The sector of travel and leisure is one of the fastest growing economic areas on the planet in line with the World Tourism Company. Going back sixty years the international tourism arrivals broadened from 25 million to attain 940 million by 2010. While in 1950 the top 15 destinations assimilated 88% of the international arrivals, in 1970 the percentage was 75% and 55% in 2010 2010, reflecting the introduction of new vacation spots, most of them in producing countries (WTO, 2011). Because of this your competition in holiday business is fiercer than ever before. Nowadays different places are competing increasingly more to increase their share of tourists, investments and business (Kotler, et al. , 1993).
Morgan, et al. , (2004) dispute that service and facilities are no more differentiators, because today the majority of the vacation spots have superb five-star resorts, destinations and services and every country says unique culture and heritage. Furthermore travelers are spoilt by the huge choice of destinations that are incredibly similar and therefore very substitutable (Pike, 2005). Because of this, the need for places to portray a unique identification is more critical than ever (Morgan, et al. , 2004). Hence to tell apart one vacation spot from another also to attract more vacationers, a certain image has to be created. In response to the global competition destination marketing organizations are using branding initiatives to draw in travelers and expenditures to their vacation spot (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006).
Branding and brand image are well explored in the travel and leisure and marketing books, while brand personality, and its application to places plus more specifically to tourist destinations, is relatively new and unexplored (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). Murphy, et al. (2007) suggest that a brand personality need to be established in order to accomplish effective vacation spot brand that is linked to the visitor's self-image.
New Zealand is relatively small country overshadowed by a far more powerful and bigger neighbor in the condition of Australia. Among the list of British consumer the existing perceptions of New Zealand been quite negative (Dinnie, 2008). Furthermore the British consumers tended perceive New Zealand as an British suburb, typically bungalows populated by sleepy people (Dinnie, 2008).
However, to be able to change the prevailing negative perceptions to the destination Travel and leisure New Zealand created '100% Pure New Zealand' brand that was presented for first-time in July 1999. It had been the very first time New Zealand experienced one message in all of its tourism markets round the world. The brand was designed to provide a program to twin the country's forex receipts by 2005 (Travel and leisure New Zealand, 2012). The marketing campaign was developed to be succinct and clear - to connect a single meaning about New Zealand that will take the imagination of the consumers. The advertising campaign been real success the international arrivals increased from 1, 56 million in 1999 to 2, 38 million in 2005 (Ministry of Economic Development, 2011). Later the advertising campaign progressed to 'New Zealand 100% Pure' that aimed to fully capture the thoughts of different consumers throughout the world by connecting the special combination of activities, surroundings, people and culture that induce a uniquely New Zealand experience (Travel and leisure New Zealand, 2012). The latest message presented by Travel and leisure New Zealand 'New Zealand 100% Pure You' aimed to personalize the holiday experience and bring alive the diverse travel and leisure experiences available in the vacation spot.
Morgan, et al. (2004) suggests that branding is one of the most powerful marketing tools open to the vacation spot marketers who are facing with visitors looking for experience and lifestyle fullfilment somewhat than tangiable components of the merchandise such as attractions and hotel accomodation. Destination branding allows to generate unique identity, to lessen destination substitutability also to differentiate from the competitive locations. Destination branding integrate cunsumers perceptions about the vacation spot identity as mirrored by their past knowledge (Cai, 2002).
Brand personality and brand image studies are relatively well researched in the generic marketing field while their application to tourist destinations is quite new and relatively unexplored area. Murphy, et al. (2007) argues that effective vacation spot branding have to determine a brand image and personality that links to the consumer's self-image. Furthermore Ahmed (1991) claims that successful destination marketing depends generally on the way the consumers perceive the vacation spot. Destination images frequently are stereotypes that symbolize only an extreme simplification of the reality (Kotler, et al. , 1993). Vacation spot image and personality influences a consumer's decision making process when an alternative destination is known as (Ahmed, 1991). Consumer's behaviour and actions towards the decision of any occasion destination are highly inspired by the vacation spot image (Jaffe & Nebenzahl, 2001). As a result to manage and differentiate efficiently destination image and personality, a knowledge of the perceived image is needed of the actual and existing consumers. Researching the prevailing perceptions of potential guests about the vacation spot may provide the weaknesses and the strengths of the destination and may show an existing perceptual gap between your current image of the destination and the desired image.
Exploring the potential perceptual gap between your desired image of the vacation spot and the genuine image of the potential customers could be beneficial and could be utilized by the destination management organization. The analysis might be utilized to customise communication efforts, vacation spot offerings, packages, and communication stations on a nationwide level.
Value of the research
This research is important for number of reasons. First of all this study will try to shed a light on the use of branding theories to tourism destination. Vacation spot image is relatively well investigated area as the application of brand personality to tourism destinations relatively new one and the study on program of branding personality to places is quite sparse has not been analyzed that often (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011; Hosany, et al. , 2006). Because of this, this study is going to assess critically models and frameworks highly relevant to destination branding in conditions of brand image and personality and their application to a tourism destination.
On the other palm the empirical research of the study will contribute in researching a potential perceptual space between the desired image and personality of the destination and the current perceptions of potential tourists. Discovering and acknowledgement of existing perceptions about the vacation spot may help identify factors that will donate to the success of destination positioning attempts (Ahmed, 1991). Such information could be used by destination management company in order to adapt their communication strategy.
Objectives and Goals
To assess critically the advantages of destination branding also to gain a specific understanding of brand image and personality and their application to a tourism destination.
To identify vacation spot brand image and personality of New Zealand as any occasion destination and identify potential perceptual space between your desired image of the vacation spot and the existing image one of the potential consumers.
To examine the marketing attempts of destination management corporation of New Zealand and make recommendations for future development of the vacation spot brand of New Zealand.
This dissertations has five chapters. Every section is briefly created below.
Chapter 1. Release.
The first chapter introduces this issue giving a short background to the problem. This is accompanied by a justification of the topic and the value of the study. The area of the dissertation will also show you the objectives and the goals of the study. Finally it'll provide the structure of the dissertation.
Chapter 2. Books review.
The second chapter of the dissertation will provide a literature review on the investigated topic. It'll give a critical debate on the dissertation matter of vacation spot image and vacation spot personality predicated on earlier studies.
Chapter 3. Technique and methods.
This chapter is going to reveal the followed research viewpoint and the study strategy of the dissertation. Furthermore, this part of the research will describe and justify the applied research strategy used to analyze the mentioned frameworks and models in Chapter 2.
Chapter 4. Conclusions, Evaluation and Synthesis
Chapter 5 provides the results of the conducted primary research. It is going to present the findings of the questionnaire and the data will be offered in suitable graphs, charts and tables to be able to provide clear and effective research.
Chapter 5. Implications, Future Research and Conclusion
Chapter five is going to conclude the dissertation providing the possible opportunities for even more research. This part if the analysis will also provide the restrictions of the study.
The dissertation ends with a full set of the references used in this analysis and a list of the appendices.
This chapter is going to make an overview of previous researches relevant to brand image, brand personality and their application to tourism destination. The start of the chapter provides a brief advantages to branding and will give explanations of the main element terms. This can be accompanied by a review of process of destination image formation and its components. The final part of the literature review will study brand personality proportions and its program to tourism places.
According to the American Marketing Association brand is a 'name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that recognizes one seller's good or service as particular from those of other retailers'. Doyle (1993) gives a similar description for a brand adding that the brand is a combination of the pointed out elements supplying the top quality product lasting differential edge. These definitions are usually more product orientated. However a brand isn't just a name or symbolic that varies one product or service from others, it is all the different things that the consumer feels and feels when she or he sees the business's symbol (Moilanen & Rainisto, 2009). A brandname is a couple of psychological (intangible) and practical (tangible) values offering the consumer a unique opportunity for selection (Lynch & De Chernatony, 2004; Moilanen & Rainisto, 2009). Both Satisfaction (2004) and Moilanen & Rainisto (2009) dispute that brands signify a promises of value and fast beliefs, evoke thoughts and incite behaviors. Together with the change of the monetary situation and the increasing fierce competition among the companies Kapferer (2012) points out that today the brands aren't only in the merchandise, nither in the people's minds and can't be reduced only to a benefit. Nevertheless the author shows that the brand must create community due to the dominating role of internet and interpersonal media. To indicate all the recent changes inside our society and economy and Kapferer (2012, p. 12) identifies the brand as 'a name that symbolizes a long-term proposal, crusade or determination to a unique set of principles, inlayed into products, services and behaviours, which make the business, person or product stand apart or stand out'.
As the brand is making products, services and organizations to stand out from the others, such advantage for each service or product contain value - brand equity. Brady, et al. (2008) talks about that brand collateral is a idea or notion that is much more than a mere familiarity but it extends to superiority that creates value for both consumers and the brand owner. Both Keller, et al. (2008) and Kapferer (2012) claim that brands create valuable belongings in the hearts and thoughts of the cunsumers which may have also financial value. Furthermore brands need to be considered as group of assets that could add to the value shipped by the service or something or even they may also substract from this value (Aaaker, 2002). There's a general agreement among the list of authors that the brand collateral contains several major categories that improve the brand equity, such as brand commitment, brand understanding, brand organizations and percieved quality (Aaker, 2002; Salzer-Morling & Strannegard, 2004; Kapferer, 2012; Keller, et al. , 2008).
However, spots can also take advantage from this group of assets. Moilanen and Rainisto, (2009) point out that the main element issue for decision makind for vacation spot consumers is the recognized quality. Regarding destination marketing functional benefits don't have a significant role, as the major drivers for satisfaction of the consumers is the identified quality. Moreover vacation spot brands are quite similar to commercial umbrella brands and is related to many diverse products - collection of investment, leisure and business tourism, and stakeholder welfare products that have various consumers (Moilanen & Rainisto, 2009; Balakrishnan, 2009).
There is not extensively accepted explanation for a tourism vacation spot and many authors give different classification or an alternative nuance. The World Tourist Company (WTO) defines tourism destination as 'the place been to that is central to your choice to adopt the trip'. This is recognized by Metelka (1990) who identify a vacation spot as a geographical area to which one is travelling such as a community, a town or a country. However such explanations are very basic and could be employed to a wide variety of places ranging from a single fascination such as Disneyland to a country as Australia. Buhalis (2000) agrees with Davidson & Maitland (1997) acknowledging the complexity and multidimesionality of the travel and leisure destinations. The creators argue that areas offer amalgams of tourism products and services providing mulitidimensional experience to the consumers under the brand name of the destination. Moreover tourism vacation spots share lots of characteristics such as public authority, sponsor community and other financial activities which could support or issue with tourism activities (Davidson & Maitland, 1997). It appears that destinations are a lot more when compared to a simple product or a service since in the spots are involved not only the site visitors but also the local people, businesses and specialists.
Mulitdimesionality of the areas (Pike, 2005; Buhalis, 2000; Davidson & Maitland, 1997).
Huge variety of stakeholders with different and often conflicting hobbies (Pike, 2005; Morgan, et al. , 2003).
Destination marketing is part of general public sector and could be himdered by variety of politics stresses (Pike, 2005; Morgan, et al. , 2003).
Difficulty of application of consumer-based brand equity models in terms of brand devotion (Pike, 2005)
Incosistent and scarce funding (Pike, 2005; Morgan, et al. , 2004)
On the other hands vacation spot brands are also much like product and services, developed of both symbolic (intangible) and fuctional (tangible) attributes (see Body 1 below) (Balakrishnan, 2009).
A research conducted by the author demonstrates consumers prefer brands based on their intangible attributes alternatively than functioanal properties. This is recognized by Hosany, et al. (2007) who argue that the consumers' choice of a vacation spot is highly inspired by the image of the destination. Additionally a favourable destination image and a distinctive brand personality can create a couple of positive associations in consumer brain and could lead to more powerful psychological ties to the vacation spot brand (Hosany, et al. , 2007).
Destination brand choice.
As already reviewed, from marketing perspective destination brand stand for a couple of intangible (emotional) and tangible features communicated to the vacationer though brand elements to facilitate brand choice. On the other hand from consumer's viewpoint the destination brand is a blend of perceptions associated with several destinations experiences sold under a specific brand name (Prayag, 2010). The process of vacation spot choice is complex, organized and sequenced and is affected by potential visitors' motives, features of the destination and personal characteristics (Prayag, 2010). Therefore, potential tourists' perceptions of the destination are affecting the procedure of vacation spot choice and depending on these perceptions, potential visitors can include or exclude the vacation spot from their awareness set. Tourist perceptions about the vacation spot emerge from the image of the destination derived from induced and organic sources (Prayag, 2010; Jenkins, 1999). Induced image refers to promotional and marketing initiatives through different communication stations, while the organic image is function of non-commercial options such as real visitation and word of mouth, and is a lot more difficult to regulate.
Destination image is essential aspect on determining tourist behavior in terms of intention to visit/revisit, tastes and decision making. However, destination image is only one of the factors influencing vacation spot choice. Prayag (2010) argues that vacation spot choice is intricate for the buyer and suggest that there are three dominating factor - vacation spot image, motives and consumers' own characteristics (years, income, occupation, household size). Given this issue of this study another section will discuss in depth destination image
Nowadays tourists are offered huge variety of locations boasting unique features and ultimate travel experience. Destination's offerings are quite comparable and therefore substitutable. As a result destinations are contending fiercely for additional visitors. It is very important for spots to distinguish from the opponents and to develop a memorable and positive image in the thoughts of the guests (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011). Furthermore Balakrishnan, et al. (2011) add that brand image may create perceptual difference when differentiation between vacationer vacation spot is relatively low. Holiday destination images are essential because they have got huge influence on both decision making behavior of the site visitors and the levels of satisfaction regarding the guests' experience (Jenkins, 1999).
Destination image strategy is relatively well researched since the early 1970s and has a central role of the travel and leisure research (Hosany, et al. , 2006). Destination image is a valuable theory in conditions of understanding the process of collection of holiday destination of the travelers (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a). There is a general agreement among the authors about the definition of the brand image. Brand image is generally defined as all the perceptions about a brand shown by the brand organizations organised in the consumers' memory space (Keller, et al. , 2008; Hosany, et al. , 2007; Qu, et al. , 2011; Sahin & Baloglu, 2011). Adapting this meaning to tourist destination image it would appear that vacation spot image is all the perceptions about the destination kept in the ram of the potential and current visitors. All this organizations to the brand affect consumers' analysis about the brand respectively the brand choice in terms of intentions to get or visit (Qu, et al. , 2011). However Hosany, et al. (2006) provides more precise definition explaining that vacation spot image is an attitudinal principle comprising of the total of impressions, ideas and beliefs that the visitor holds of any destination.
6. 1 Vacation spot Image Formation.
Jenkins (1999) based on Gunn's (1972) research advises a multi level theory of formation of vacation spot image. This approach involves a continuous forming and modification of destination images (see Shape 8). The initial stage includes creation of organic and natural image based mainly on non-tourist information about the destination such as books, media, documentaries and etc. The organic image is modified to induced image due the promotional and marketing efforts of the destination such as advertising, brochures. The modified-induced image comes as a result of the non-public experience of visitors on site at the destination.
The suggested level theory means that the vacation spot image organised by non-visitors, potential site visitors and returned visitors changes. Baloglu & McCleary, (1999b) agree with Jenkins (1999) who argue that destination image can vary between tourists who didn't visited the destination and those who seen the destination. A study conducted by Baloglu & McCleary, (1999b) dispute that travelers' images were modified after visiting a specific destination and significant variations been around between non guests and site visitors. Furthermore their review confirms that actual vistitation and experience is leading not and then change of the vacation spot image but also the setting of the vacation spot based on cognitive, affective and overall elegance. In conditions of the advised theory of destination image formation a mismatch might be expected b
6. 2. The different parts of Destination Image
Based on past research Hosany, et al. (2006) agrees with Baloglu & McCleary, (1999a) who argue that vacation spot image is a multidimensional construct that consist of two major dimensions - affective and cognitive (perceptual).
The cognitive dimensions of the destination image refers to knowledge and values about the physical, objective qualities of the vacation spot (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a; Hosany, et al. , 2006; Qu, et al. , 2011; Kim & Perdue, 2011). In conditions of cognitive evaluation a vacationer evaluates the destination in respect to objective top features of the place. Because of this the more enlightened vacationer about the positive top features of the destination will make a more dependable cognitive evaluation. Nevertheless the affective stimulus that affects the vacation spot image is related to the individuals' feelings towards the encompassing environments and attributes and the experience provided there (Kim & Perdue, 2011; Beerli & Martin, 2004; Hosany, et al. , 2007; Sahin & Baloglu, 2011). Consequently the more desirable and attractive attributes of the locations to the visitor are leading to higher and better the affective evaluation (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011).
Both Beerli & Martin (2004) agrees with Baloglu & McCleary (1999a) who claim that there is general agreement that the cognitive component is anterior of the affective component. Furthermore, it is looked upon that the affective component of the destination image is shaped as a function of the antedecent perceptual one. Because of this Baloglu & McCleary (1999a) claim that although that there surely is a clear distinction between your two dimensions they also interrelated.
Due to the life of such relationship between the affective and the cognitive dimensions of the brand image some writers point out that the places are subject to overall analysis of the vacationers. Regarding to Beerli & Martin (2004) the overall image is a result of the blend of the two major dimension of the vacation spot image and it could be either positive or negative. The notion that the overall image is highly influenced by affective and cognitive evaluations is extensively accepted (Qu, et al. , 2011; Hosany, et al. , 2007; Beerli & Martin, 2004). However, Sahin & Baloglu (2011) claim that the overall and its own dimensions can vary from the other person and for that reason should be assessed independently gain better understanding for the associations between them.
Figure 1 below represents a general model of formation of vacation spot image based on previous literature and on the research of Baloglu & McCleary, (1999a) and Beerli & Martin, (2004). The model shows both major pushes that influence the forming of the vacation spot image - personal and stimulus factors. The stumulus factors uncovers external influences such as information resources that form the evaluations and the perceptions of the vacationers. Alternatively the non-public factors expose the indivudual beliefs about the characteristics of the destination based on exposure to exterior stimuli (Beerli & Martin, 2004). However, all these beliefs will be different in line with the various inside factors of the buyer, such as sociodemographic characteristics and emotional nature (lifestyle, beliefs, motivation, etc. ). This model is valuable in terms of providing better understanding of the factors and pushes that determine the formation of the vacation spot image, providing the components which have impact on travel and leisure destination image (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a).
Although that the image compnents are hierarchally corelated to form the overall destination image Qu, et al. (2011) argues that both components - affective and cognitive have to be treated separately to look at their unique results on tourists. That is backed by Sahin & Baloglu (2011) who point out that the overall image and each part should be assessed separetely to comprehend the romantic relationships between them. However, regarding to a study conducted by Hosany, et al. (2006) the majority of studies examine only the cognitive element of the vacation spot image plus some exceptions assess both proportions of vacation spot image. That is reinforced by Prebensen, (2007) who claim that this is not surprising as most buyin behavioral process focus on getting knowledge about the place, product or service and gathering information. Though, the authors do not suggest or recommend which strategy is more beneficial.
Brand image and destination image are relatively well researched topics, as the idea of brand personality and much more specifically its software to a travel and leisure vacation spot is relatively new and not widely researched theme. Aaker (1997, p. 347) defines brand personality is a 'collection of individuals characteristics associated with a brand'. Unique brand personality may create advantageous and distinctive associations in consumer memory space and for that reason improve brand collateral (Hosany, et al. , 2007). Furthermore the authors dispute that brand personality is important prerequisite for success of any brand, in terms of preference and preference that may lead to greater commitment, trust and building emotional links between your consumer and the the brand. The application of this concept at more practical level means that brands' personality can be illustrated by descriptors such as extrovert, masculine, friendly, attractive and etc. In addition, Keller, et al. (2008) claim that consumers' selection of brands is frequently consistent with their self-cocept, although this choice usually suits with consumer's desired self-image, alternatively than their real image.
Due to the lack of common brand personality theory and consensual classification of personality features to describe products Aaker (1997) developed theoretical Brand Personality Platform. The framework contains five measurements of the personality: Competence, Enjoyment, Elegance, Sincerity and Ruggedness (see Shape 3 below). This framework was developed depending on extensive study including 37 brands graded on 114 personality features. In addition the validity and dependability of the study was confirmed by using a scaling treatment and test-retest. However, Murphy, et al. (2007) argues that Aaker's strategy and description is relatively extensive and integrates human features that are in the scope of brand identity. But the authors point out that a general agreement exist that consumers perceive brands as having personalities and that we now have five measurements of brand personality - ruggedness, exhilaration, competence, sincerity and class (Murphy, et al. , 2007).
Although that the idea that brands may have got individual characteristics is greatly accepted by both experts and academics, the theoretical explanation of product personality is relatively undeveloped (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006; Hosany, et al. , 2007). To become in a position to apply brand personality concept it is quite essential to realize why people are endowing insentient items such as brands with real human characteristics. Ekinci & Hosany (2006) clarifies that it is quite common to encounter people who treat their laptop, computer or any other object as a member of family or a friend. Such behavior can be explained by using the anthropomorphism by the means of comfort and familiarity ideas (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). These theories suggest that people are employing themselves as models that help them to interpret the encompassing world. Furthermore the writers argues that individuals are not sensing comfortable with whatever is non-human and as a result people are anthropomorphising items to facilitate relationships with non-material world. As a result the brands become energetic associates in consumer's brain and the brand choice becomes constant with the consumer's self-image and more designed for consumers who are sinsitive to how the others see them (Keller, et al. , 2008).
Ekinci & Hosany (2006) followed Aaker's terminalogy of brand personality and identified vacation spot personality as the group of human characteristics associated with a vacation spot. The creators applied Aaker's brand persoality size to measure destination personality and also to assess if the fourty-two brand personality variables are applicable with their description of tourism destinations. However Ekinci and Hosany (2006) found out that only twenty-seven of the orignal fourty-two traits are highly relevant to a tourism vacation spot. Furthermore the results of the study showed that tourists ascribe personality characteristics to locations and the brand personality scale is applicable to locations. The findings of this study mentioned not only the applicability of the brand personality range to destinations but it addittionally showed some limitations of the Aaker's construction when applied to spots. Ekinci and Hosany (2006) dispute that the brand personality range cannot be completely applied to travel and leisure destinations. It appears that tourist destinations can be referred to on only three sizes: sincerity, enthusiasm and conviviality (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). It had been found that the three proportions are valid and reliable and the measurements of pleasure and sencerity were the two main factors (see Number 4 below). Attributes such as reliable and trustworth characterise the sincerity aspect. However, this is not surprsing as the holidaymakers are always worried about their personal security and vulnerable and risky destinationations are always avoided. The next dimensions, excitement encompass characteristics such as original, interesting, daring and spirited (Hosany, et al. , 2006). This is provoked due mainly to core reasons of the tourist to undertake a trip, for leisure and leisure purposes. The 3rd destination personality sizing, conviviality is new to Aaker's brand personality size and it is specific to vacation spots. The new sizes is consisting of the following features - charming, family focused and captivating. Ekinci and Hosany (2006) claim that this effect is regular with a few of the most typical themes that destination marketer use to depict places.
For a vacation spot it is important to understand the personality characteristics identified by potential and current guests because of the multiple benefits for the destination (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011). Corresponding to Ekinci and Hosany (2006) areas that have more powerful personalities have moderating influence on destination image. As provided in Physique 5 vacation spot personality influences the impact of vacation spot image on purpose to recommend. As a result a confident and strong destination personality leverages the effect of vacation spot image on intent to recommend, which in turn may improve the conception and satisfaction of potential and actual visitors and could lead to positive person to person (Sahin & Baloglu, 2011; Ekinci & Hosany, 2006).
Relationship between brand image and brand personality.
A general arrangement exists that brand personality and brand image will be the key factors for creating vacation spot brand collateral (Hosany, et al. , 2006; Ekinci, 2003; Murphy, et al. , 2007). However, it appears that definitional inconsistences are present and both conditions of brand personality and brand image are used interchangeably (Ekinci, 2003). Because of this Ekinci (2003) makes an attempt to shed a light on both principles recommending a model that points out the process of destination branding and the role of destination image and personality (Number 6). The Ekinci's model suggests that the process of vacation spot branding starts when the analysis of vacation spot image carries a strong emotional connection. Thus only top quality destinations are likely to establish a strong emotional link with the potential consumers. Ekinci (2003) explains that the success of the vacation spot branding includes creation of your relationship between travelers and destination by fulfilling their basic and emotional needs. In order to establish this link between tourists' self-image and vacation spot branding, an important deciding factor is the brand personality that emphasizes the human area of the brand image. The presented model proposes a preexisting marriage between tourist's self-image and vacation spot personality.
Further research for the reason that area business lead to additional development of Ekinci's model and linked the holidaymakers' behavioral intentions to brand image and brand personality. Hosany & Ekinci (2003, cited by Murphy, et al. , 2007) dispute that the entire destination image consists of the cognitive and affective top features of the destination and its own personality characteristics. Additionally, this is recognized by Beerli & Martin (2004) and (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999a) who argue that the overall vacation spot image is influenced by the cognitive and affective image of the vacation spot. Consequently the affective image is influence by the cognitive image and by personality characteristics of the tourism destination. However brand personality is directly linked to both affective image and overall destination image (Shape 7). Thus, this interconnection clearly reveals the importance of congruence between your brand personality of the vacation spot and the self-image of the buyer (Murphy, et al. , 2007). Each one of these components influence the overall destination image which in turn creates the overall attitude to the destination. The suggested model shows that the entire image of the destination is carefully related to the consumer's satisfaction also to their behavioral motives. Thus, it appears that vacation spot personality and destination image are related ideas. It seems that brand image is encompassing notion and vacation spot personality is more related to the affective factor of the destination image (Ekinci, 2003; Hosany, et al. , 2006; Murphy, et al. , 2007). Furthermore the presented platform for vacation spot branding show that destination personality and destination image are not only related concepts, moreover they are simply causing indirect effect on consumers' behavioral motives.
3. Research Methodology and Method
3. 1. Introduction
This part of the research will focus on the study philosophy and the research methodology of the study. Furthermore this section is going to clarify the applied research strategy used to research the mentioned models, frameworks and ideas in the previous chapter. The study will target mainly on brand image and personality and their software to a travel and leisure destination.
3. 2. Objective of research
Gain understanding of the consumer's perceptions of destination image of New Zealand (Objective 1)
Gain knowledge about the consumer's perceptions of vacation spot personality of New Zealand (Target 2)
The previous chapter made a review of current models and frameworks related to destination image and vacation spot personality developed and used by other creators.
3. 3. Research School of thought - Positivism
At the very basic level research identifies a step-by-step procedure for investigation of a subject that includes assortment of data, exam and research of the gathered information (Matthews & Ross, 2010). The research is taken up to answer the specific questions and objectives set by this research in a systematic, purposeful and organised manner.
In order to add the research idea of this research the word of epistemology should be clarified. The epistemology is a theory about the knowledge, in what can be known and what requirements must satisfy in order to be called knowledge alternatively than values (Matthews & Ross, 2010). Based on the creators there are three different epistemological positions - realism, interpretivism and positivism.
The position of positivism take up the philosophical frame of mind of the natural scientist, that favor to cope with the observable interpersonal reality that the result of such research is likely to be a law-like generalizations comparable to those made by the natural and physical scientists (Saunders, et al. , 2007). Saunders, et al (2007) agree with Denscombe (2010) who argues that positivist strategy is mainly predicated on the assumption that there are regularities, triggers and habits in the public world, just as there are in the natural world. In general Mcneil & Chapman (2005) argues that positivism start to see the societty as more essential aspect that the average person, quite simply the individual behavior is less important for our knowledge of the interpersonal life than the public structure of modern culture. Another vital characteristics of postitivism requires a perception that only observable phenomena in the sense to be amenable to the senses could be warranted as knowledge, as a result a phenomena that cannot be observed has no place(Bryman, 2000). Saunders, et al(2007) advocate that positivist researcher will be more likely to use a methodology that is highly organized to be able to accomplish replication. Furthermore the writers dispute that the accent would be in quantifiable observations that will lead to statistical anaysis. This process allows the researcher to avoid any 'feelings'that are usually involved with an individual interview and in the process of interpreting the responses. Consequently the positivist's aproach shows that the researcher is neutral and should not allow their political or personal prejudices and opionions to bias any aspect or part of the research method or the interpretation of the gathered data (Mcneil & Chapman, 2005). Furthermore the writers claim that the the positivist procedure reagard research methods producing quantitative data as more reliable than every other methods because they are usually organised in organized and standardised ways such as rational framework of questions including tick bins. Such method can be easily replicated by any researcher in order to check and verify the reliability of the research.
The positivist methodology believes that the causes of the human habit lie beyond the average person person and the research workers will probably adopt a macro method of the analysis of the society. Therefore there is absolutely no point in interesting qualitative methods that try to see the world through the eye of individuals such as unstructured interviews and emphasis groups. Consequently because of this particular review positivism procedure will be adopter as quantitative data is likely to be collected to research consumers' perceptions into the brand image and personality of the travel and leisure destination of New Zealand.
3. 4 Research Methodology - Deductive
According to Crowther & Lancaster (2008) there are two similarly important and qually contrasting methods to the research method regarding to the knowledge building and the idea of methodology. Both of these cotnrasting solutions are deductive and inductive research methods. The deductive approach builds up hypotheses or theories and from then on check out these hypotheses with the help of emperical observation. Quite simply the deductive procedure derives hypothesis from prior theoretical techniques (Bryman, 2000). Basically the procedure for the deductive research includes several key steps prsented in Figure 8. As shown on the diagram the deductive procedure set out a hypothesis that is based within an existing theory as the first step if the procedure of deduction (Matthews & Ross, 2010; Crowther & Lancaster 2008). Another stage of is the process is the operationalization where the hypotheses are described in away that can be assessed through emperical observation, which is followed by the test. The final stage of the procedure includes your choice if the hypothesis can be rejected or verified.
On the other palm the inductive procedure reverses the study process of the deductive research, it starts with the research question and then your data is gathered and the explanations are produced directly from the info itself. The contrasting processes of induction and deduction are shown in Body 10. The induction way does not require establishment of hypothesis or theories in advance (Crowther & Lancaster, 2008). Furthermore, this process allows the researcher to generate theories based on observations and gives more flexibility in research design. The inductive methodology is mainly collecting qualitative data.
Both approaches involve some drawbacks in terms of validity and consistency. For example the way of measuring might be problematical for the deductive way, as the inductive research may face problems in terms of attaining full access to the data and meanings of informants (Crowther & Lancaster, 2008). However, there is absolutely no strategy that is completely reliable, valid and does not have any disadvantages.
This research is going to adopt deductive strategy as most befitting several reasons. Firstly, quantitative data is likely to be collected to evaluate consumers' perceptions towards vacation spot image and personality of the tourism vacation spot of New Zealand. Second, hypotheses will not be produced because the study's aims would be the researchable theme for analysis.
3. 5. Data Collection Methods
3. 5. 1. Secondary Research
Mcneil & Chapman (2005) argues that it is very common for a researcher to utilize data from prior studies as a basis for the new work. Mcneil & Chapman (2005) agree with Matthews & Ross (2010) who explain secondary research as data which has already been made by others for purposes different from the researcher's particular purposes of the job. Consequently secondary data includes information that is already collected and is ready to be used by the researcher for this aims of the study. Secondary data includes various sources of information such as public record information, organisational data, archives, journals, books, magazines. Using supplementary data might be regarder as a cheap, accessble way to obtain information. Furthermore, using public record information and officcial figures are providing large samples. On the other hand using supplementary data has some down sides it could be out dated or might be biased by the framework in which the data is produced.
This study has recently adopted secondary research. The previous section has made a crucial discussion of the current literature in terms of relevant ideas, models and frameworks regarding brand image and personality and their program to a travel and leisure destination. The used resources of extra data were journal documents, text literature and credible websites.
3. 5. 2. Key Research
Matthews & Ross (2010) define major data as the info that a researcher collects designed for their own research. Quite simply the primary data is first-hand data compiled by the researcher through the study methods such as interviews, studies or participant observations. The data is collected for the very first time meeting the specific objectives of the study. This could be regarded as the primary advantage of the primary data. However, the collection of main data usually is very costly and time consuming procedure and is also not always feasible (Denscombe, 2010).
Bryman (2000) argues that we now have two types of main data - quantitative and qualitative. The writer aknowledges the study as the primary vehicle of the quantitative research on large amount of people, known to be representative of a wider people in order to test hypotheses or theories. In comparison the qualitative procedure does not seek for representativeness but attemp to provide ideas and insights on the investigated topic through semi-structured or unstructered interview or target group (Bryman, 2000).
3. 6. Research Strategy - Questionnaire
The method chosen for this research is a questionnaire, that may allow quantitative data to be gathered. Saunders, et al. (2007) define questionnaire as a data collection approach where each participant is is asked to answer one and the same set of questions in a pre-determined order. The usage of a questionnaire is one of the most typical data collection method, because each respondent is asked to answer the same group of questions and it offers an efficient approach of gathering answers from a huge test. Furthermore, this research strategy is suited to this study because standardised questions are going to be used that will make us confident that the respondents will interpret them the same manner (Saunders, et al. , 2007).
3. 7. Questionnaire design
In order to achieve the set objectives of this review, the questionnaire has questions in three main areas. Section 1 - Vacation spot Image will give answers to the first purpose and Section 2 will provide information for the second one. The past Section will five demographic information about the respondents. The questions are designed to cover regions of interest strongly related the study objectives of this study.
3. 7. 1 Move of the Questionnaire.
In the look of the questionnaire, the respondent is asked for a few demographic details at the start. The benefit for this decision is that the respondent is asked to begin with some easier questions to get rely upon the review. Mangione (1995) argues that the questionnaire should not be started with the most crucial and hardest questions. The questionnaire is designed from the point of view of difficulty starting with easier questions that will establish a context for all of those other questionnaire (Bourque and Fielder, 1995). However, the majorities of the demographic questions are transferred to the finish of the questionnaire because they are simpler to answer and may be solved even if the respondent is tired of all of those other questions.
The questions are grouped into subtopics to help the respondents keep a frame of guide as they answer the questions (Mangione, 1995). Within each major section the questions are bought in a way that has logical sense that will assist in the respondent.
3. 7. 2 Question Types.
The questionnaire is designed such that it consists of sealed questions with a quite limited chance for the respondents to add comments. Shut questions have been preferred due to relatively large numbers of respondents that are targeted and because quantitative research is anticipated. Alternatively Mangione (1995) argues that open-ended questions do not work very well in self-administrated questionnaires as many of the respondents leave them blank. Another reason that open-ended questions weren't widely used is because that they are more difficult to answer, code and examine (Bourque and Fielder, 1995).
In the questionnaire Multiple-choice questions are also used so this allows the respondent to choose one or several options. All of the multiple answer questions attempt to incorporate exhaustive list of categories and all the categories are mutually exclusive. Bourque and Fielder (1995) maintain that in such self-administered mail questionnaires lowering the questions with such problems will lead to increased response rate.
In the questionnaire are being used also ranking scales as well as subset the Likert level. The used Likert scales in the questionnaire are Bipolar and the 'distance' between each couple of points is chosen to be identical avoiding huge gaps in the range or two adjacent tips (Mangione, 1995). Provided scales are well balanced with equal range of positive and negative response. This decision aspires to avoid loaded questions that will push respondents into being positive or negative. (Robson, Pemberton and Mcgrane, 2011).
3. 7. 3 Online questionnaire
Self-administrated online questionnaire was chosen for this study for a number of reasons. Electronic questionnaire offers some advantages compared to postal questionnaires as avoiding problems of questions skips (this program automatically moves to another relevant question), the program can notify the respondents for problems (for example, if they tick more than one box where only 1 is necessary) ( Aldridge and Levine, 2001). Also using digital questionnaire avoids the situation of planning the distribution and return. Furthermore the use of digital questionnaire will allow faster distribution among the list of respondents at cheap and will avoid need of interviewers. This method is much more faster and in the context of the research is appropriate than another method.
3. 8 Practical details
A sample of 92 tourists filled in the online questionnaire. The major disadvantage of the mailed surveys is their inclination to provide low response rates unless the respondents have strong reasons to participate (Balakrishnan et al, 1992; Aldridge and Levine, 2001). The relatively small response rate and the tiny test size could be due to the lack of an incentive. Balakrishnan et al (1992) claim that using of lottery reward giveaway may increase response rate significantly. Weisberg (2005) says that offering the respondent a motivation to take part in the review may be seen as a kindness that evokes norm of reciprocity to help the business offering the power. Consequently it appears the utilization of motivation has an optimistic impact on the opportunity of bettering the response rate. Yet, in the context of this study no motivation was provided and the response rate was relatively low.
The study results were analysed with SPSS. The instrument of the review included one open finished question and quantitative questions to receive the consumers' perceptions of New Zealand.
The used brand personality characteristics were lent from Aaker (1997) and were revised relating to performed research and according to the conclusions of Hosany et al. (2006). Altogether 15 brand personality attributes were used to measure brand personality over a five-point Likert scale form 'Totally not descriptive to 'Totally descriptive'. Respondents were given the choice to tick a box 'Not clear' if indeed they don't realize the suggested trait.
Cognitive images of the brand image were measured with a five-point level where 1 means 'Offers very little and 5 means 'Offers very much'. The used rating scale was lent from Jenkins (1999) who used 40 capabilities to rate cognitive brand image perceptions. For the purpose of this study Jenkins' (1999) level was modified relating and a set of 18 relevant capabilities were used.
The cognitive perceptions assessed by a seven - point bipolar scales: unpleasant - pleasurable, distressing - soothing, gloomy - exciting, sleepy - arousing, overcrowded - sparse, stagnant - lively, isolated - easy to get at. The used size is a customized version of Baloglu and McCleary (1999).
The overall vacation spot image of New Zealand was measured by the seven - point size where one is very negative and seven is very positive.
3. 9. Pilot testing
A pilot test of the questionnaire was conducted before the questionnaire was distributed. The pilot review aimed to test all key areas of the review, such as specific set of questions we may consider as difficult and its efficiency (Bryman, 2001). The pilot trials was found to be important part of this stage of the research because it helped to find some problems in the look and the structure of the questionnaire.
The pilot trials tested the vocabulary and the wording of the questions, in terms of the instructions. This aspect of the piloting did not find any major issues. Other areas of the questionnaire that were examined were the move of the questionnaire and the timing. It had been found the questionnaire is too much time and some of the respondents didn't finish all the questions. Another issue was the move of the questionnaire, in the beginning all the demographic questions were in the beginning. Because of the results of the pilot assessment the movement of the questionnaire was modified and the space of a few of the questions. These changes were applied because longer questionnaires may inhibit the respondents to complete the questionnaire totally.
3. 10. Honest Issues.
There are no honest issues to be acknowledged that may inhibit this research. All of the respondents were guaranteed anonymity no private information was required such as names or e-mail addresses. Therefore there were not concerns regarding participants' privacy. All of the participants were prepared about the goal of the study and were provided with contact information in the event they need some more information about the study or in case they are enthusiastic about the results. Furthermore for a few of the questions the respondents were given the chance to omit question by marking an answer 'Prefer never to answer' if indeed they do not feel comfortable to share some personal information.
3. 9 Restriction and bias.
3. 10 Limitations of research
3. 11. Synopsis of chapter
This chapter targeted to present the research philosophy and the research methodology of the study. The idea of the study focused on the positivist strategy as more relevant in the framework of this study. For the purpose of the study qualitative data was chosen to be obtained by making use of a questionnaire. The questionnaire included wide open and closed finished questions. A pilot tests of the questionnaire was performed to identify any possible problems and weaknesses. Following the questionnaire was corrected corresponding the conclusions of the questionnaire it was allocated online.
This chapter also discloses all the sensible depth related to the study and also gives information about any honest conditions that may inhibit the study.
The studies of the allocated questionnaire will be offered in the next chapter.
4. Findings, Examination and Synthesis
4. 1. Introduction
The focus of the review is the consumers' perceptions of vacation spot image and personality of any tourism vacation spot - New Zealand. The previous section provided justification of the used method in this review. This area of the project gives the results collected from the questionnaire that will be accompanied by an analysis of the studies.
4. 2. Findings
Table 1 below presents the demographic account of the respondents. The presented break down of the respondents is not grouped into sections of tourists and non-visitors because a factor between them was not found.
4. 2. 1. Demographic Profile.
Respondents aren't equally written by gender. From the 98 respondents 61% are feminine and are 39% man. Most of the respondents participate in the younger age group with 50% within the band of 18-28 years and 28% within the band of 29-39 years. No more than 20% of the respondents land in the older age group. The majority of the respondents are single (64%) and well informed. The respondents aren't evenly distributed in conditions of visitation of the destination. Only about 30% of the respondents declare which may have visited the studied destination. The uneven distribution in terms of gender, era and visitation position could be because of the applied distribution method of the questionnaire. It had been distributed online.
4. 2. 2. Image variations between the sections of guests and non-visitors.
The t-tests were performed to be able to find significant differences in the researched destination image features gathered with the questionnaire. The t-test attemptedto identify significant differences between the several demographic groupings in terms of educational level, gender and age group. The Levine's test was applied in addition to check homogeneity of the variances.
The results of the conducted t-tests confirmed that we now have no significant dissimilarities in the image perceptions between the several age groups, gender and the educational degree of the respondents for all the researched image features.
However the results from the t-tests discovered that there are some significant variations (p < 0. 05) between guests and non-visitors on eight of eighteen cognitive capabilities and on three of seven affective attributes. The results of the t-tests and the mean values of the image capabilities of guests and non-visitors are presented in Stand 2 below.
According to the results both tourists and non-visitors rate some cognitive features with relatively low principles. The majority of the respondents understand that the explored destination do not offer 'Good value for money' as the mean value because of this item is about 3. 4 out of 5.
Similar email address details are signed up in four other cognitive characteristics. Both segments of guests and non-visitors gave relatively low worth for the next cognitive traits - Interesting local food (Cuisine), Good nightlife and entertainment, Good supply to practice winter sports and Interesting historical visitors attractions/Museums (see Desk 2).
By compare the vacation spot was scored significantly higher than all of those other measured attributes by the both segments of visitors and non-visitors on two items. Both perceptual qualities that receive relatively high principles by both segments are Beautiful surroundings/Natural attractions and Traveler sites/Activities graded with about 4. 7 and 4. 3 respectively.
Significant differences were found between non-visitors and guests on eight from the 18 cognitive traits at 5% relevance level. Based on the results it is important to note that respondents which may have visited the vacation spot generally have more favorable and positive attitude than the non-visitors (see Table 2). The results confirmed that tourists have significantly better conception than non-visitors towards the next cognitive items: Good local climate for any occasion, Interesting cultural sights, Suited accommodation facilities, Good availableness to practice snowboarding and extreme sports activities, Personal safety, Unpolluted environment and Standard cleanliness and cleanliness.
Affective qualities and Overall impression on destination image.
The results uncovered that both segments perceive the vacationer destination of New Zealand as a comparatively isolated destination alternatively than easy to get at (mean value ~3. 65). No factor was found out for the following three pairs of affective traits: Unpleasant - Pleasant, Sleepy - Arousing and Stagnant - Lively. These affective pairs are graded with relatively high mean values.
On the other palm a comparison of the mean prices of the other three items discovered that a significant difference exists between tourists and non-visitors on the next three affective pairs - Distressing - Soothing, Gloomy - Exciting, Overcrowded - Sparse. The respondents which may have visited the destination have given higher rates on the affective items Calming, Sparse and Exciting, than the non-visitors.
The average report of the entire image of the vacation spot revealed that there surely is no significant difference between non-visitors and tourists. Both sections of consumers tend to have very positive understanding towards the entire impression of the vacation spot with a mean value around 6 out of 7.
4. 2. 3. Personality Traits
The respondents were asked to spell it out the tourism destination of New Zealand as a person in five words. The most frequent answers are presented as a mental map in figure 11 below grouped in five categories - Image, Brand Feeling, Negative Performance and folks. One of the most chosen traits used to describe the vacation spot are friendly, beautiful, exciting/exotic and fascinating/mysterious. Another traits broadly utilized by the respondents to depict vacation spot are natural/renewable and healthy, athletic, full of energy. However, a few of the respondents characterized the destination with quite negative traits to be dangerous/dark, distant and by itself.
The email address details are not surprising displaying the most common associations with the vacation spot image of New Zealand. The remoteness of the destination creates the feeling in the respondents for a thrilling place offering adventurous and strange experience. Alternatively quite a lot of the respondents see the vacation spot as friendly, comforting and enjoyable. The majority of the respondents depicted the destination with quite beneficial qualities. However, the destination image of New Zealand has provoked some negative associations in small amount of the respondents. They depicted it as an unhealthy, distant and by itself. Such associations as exclusively and distant could be also provoked due to the fact that New Zealand is one of the outermost tourism destinations.
4. 2. 4. Brand Personality Scale
Aaker's (1997) Brand Personality Level comprising forty-one personality qualities was modified according to the studies of Ekinci and Hosany (2006). It had been reduced to 15 personality attributes in three categories for the purpose of this study according to the Dimensions of destination personality model of Ekinci and Hosany (2006). The respondents were asked to rate the vacation spot in line with the chosen 15 personality features in one to five (1 = extremely not descriptive, 2 = not descriptive, 3 = natural, 4 = descriptive, 5 = extremely descriptive). An increased number allocated to a personality characteristic suggests it as a far more representative and descriptive to the destination. The respondents were provided the option to mark the traits with 'Not clear'. A lot of the respondents rated all the personality features (about 90%). Only the items 'Successful' (11, 25%) and 'Wholesome' (14, 25%) were found to be quite unclear for the respondents. The results from the questionnaire are offered in Stand 3 below.
Brand personality features (N = 98)
% Not clear
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