Encoding and decoding
In order for the information transfer process to be completed in full, so that the communication cycle is completed and successful, and the message has been received from the sender to the recipient and has been adequately received, it is coded. Encoding objectives - bringing the idea of the sender to the recipient; providing such interpretation of the information received by the recipient, which corresponds to the intent of the sender. To do this, the system uses character codes and characters.
Currently, the code interpreted in different ways. A number of authors (R. Blandel, AB Zverintsev, VG Korol'ke, AP Panfilova and others) understand codes in the broadest sense - as any form of information representation, or as a set of unique rules through which the message can be presented in one form or another. Human speech is also one of the codes.
Another way of understanding the term code was formed in a technical environment under the influence of the "mathematical theory of communication (communication)". and the use of technical means of communication: "The code is a conditional transformation, usually one-to-one and reversible, through which messages can be transformed from one character system to another. Typical examples here are Morse code, semaphore code and gestures of deaf mutes. Therefore, in the terminology that we have adopted, the language that has developed organically over a long period of time and the codes that are invented for some special purposes and follow clearly formulated rules are clearly distinguished. "
In communology, coding means the appropriate processing of the original idea of the message for the purpose of broadcasting it to the recipient (it can be, for example, a brochure, leaflet, commercial on a given topic and etc., for each of these cases, a special form of presenting information, using the language and other communicative means of communicating the message to the recipient is characteristic.)
Decoding - in the technical sense - is the process that is the reverse of the encoding process. In broader terms this is:
a) the process of giving a certain meaning to the signals received;
b) the process of identifying the original meaning, the original idea of the sender, understanding the meaning of his message (if the message is congruently deciphered and understood by the recipient, then his reaction will be exactly what the sender of the message tried to call).
When decrypting a message it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of the recipient's perception - only then the decryption of the message will be correct, in accordance with the sender's intention.
As each person is more or less biased and subjective assessments, then, therefore, the perception and understanding of the same events for different people are different. And this must necessarily be taken into account when forming various communicative acts and in general when broadcasting information.
S. Hall's Encoding/Decoding Model
Features of the information message processing system with the purpose of its transmission and comprehension by the consumer, i.e. coding system - decoding, it is best to consider the example of S. Hall's communication model. His theory is based on the basic principles of the semiotics of structuralism, suggesting that any meaningful "message" is constructed from signs that can have explicit and implied meanings depending on the choice that the encoder - communicator. The basic position of semiotics is that the variety of meanings depends on the nature of the language as an instrument of the information system and on the semantic meanings contained in combinations of signs and symbols within the social culture to which the sender (the encoder) and the receiver (decoder) belong.
Semiotics emphasizes the semantic force of the encoded text, considers the meaning of the information message firmly embedded in the text. S. Hall, taking the basic provisions of this approach, made a number of additions to it.
1. Communicators often prefer to encode messages with ideological and propagandistic goals and for this they manipulate the language and media (messages are given a "preferred" meaning).
2. Recipients are not required to accept or decode messages as they are sent, but they can resist ideological influence by applying alternative assessments in accordance with their worldview, experience and views of the surrounding system of being.
The theory of S. Hall was formulated on the example of the work of television and is applicable to any types of media. It consists in the fact that a media message passes through a series of transformations from source to receiver (interpreter). The stages that pass the information message on the way to the recipient are simple. Communication is initiated by media institutions that transmit messages, conformist or opposition to the dominant structures of power, to various social, political and economic social institutions. These messages are coded, often in the form of well-established content genres (news, sports, pop music, soap opera, detective series, etc.), with obvious meaningful meaning, updated direction and built-in manuals for their interpretation by the target audience. The viewer approaches the content offered by the media, with other semantic structures that are rooted in his own common sense, ideas and experience.
Different groups of people (or subcultures) occupy different social and cultural niches of ethno-space and differently perceive media reports. The general conclusion of S. Hall lies in the fact that the decoded meaning does not necessarily have to coincide with the meaning that was encoded, although it is mediated already by established media genres and a common language system. However, what's more important is that decoding can take a different direction from the intended one: recipients can read between the lines and even invert initial meaning of the message.
Hall's theory contains a number of fundamental provisions, namely:
• a variety of meanings embedded in the text;
• the recipient's primary importance in determining the meaning;
• the presence of various interpretive communities.
Recipient is the person to whom the information is intended and which interprets it. The receiver needs to decode (decode) to understand the meaning of the transmitted message. The recipient may be one person, a group of persons, a society as a whole or some part thereof. When the role of the recipient is more than one person, his (recipient) is called the communication audience.
Characteristics that determine the essence of the recipient of an information message as a subject of the communicative process are one of the most important factors affecting the effectiveness of communication. The determining condition in this case is the ability of the recipient to perceive and decode the message sent to him. It is determined by the professional competence of the recipient, his life experience, group membership, value orientations, general culture, educational and intellectual level, sociocultural framework in which the communicative process is carried out. The recipient's response is the main indicator of the effectiveness of communication.
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