4.1.2. Effective negotiation tactics
In addition to the various strategies used in the negotiations, the behavioral tactics of the parties that help to achieve the desired quickly and effectively are important. These tactics include the art of listening to the enemy and the ability to ask the right questions to the partner, but the ability to use the rapid reaction mechanism and the technology to break the deadlock situations, the ability to bargain, the skill of reasonable compromises and the art of using the "pause" button ... About the main of these tactics it makes sense to talk in detail.
The ability to bargain is one of the basic skills of a competent negotiator. Let's remember children's "money-changers": I'll give you an eraser, and you'll give me a candy wrap, a brand or a typewriter. Children are growing, and their requirements for equivalent exchange are rising. And each of them in negotiations of any rank should remember the main principles of bargaining.
1. Willingly give back something that does not matter to you.
2. Try to go for an equivalent exchange.
3. Give only what you can (you have the right) to give.
4. Look, do not regret later.
5. Do not give anything away without getting anything in return. This rule deserves special attention, as it demonstrates the desire to achieve equality in the negotiations.
Let's return again to the example of children's exchanges. Sometimes it seems to parents that their child, after exchanging a chocolate bar for a bottle of glass, concluded an unequal deal. But they forget about the scale of children's values, where the real value of the goods is not the main indicator of its value.
The ability to bargain involves the knowledge of several speech turns that help to make a deal. Fortunes of the type are assumed to be successful. Suppose that ... , What will happen if ... and others from the same series. Using these formulas helps negotiators draw a picture of the potential development of events, suggest several options for further action, establish a dialogue with the partner. Specialists also suggest using the Yes ..., but (you do not refuse immediately, but show the negativity of the proposal), "If ..., then" (This is a typical bargaining formula: "If you stay at work today until nine in the evening and do the necessary things, I'll let you be late tomorrow, since you're asking for") and some others.
It is very important during the auction to resort immediately to the batch discussion of the issue. All the terms of the deal must be negotiated at once, without hiding something "in the sleeve" as a pleasant surprise for the partner. Otherwise, the situation will arise, as in the example of renting a house. First, the potential tenant (saying that he "almost everything suits") asked me to refresh the paint on the walls, then realized that there was no summer shower in the garden (the owners went to this waste too), and then suddenly realized that he had expensive car and he always needs a stationary garage, which next to the house was not. Therefore, all issues have to be solved in a comprehensive manner and, conceding in one, to strive to win in another.
Another important behavioral tactic in the negotiations is tactics of competent listening to the opponent. Asking why the art of listening is so important in the negotiations - it's like asking why you need gasoline for the car. All ways to agree begin, ultimately, with the ability to listen.Experts in the field of negotiation argue that the limit of perfection in this art is the ability to hear not only words, but also to understand the hidden subtext, to read intonation, gestures, facial expression and in general "thoughts" person in general. To be able to listen is means:
o correctly understand the facts that the opposing side sets out;
o catch all the nuances of the message made by the opponent;
o recognize the hidden meaning of the sentence you made;
o understand the secret motives that move the interlocutor.
What prevents a person from concentrating on the speech of the interlocutor? There are a lot of such factors (your own fatigue, self-doubt, prejudice against your opponent, distractions, etc.). With all these moments you need to be able to cope if you do not want to leave the course of negotiations to the will of randomness and interference.
There are special trainings that develop in a person the ability to listen and hear the interlocutor. These are trainings for intelligence enhancement (it is necessary when you need to adapt to the noise registration of negotiations, catch the thread of the dispute, work, despite distractions, etc.); Improvement of mindfulness; the ability to be distracted from one's own worries and focus on the interlocutor , etc.
Today, the so-called active listening method, helps to hear what the partner says. Listen to the active interlocutor as follows:
1. Avoid bad habits such as "listen without listening", misinterpret and hastily interpret what was heard, engage in extraneous matters during the hearing, etc.
2. Learn the active perception of everything that you are told.
3. Focus on the speaker.
4. Use not only speech but also non-speech signals to show that you are listening carefully to the interlocutor.
5. Ask leading questions, demonstrate understanding of what has been said.
6. Summarize what was heard during the conversation: "If I understood you correctly, then you mean ...", "If we sum up what we said ...".
It is also very important not to violate the etiquette of listening. There are remarks which should be avoided both at negotiations and in any everyday communication. Among them, teaching ("This is incorrect", "Do not evaluate the case"), manual ( "At your age, it's strange to argue", degrading accusation ("Who told you such nonsense?"), avoiding the substance of the problem ( Let's talk about this next time ) and some others.
In general, the basic rule of literate behavior in negotiations is to listen carefully and kindly and do not rush to speak for yourself.
The ability to ask the right questions - the next tactic of effective negotiation behavior. A correctly asked question is an invaluable assistant in any, most difficult negotiating situation. He is able to help not only to clarify the matter, but also to relieve tension, avoid frontal attack, give extra time to think, etc.
Some questions are very productive and immediately give a lot of additional information. Others are less informative, but also needed in some situations. The standard method of asking involves using two basic types of questions, each of which has its pluses and minuses - open and closed.
Open questions open up the subject of the discussion and push people to an expanded response. They always start with a question word: who, what, why, why, when, where ... What exactly does the provider offer you? or "How are things at the moment?" - these questions are aimed at helping the interlocutor to reveal himself. There are also so-called indirect open questions: "Could you clarify?" or Tell me please ...
Closed questions are constructed using a different technique. They are built so that a person can answer them monosyllably: yes or no. Did you easily find a way? or "Could you send me your fact sheet?" - such questions suggest that the topic has mostly been exhausted and it is necessary to take stock. Nevertheless, this type of questions are also very useful. If, when taking a new employee to work, you want to make sure how much he fits into the climate of the company where a healthy lifestyle is adopted, it's easier to ask him directly: "Do you smoke?" Rather than walking around the bush: "And how are you apply to smoking?
So, the standard method of interrogation is reduced to the rule: if you want to minimize the conversation - ask closed questions; need extensive information - ask open-ended questions. However, in the negotiation process there is also a non-standard method of asking questions. If you need to clarify the missing details (motivation for action, details of the development of events, etc.) - use the general to private technique. " On the contrary, the method from private to general helps to get a holistic picture of events, to link one fact to another.
generalization questions (<"I do not care ...", "The boss always finds fault with me" - Are you really sure that this will not work out? & quot ;, Chief and in fact every time finds fault with you? ). In certain situations, question-calls are appropriate ( Did you think well before giving up this additional assignment?); Revenue issues ( Let's think together that it can incite everyone to agree with this plan.) What should it be for? questions that clarify the details ( What exactly are the amounts needed? & quot ;, How do you personally evaluate this step? ); issues that stimulate thinking and are aimed at reaching agreement ("How else can you go?", "I hope you share my point of view on this?") ; questions for seeding ( How do you see our firms working together? ) and some others.
There are also issues that should be avoided in the negotiations. This, above all, the so-called leading questions, ie. pushing your opponent exactly to the answer that you need. Examples of such questions are: "You are able to meet the deadlines, are not you?", "Of course, you will check everything yourself, yes?" ... Why should not such questions be used in negotiations?>
- You can not respond according to your wishes at all what they really think.
- Direct questions and answers will be direct, you will not receive any additional information.
- You can be manipulated by unscrupulous people.
- Similar questions can be touched by the pride of the interlocutor, and this will determine its antagonism.
In general, it is very important to be able to ask a calm, competent and non-provocative question. Questions can also be asked in order to reduce the tension in the conflict situation, improve the atmosphere in the negotiations, and find out the enemy's secret intentions. That's why the exact question is one of the most effective behavioral tactics that can be used during negotiations.
The last tactic of behavior, on which I would like to stop here, is the ability to use the "pause" button. Called this way with the light hand of computer programmers, it's just a method of restraining emotions during difficult negotiations, a way to maintain restraint, the ability to take a timeout at a difficult or stressful moment. Method of using the pause button means a certain freeze frame during the negotiations: you take a break for a minute, an hour or a day to gather your thoughts and make a decision.
When should I press this button? In which cases is this behavioral tactic really successful?
1. Immediately before the start of the first meeting. Are you really ready for negotiations? Have you missed anything during the training? Do not rush to sit down at the negotiating table - better once again mentally glance at your papers, plans, prepared moves and the scenario of negotiations as a whole.
2. The pause button It is necessary to press each time at occurrence of critical moments. A short break will allow us to analyze the situation, take a decision on the transaction.
3. A pause is needed when the emotions go off scale. In this situation, it is especially necessary to stop and look back.
4. Before you make a serious concession in the course of bargaining, also take a pause! No discount should be perceived as a trifle. The exchange should be equivalent.
5. If you are pressured, click the pause button. Do not give in, do not let me rush you to make a decision.
At the same time, do not assume the pause his personal top-secret weapon. Of course, other negotiators may even take time out and take advantage of this behavioral tactic. It's only for the better: the negotiations will take place in a more relaxed mode and end with a more balanced, mutually acceptable solution.
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