nd release, pg. 230). Culture is the standard cause of a person's wants and habit. Human behavior is largely learned. Growing up in a culture, a kid learns basic ideals, perceptions, would like and behaviors from the family and other important corporations.

Social Factors

These factors are relatively long term and bought divisions in a culture whose members reveal similar values, pursuits and behaviors (Concepts of Marketing 2nd release, pg. 233). Nearly every society has some form of social class structure. Cultural classes are society's relatively permanent and purchased divisions whose members share similar values, interests and manners. Therefore the consumers behave relating to their cultural class.

Personal Factors

A buyer's decisions are also inspired by personal characteristics like the buyer's age group and life-cycle stage, occupation, financial situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept (Rules of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 238).

People change the products and services they buy over their lifetimes. Preferences in food, clothes, furniture and recreation are often age group related. Buying is also shaped by the family life cycle - the periods through which people might cross as they mature over time. Also the financial situation prevailing around the consumer, occupation, also most of all the personality of the consumer also impacts the buying behavior of the buyer.

Psychological Factors

A person's buying selections are further influenced by four important emotional factors: motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and behaviour (Ideas of Marketing, 2nd model, pg. 244).

˜ Determination - Need becomes a purpose when it reaches to a sufficient level of power. A person may have many needs at a time, but it is not necessary that the need becomes a motive. So this motivation factor affects the consumer buying tendencies. Abraham Maslow devised one of the most popular ideas about desire. His theory bases human being motivation after a hierarchy of requires a person faces. Ranging from basic needs such being hungry, thirst and sex completely to self-actualization. Maslow wanted to explain why people are motivated by particular needs at particular times (Marketing: An Launch, 5th Edition, pg. 101).

˜ Understanding - The process where people select, organize and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world (Ideas of Marketing 2nd release, pg. 247). In marketing, perceptions tend to be important than actuality, as it is perceptions that will have an effect on the consumer's genuine action (Marketing Management, 12th Model, pg. 186). It isn't necessary that two person having same determination factors also perceives alike. People may act in a different way because they perceive the situation in another way.

˜ Learning - The change in the behavior also occurs with the duration of time. As the individual learns and gets more experience its action becomes different. In other words, if a person has good experience with a certain brand/product then there are usually more chances that he or she will choose the same product in the foreseeable future. Bad experiences lead to negative emotions towards the product or service involved.

˜ Beliefs and Attitudes - Through doing and learning, people acquire their beliefs and attitudes. These, in turn, affect their buying action. A notion is a descriptive thought a person is about something.

Market Segmentation and Targeting

Buyers make market segments and buyers will vary from one another. Differences might occur because of the wants, resources, places, cultures, locations, attitudes, values etc. So companies split the top and heterogeneous markets in to different and smaller sections. By this, it is simpler to reach the consumer with different buying action more affectively. In addition the products and services can be designed in line with the needs and needs of the consumers of different market segments.

Levels of Market Segmentation

As each buyer has different and indistinguishable behavior so the ideal case scenario would be that the marketing strategy should be created for individual customer. However, some company attempts to serve the customer individually, but many other find large number of buyers and do not find the segmentation. Deepening on the type of service or product, the companies choose to conform the level of segmentation of the market.

˜ Mass Marketing - Kotler identifies mass marketing as using almost the same product, advertising and distribution for those consumers (Principles of Marketing 2nd model, pg. 380).

Marketing Process Models

There are many models to clarify the levels a potential customer will proceed through from the original awareness of the merchandise to desire for the merchandise (Key points of Marketing, 3rd edition, pg. 580). Many of these models amount to more or less the same series. Each potential consumer must go through three simple periods.

˜ The Cognitive level - that's where the consumer can be aware of the lifetime of a certain product or service.

˜ The Affective level - will involve the changing of the frame of mind towards a product or service.

˜ Behavior stage - entails the action that results from the change in attitude towards the product (Brassington and Pettitt, 2003, p. 580).

AIDA Model

The AIDA model produced by Edward Strong (1925) breaks down the series of occurrences to

˜ A - Attention

˜ I - Interest

˜ D - Desire

˜ A - Action

In the model there are four levels that are defined and show that how an marketing campaign can be successful in calling its audience. Successful Marketing campaign helps firstly grabbing their attention. Second, it creates involvement in them with the idea of the product or service. After that it makes the product / service suitable to the potential customer. The final level is to get the consumer to take action consequently of their desire to have the product.


˜ D - Defining

˜ A - Advertising

˜ G - Goals


˜ M - Measuring

˜ A - Advertising

˜ R - Results

Russell Colley devised this model in 1961 and it offers an extremely useful method of recognize that how advertising works. This model is utilized to measure the result of a specific communication job in terms of the cognitive-affective-behavioral hierarchy impact on a defined audience (Copley, 2004, p. 83). Fundamentally, it is an approach to conform a precise way for selecting and quantifying goals and use those goals for performance dimension.

However, these models have their drawbacks. Sandra Moriarty (1983) noted that the drawbacks place in their reliance on the concept of a linear process (Moriarty extracted from Huey, 1999). Moriarty (1983) and Kristian Palda (1966) both concur that these models were oversimplifying the procedure. They state that the stages of AIDA do definitely not replicate in the same series. Sometimes an advert will cause the product being desired, other times it'll result in interest etc (Huey, 1999).

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