Evaluating the communicative effectiveness of Internet...

Evaluation of the communicative effectiveness of Internet marketing advertising

From the point of view of communication, the goal of advertising can be described as a directed change in the ratio of target audiences to the object of advertising, which will most likely cause the expected actions in the behavior of the target audience. The effectiveness of advertising is expressed in the study of the acquaintance of the target audience with information about the firm and its products, as well as what is known about them, what image of the company and goods has been formed and what is the relation to them.

The problem is to change the attitude of the consumer to the object of advertising in accordance with the marketing goals of the advertiser. The way out is to conduct high-quality marketing research of the target audience with an analysis of desires, values, psychology of making certain decisions, channels of information that the audience not only enjoy but also trust. Only after this research it is possible to develop the concept of advertising or that unique creative that can change the attitude of the target audience to the object of advertising and provide positive communication efficiency.

On the other hand, communication efficiency is determined by the sum of the utility attributes that make up the image of the goods, determined through the significance criteria and the perceived degree of availability. The value of efficiency can be a consequence of the dominance of significance or utility, which requires the use of optimization models. The need to evaluate communicative effectiveness is connected with forecasting the perception of advertising of the same type of goods.

Communication effectiveness of advertising depends on the adopted strategy of positioning the product in advertising and the effectiveness of advertising creativity. Effective advertising is determined only by the exact hit in the target audience, and the developed advertising creative - on the exact impact on it. The better we understand the target audience, the more accurately we can develop an advertising strategy and, accordingly, an advertising creative, and also correctly assess the communicative effectiveness.

Currently, when evaluating the effectiveness of advertising, the main principle is its communicative orientation. This is due to the fact that marketing is increasingly aimed at psychological satisfaction of needs, it is loyalty to the brand that creates positioned consumers, on which the marketing policy of the advertiser is built. To implement this principle, the subjects of the advertising market make great efforts to obtain high communication effectiveness of the impact of advertising, which will become more and more popular in the evaluation of advertising activities, because it provides a long-term effect of the impact.

In general, the effectiveness of advertising is a transient and transitory state, determined by the natural laws of damping of any process. From high communication efficiency, the advertising stream moves to dissipate its potential and transition to minimal efficiency. It is impossible to formalize the creativity of the advertising process and the behavior of the consumer, so it is impossible to establish a clear correspondence of the expressions for the communication and economic component of the effectiveness of advertising in order to find the best management decisions. Correspondence can take place only in conditions of the accepted probability of the hypothesis of the marketing strategy in advertising.

The growth of communication effectiveness of advertising is directly related to the increase of professionalism of participants in advertising activities and the level of motivation of the consumer. It should be taken into account that communication efficiency can not be predicted by 100%, because it is impossible to reliably predict the actions of competitors, political and social changes in the country and the region.

In analyzing communication effectiveness, the principle of advertising aging should be taken into account. Any advertising message begins to grow old from the moment it is released on the advertisement. Yesterday's advertising strategies will not develop tomorrow as planned, based on the experience of the past. Efforts in advertising activities are aimed at resolving yesterday's problems, rather than developing solutions for tomorrow, which have the greatest effect. The future is always innovative, what was an advertising creative yesterday, tomorrow loses its communication appeal and, accordingly, efficiency. The task of the subjects of advertising activities is to develop solutions for tomorrow, to change the concept of advertising activities, so that it meets the world development trends. In the process of advertising campaign, advertising itself can and should be updated several times, one advertising message can complement and improve the other, reflecting different market situations and needs of a broad target audience.

The effect of advertising can appear immediately or after a certain time, so it is classified into short-term (new products, cosmetics, shows), long-term (household appliances, cars, carpets, corporate advertising) and medium-term. The effectiveness of advertising can decrease in days of religious fasting, mourning days, in workers and increase on weekends, pre-holidays and holidays. Therefore, the correct evaluation of the effectiveness of advertising is associated with the evaluation of marketing tasks for a specific period of time, taking into account the events of this period.

In real life, many factors affecting sales, can not be accounted for, valuation, so the result of any calculation of the effectiveness of advertising becomes controversial. The effectiveness of Internet advertising manifests itself in all spheres of social activity, so it can not be expressed in a single quantitative indicator, it can be calculated within the framework of a specific model and system of constraints.

Consider approaches to measuring the communication effectiveness of Internet marketing activities.

I. The Media Planning metrics method is based on the marketing technology of involving the Internet user in the purchase. In the Western literature, the communication model AIDA is widely known, implying four stages of consumer interaction with advertising information: attention ( attention ) , interest (interest), desire (desire), action (action).

Demonstration of the advertising message. The overall indicator of the effectiveness of the stage is the Awareness Index AW :

AW = A knowledgeable user/target audience.

The source of information for the target audience is data from independent services (for example, an ISP counter) for each internal site where advertising is planned.

The technical data for the analysis are:

• counters - they are placed in the public domain for all visitors directly on the site. The counters record the following information: the number of unique site visitors, the average time of browsing the site, the percentage of visits to the site from a particular search engine, etc. Free counters in Runet are provided by the services Livelntemet, Spylog, Hollog, Mail.ru;

cookie -files - files containing various dynamic information stored on the user's computer;

log -Files are files that log events of a different nature that occur on the site. For their analysis, special programs are used - log analyzers, which process these files and present generalized information in an understandable and user-friendly form. Their settings are set by special programs and stored on the server of the site's manufacturer.

If the purpose of an advertising campaign is branding, then the initial resource is user information on forums and blogs, relating directly to the company, its products, as well as news sites. Monitoring news, blogs and forums is able to provide information on brand loyalty to the brand, brand rating, etc. Search for news allows you to implement resources such as Novoneka.ru, News.Yandex.ru and others. Search on forums and blogs provides Blogs. Yandex.ru.

The primary indicators used in assessing the attendance of an advertised website are:

• the host is the user viewing the pages (associated with it is the unique IP -address of the computer from which access is made);

• Hit - view the site (the number hits on the site in a unit of time provides an opportunity to estimate the advertising capacity of the site).

Additional data from the sites are:

• graph and layout;

• the number of impressions, clicks (at least, broken down for each of the days, for each of the advertising messages, for each placement scheme);

• additional data. This is information received about visitors collected in a database (for example, questionnaires, registration, the base IP - of addresses, etc.).

A variety of parameters for assessing communication awareness are the following indicators:

• The number of impressions. An ad impression (Ad Impression ) means the download (display) of the advertising material on the web page of the advertising site when an Internet user accesses it. The number of impressions gives an idea of ​​the amount of posted advertising. It is advisable to consider the number of impressions in different sections: by sites, days of the week, time of day, display frequency, the geographical location of Internet users, in general for the period, etc.;

• The number of unique impressions is the number of impressions minus the re-delivery of the same Internet users. The number of unique impressions gives an idea of ​​the number of the online audience that received the advertisement (Ad Reach). The total audience reach during the period of the advertising campaign can not be calculated as the sum of coverage for each of the sites, because the audience of different sites may overlap with each other. Audience cross-section shows how many users saw ads on multiple sites at once;

• Ad Serving Frequency (Ad Frequency ) is the average number of impressions a unique user receives over a certain period of time. The frequency of advertising (AF) is calculated by the formula

where I is the number of impressions; UI - number of unique impressions.

Attracting attention. Surveys for attracting attention should be conducted on the websites where the ads were placed. The parameter for evaluating the attraction of visitors' attention is the CTR (click through ratio ) - the percentage of clicks to impressions. Currently CTR is the main criterion when comparing performance: advertising media, places and layouts, selected focus, etc. In fact, CTR is only a criterion for the number of users involved, but not their "quality". The CTR value is reported by the publisher: Ad Impression - the number of ad impressions, Number of Clicks - the number of clicks on ads. Then

where N i - the ratio of the number of users who clicked on the ad; N - the total number of users to whom the ad was shown. A good CTR is a value of 2-3%, i.e. on a specific site will come two to three people for every hundred impressions of the banner ad. With good targeting, this figure can increase to 10% or higher. However, recently the average CTR has become lower - from 0.4 to 1%.

If the site's purpose is to sell advertising, the most important task is not only to attract new visitors, but also to form a permanent audience on the server. There is such a thing as attendance pillow. The number of unique visitors is measured on average before the beginning of the advertising campaign, their number after its end. The difference between these values ​​is the increase in the constant audience of the site, the larger the increase, the more qualitatively the advertising campaign was made.

Interest. The effectiveness of the advertising impact at this stage is determined both through surveys and through indicators specific only for online advertising:

• number of clicks (from English click) - clicking a mouse when you hover over an item with a hyperlink. Number of unique clicks - is the number of clicks excluding repeated clicks from the same users.

CTR - the percentage of clicks to impressions:

where To is the number of clicks; I is the number of impressions. The CTR metric determines the appeal of viewing ads;

• click frequency CF is the ratio of the number of clicks to the number of unique clicks:

where To is the number of clicks; UK is the number of unique clicks.

The frequency of the click determines how many clicks an ad was made per user on ads.

Contact or visit the website. Not all advertisers will actually be visitors to the advertiser's site. By clicking on the link or typing URL in the browser window, users can: do not wait for the site to load at a slow connection speed or a bad site load speed from the server; may redirect the redirect service to the advertiser's site (this happens with banner networks); to be distracted from visiting the site. The site will load, but the user will not see it.

Redirect is a publicity stunt. When you click on the banner, you get to the site-blend, which instantly sends you to another address. The number of users thus lost can be determined as a difference

where Pt - losses from attracted users.

And if the number of ads and the number of hits on it with a certain level of accuracy can be reported by the publisher who placed the advertisement, then you can only appraise the actual number of users who were attracted by this or that site by examining the server logs.


Having data from a web publisher and data received from your server (logs), you can determine for each advertising direction an indicator that can be conditionally called contact efficiency CON:

where P - visitors; To - clicks; Рl - visitors to the logs.

For example, with P = 1000 and K = 20,000, CON will be

This means that the number of real visitors is 50% of the reporting figures of conventional meters.

Key indicators at this stage:

• the number of unique users ( Unique Users, Unique Visitors ) (unique visitors) - the number of non-repeatable Internet users who visited the advertiser's website for a certain period of time or the number attracted audience;

• Number of visits. Visiting (visit or session ) - user visiting the website: from the moment of call until the moment of exit;

• visit frequency (Site Frequency) - the ratio of visits to unique users:

SF = V/UU,

where V is the number of visits; UU is the number of unique users. SF characterizes how many users on average visit the advertiser's website over a certain period of time or what users are interested in the product;

• The geographic location of users who came to the advertiser's website is often one of the most important components when evaluating the effectiveness of online advertising;

• Pageviews (Page Impressions) - the total number of demonstrations for Internet users of web pages to be counted, including repeated demonstrations;

• Viewing depth - GP is determined by the number of pages viewed by each user in one visit:

GP = PI/V,

where PI is the number of pageviews; V is the number of visits. A large depth of view can indicate the interest of Internet users;

• The length of the visit is determined by the amount of time spent by the user on the advertiser's website in one visit.

Action. At this stage, the user may wish to do some actions that are favorable for the advertiser: call the company to clarify any information or to order the goods , arrive at the point of sale of goods, etc. After viewing the website, the user can send a message via the Internet to clarify any information, register on the website to participate in any promotion or for other purposes (if any); take part in voting, place an order.

Performance indicators at this stage:

• the number of actions. The advertiser himself determines what to mean by action & quot ;, depending on this, the number of actions is counted;

• The number of orders is calculated both during the advertising campaign and for a certain period of time after its end. Since some consumers subsequently abandon their orders, it is advisable to consider both the total number of orders and the number of paid orders, that is, the number of sales;

• The average number of sales per client About is calculated as the ratio of the number of paid orders to the number of clients:

O = N/Cr,

where N - the number of paid orders; Cr is the number of clients.

This indicator describes how often the clients attracted by the customers make purchases.

Repetition. Repeated user actions are more dependent on the quality of the site, the product and service being implemented. Repeated actions must be taken into account in order to have a more complete picture of the effectiveness of advertising. Performance indicators for repeated actions are used the same as in the previous stages. Therefore, to track which directions are brought not just by buyers, but by regular customers is very important.

The indicator of the effectiveness of advertising communications on the Internet should include telephone calls and sales. In order to track the number of phone calls, it is enough to indicate on the Internet page with contact information a unique phone number that is not used in offline advertising campaigns.

Additional performance indicators are:

• advertising implementation rate B - the ratio of the number of people who remembered the advertisement (CZ) to the number of people who remembered it (Cn):

B = Z3/= = Z3/(Z3 + ČN),

where Ч is the number of persons who have read the advertisement;

• coefficient of numerical analysis of buyers of the advertised goods:

Kef = (Ch/Chkz)/(Chn/Chk),

where ЧкZ - number of remembered buyers and bought the goods; Чкн - number of buyers from the number of those who did not remember the advertisement and bought the goods.

The total cost of a visitor (CPV from English cost per visitor) - stands for the price per visitor . This definition is one of the existing methods of payment for the work of the webmaster, which is calculated based on the actual number of clients attracted to the advertiser's site. The cost per visitor is equal to the ratio of all the funds that attracted the site to the total number of visitors.

II. Communication effectiveness of Internet marketing activities from the position of the site evaluation.

The communication effect from the position of the user's assessment characterizes the effectiveness of the site's impact on its user:

GCE = GSR & gt; V,

where GSR - the number of visits to the site during the study period; V - a user's rating of the site (the user's rating is obtained as the average value as a result of the user's questionnaire for assessing his impression of the site as a whole).

Evaluation of the creative component of the proposal is made expertly on the basis of compliance with the methods of planning and organizing promotional activities.

Indicator site communication relevance ( CSV) shows the importance of the site in the system of communication tools of the company's promotion or the share occupied by the site in the company's total communications:

where GC is the total target audience for the estimated period of the advertising campaign.

The communicative relevance of the site from the perspective of sales performance ( CSVR ) is calculated using the formula

where - frequency of references to the Internet site as a means of communication of the company; - the total number of communications mentioned.

The combination of orders formed on the site and payments made in the traditional way, with Internet analysis, allows to determine the effectiveness of advertising attractiveness of sites, the choice of advertising placement, types and forms of placement, which will ensure the rationality of advertising costs and the effectiveness of Internet sales.

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