Development of print media and advertising in Europe and the USA
After the invention of the printing press in 1450, the development of advertising is clearly accelerating and begins to acquire visible features of its current state. The first advertisements were printed in the form of leaflets and distributed to all comers for free. One example of this kind of advertising is a leaflet issued in 1457 by an English publisher in which he advertised a spiritual book.
In the XV century. already widely distributed printed posters of advertising content. The use of a printing press gives ample opportunities to address potential consumers several times, i.e. cover more in different places. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that advertising through leaflets and posters was conducted from case to case, without a specific system. Affected, probably, insufficient capacity of a primitive printing press, and the lack of practice of advertising activities. No less important role in this was played by the weak development of production.
Advertising in the first printed newspapers
At the beginning of the XVII century. the first printed newspapers appeared that appeared on the public with a certain periodicity. First, the newspapers arose in Germany, a little later in Holland, England, France.
The appearance of periodicals gave an opportunity to regularly inform the population about the purchase-sales, services, prices. However, at first newspapers do not consider such messages as advertising, seeing in them, above all, an informative meaning. In the first German newspapers, sales messages alternate, for example, with reports of deaths, festivities, crop failures, coronations and other events of this kind. There is an ego due to the fact that advertising is not yet allocated as a paid service, no one takes money for commercial information, the location of commercial and informational messages in the newspaper is not divided yet.
Somewhat later - already in the second half of the XVII century. - first in England, and then in Germany, there is a practice of selling a newspaper seat for paid ads. In England, for example, goods and products imported from other places, whose value was unknown to the British, often become subject to advertising, and in order for them to spread in the English market, it was necessary to present them properly and explain their properties. So, it was through English newspapers that the "penetration" began. on the European continent of such all our favorite drinks now, like coffee, cocoa, tea. A report on the remarkable properties of coffee appeared in the first English newspaper Nathaniel Butter Weekly news , which began to appear in 1622. Cocoa and tea advertising appeared several years later in other English newspapers.
A miracle recipe for making coffee.
Take the green coffee beans and, slowly, rub them between the palms, pre-oiled with olive oil. Then throw them on a hot pan and, stirring slowly, fry the grains until they have a brown color. Then put everything in a cold dish, which will keep them fragile. Chilled grains are ground, a certain amount of powder is poured in cold water and brought to a boil. One minute the prepared beverage is allowed to settle, and then poured into a cup.
The drink invigorates and gives strength.
Drink coffee - you will not regret it!
Ask for coffee beans in any London store.
(From the English newspaper of the XVII century.)
In 1655, the March issue of the London newspaper Mercurius Politicus (Political Mercury) reported that ships carrying a load of vegetable oil, sugar, cinnamon and fruit, arrive "this week to the London port". In the same newspaper on September 30, 1658, a special Chinese physician recommended by all doctors was proposed.
Soon in this and other newspapers began to appear numerous commercial advertisements, winning a place on the newspaper page. In 1667, on the pages of another London newspaper, City and Country Mercury, published bi-weekly, it was possible to meet exchange reports that were submitted in the form of a dialogue between a rural resident who wanted to know the prices in the city market, and experienced in financial matters city dweller.
Gradually, advertising appeared on the pages of other European publications. In 1673, the newspaper Hamburger Relations Courier came out in Hamburg (the Hamburg Courier of Messages), which consisted almost of the same ads. In the French press, advertising infiltrated in 1677, when the first newspaper announcement was published in the newspaper "Paris de Paris" ("Paris Journal"). These ads primarily concerned the sale of books and geographic maps, placed at the end of the newspaper and separated from the main text by a line.
Simultaneously with the sale of newspaper spaces for advertising, the conversation begins about the delineation of "clean information" and promotional information & quot ;. The boundary between these two conventional groups of burrow is blurred, and the conversation that began so long ago has not been exhausted and now. What is considered advertising, and what information, has long been solved this way: what is of public interest - information, something that involves some kind of commerce - advertising. This approach can be taken as a basis, although in some cases it does not justify itself.
Charging for advertisements caused the need to most carefully approach their design. Interested in commercial information, the submitter who paid the money was entitled to demand a worthy presentation of his information on the newspaper page. Therefore, the publisher of the newspaper could no longer have commercial information where he pleased. He had to listen to the opinion of the one who paid for its placement. Advertising begins to stand out especially on the strip, for its registration used all sorts of graphic elements, different fonts. Already publishers, competing with each other, are trying to attract customers to their publications through the most careful approach to the posted advertising. In 1709, the famous writers Edison and Steele began to publish the daily newspaper Taller ("Boltun"). The newspaper printed a huge amount of advertising, very carefully and tastefully designed. The publishers themselves urged their clients to pay attention to the quality of the advertising appeal and the art of compiling the text. In one of its issues the newspaper wrote: "The great art of writing an advertisement is to find the right approach in order to grab the attention of the reader, without which the good news can go unnoticed or get lost among the bankruptcy notices."
In the second half of the XVII century. On the British Isles, a specialized advertising publication Public Advertiser ("Public Advertiser") appeared. In addition to commercial advertising, there was a large section of private ads. It is worth noting that today any newspaper - whether advertising or public interest - gives private ads a significant place, calling it one of the main ways to attract the readership.
By the way, neutral information in advertising is increasingly receding into the background. Forward suggestion is suggestion, persuasion, evaluation. One example of this is the design design and location of advertising on the band, of which we have already spoken. Another example is evaluative and admonitory tendencies in the text of advertising. Often, advertising is given in tons of years from the first person, thereby emphasizing a personal, personal attitude to the subject of advertising.
"Who wants a good drink - that I can help, since I have information about a very good place for that."
I enjoyed reading this book and I think that you will like it. "
"I myself went to the exhibition of Indian animals, my acquaintances advised it to do so. I advise you, too. "
(From the English newspapers of the XVII century.)
At the end of the XVII century. in the specialized advertising editions of England appeared sections of marriage announcements, which for the following centuries did not cease to exist. It's a pleasure to read marital ads, and there's no need to comment on them at all. They clearly represent a slice of time.
A "Gentleman" of 30 who says he has a very good estate, would willingly marry with a young lady who has a fortune of 3000 pounds or so. He is ready to secure the deal by contract. "
"A gentleman who had the honor to help a lady get out of the wheelchair near the administrative White House, wants to know when he can see her for concluding a kind of union."
"The young lady who was in the gambling house last Thursday night and was hit in the chest with a wooden cane, since she wants to meet me on Sunday at 2 o'clock or write me at the following address ... find out what is favorable for her intelligence. Her consent will bring supreme pleasure to her submissive spree. "
Go back home. The reason for your torment is illusory. The fact that you want to blame me does not exist. I solemnly declare this. At last I was well settled, so unhappy that I can not properly devote time to my duties. All the happy will return if the Lord's blessing is with you and he can turn your heart to believe that I'm right. Put 6 years of love and happiness against your accusation and you should feel that you are not right. Oh, you are very, very wrong! Write and allow me a meeting with you so that happiness can be restored. You must be very unhappy, for God's sake, do not be so adamant. My love and devotion are unchanging. For the sake of your calmness, my glorious, sweet, sweet wife - come back! When separating death, it's sad enough, but to part with life without a real reason - this brings misfortune to both.
Return to your unhappy, but sincerely loving husband. "
(From English newspapers of the XVII-XIX centuries.)
Thus, it can be stated that with the development of printing techniques and the emergence of the first newspapers in Europe, advertising almost immediately takes their place on their pages. True, at first the publishers did not charge a fee for distributing advertising, not fully understanding the commercial meaning of this type of activity. But already in the second half of the XVII century. publishers start to charge money for advertisements while simultaneously allocating advertisements on newspaper pages with the help of design elements. On the American continent, the newspapers appeared much later than in Europe, only in the 18th century. But there advertising from the very beginning of the appearance of printed media took their place on their pages, and its distribution was on a commercial basis.
The development of mass periodicals
In the XVIII century. print media strengthen their positions, become popular in society. This circumstance to a great extent has an impact on the further development of advertising.
A new trend in the development of American and European periodicals in the XIX century. became the development of the readership, which consists of the poorest sections of the population.
The production of cheap periodicals, accessible to low-income readers, became profitable for publishers as a result of the invention of a steam press and a reduction in the cost of printing costs. The appearance of "penny press", i.e. editions designed for a mass readership and sold at the lowest possible price, has become a significant phenomenon in the development of media and advertising.
Pioneer penny press in the United States is considered a New York journalist Benjamin Day. On September 3, 1833, he began publishing the The Sun newspaper, the newspaper with the motto "It [the sun] shines for all" was sold on the streets of the city at the cheapest price - 1 cent per copy. The low price attracted readers, and in four months the daily circulation The Sun grew to 5000 copies. Two years later, Day raised circulation to 15,000 copies.
The model of a cheap publication was successfully mastered by the American press in the mid-1830s. The challenge to Day was thrown by the Scottish emigrant James Gordon Bennett, who in 1835 founded the newspaper The New York Herald. (New York Herald). Soon the Bennett newspaper became one of the most common, rich and innovative publications in the history of American media.
So, on April 10, 1841, the New York market "penny press" supplemented by another periodical. Horace Greeley began publishing the The New York Tribune ("The New York Tribune"). The newspaper Grili, which sold for 1 cent per copy and had an initial circulation of 5000 copies, quickly won the reader market, becoming one of the most respected publications.
Publications penny press by the end of the 1840s. began to bring a solid income. The editors and publishers of the largest newspapers were independent of financial injections from political parties, and the main funds were received both from the sale of print runs and from the distribution of advertisements in their print run newspapers.
The journal periodicals actively developed in Europe and the US, which actively attracted advertisements to their pages.
Thus, by the beginning of the XX century. European and American print media have become active channels for the distribution of advertising. The benefit was mutual for both publishers and advertisers. Publishers received significant financial support in the form of cash for advertising. In turn, advertisers received high-quality channels for the distribution of advertising and the promotion of their products and services with it.
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