Evidence Supporting NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE AREAS OF Cultural Marketing Essay


Globalization is an activity where countries get together to increase or develop their market. Technology, social, economic and culture play an equal part in the process of Globalization. Globalization helps in increasing overall trade romance between two or more countries, development in terms of new solutions, Impact of an company or company in conditions of ability and improvement overall, assists with increasing cultural understanding thus starting out more opportunities in real life in sense of job openings and new technology. Globalization takes on an important role in tourism/hotel industry where there is upsurge in improvements of technology, transportation, and communication. Global tourism/hotel has increased in comparison to any other reports. Detailed analysis and the stats are available on World tourism/hotel Firm website. A number of the stats which explain the overall increase in the global tourism/hotel are, Relating to Bull. A (1995), around 85-90% vacation nights in North America and European countries are spend by local holidaymakers and in Pacific Islands it is some around 7%, of course, if considered internationally its just 40-45% in north America who go out for getaways, 40% are associated with going, 8% are VFR holidaymakers, and 5% on government works (Bull. A, 1995). It has been seen between 198 0 to 1990 the entire rate of the tourism/hotel as risen to 4% per time. The climb in the neighborhood tourists can be concluded in such way that the hospitality industry is been striving to target and appeal to local customers by giving A Course service and food. As said by Peric (2005), credited to globalization there is certainly improvement in e-ticketing system, exploring, cost effective and easy transport to the areas. Development of the new websites related to hotels and tourism/hotel has given users all information regarding the transportation, the costs, and all the details.


Cultural homogenization is an important part of Globalization which includes been used in hospitality industry to be able to boost there monetary profits and make a symbol in overall hospitality industry all over the world. Cultural homogenisation is an assortment of two or more ethnicities, i. e. people or an organization combining several cultures to be able to bring one common culture that doesn't has any dissimilarities is called as social homogenisation. Cultural homogenisation has increased the acceptance of consumer needs and requirements such as food, refreshments, clothing etc. Increase in ethnic homogenisation has a great effect on culture in combining all people mutually from different locations and countries. As said by McLeod (2004), Globalization has a great influence on Cultural homogenisation. Cultural homogenisation can be defined with two conditions as "McDonaldization" and "Coca-colonization". McDonaldization can be refereed as the homogenisation of ethnicities which take place anticipated to large organizations, increasing westernization and Americanization in whole world. The homogenisation of the culture started out with the McDonaldization of the world.

Factors related to McDonaldization:

"McDonaldization is a process by which the guidelines of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate increasingly more sectors of world", (George Ritzer, 1993). Ritzer says McDonald has turned into a trademark or a role model for other food source organizations in providing good food and quality services to customers. McDonaldization has similar points related to Taylorism which isn't just changing the American culture but also in procedure for changing the earth culture. McDonaldization has been used many other organizations such as Playthings R Us), B. Dalton's Bookstores, USA Today, Kinder Health care, and many more. McDonald is famous due to its customer service, quality food and service, management techniques and decisions and controbility running a business. The five main factors which McDonaldization will depend on are Efficiency, Calculability, and Predictability and control (Ritzer G, 1993).

Efficiency: It is a way which is used by McDonald so you can get and fulfilling one goal to other i. e. obtaining higher profits by less budget and effort. The main point of increasing efficiency is exhibiting the pursuits in benefit for the clients, such as help on our own, drive through food, Supermarkets etc, at the last customer works for himself before that was done by organizations. Efficieniency can also be achieved by preserving organizational regulations.

Calculability: It really is defined in conditions of quantity with respect to products and the assistance provided to customer in stipulated time. According to McDonaldization, amount is add up to quality, and the simplest way in which that service is provided to the customer. Matching to Ritzer G (1993), he says that our culture deeply believes in "Bigger the Better". Many organizations who connect with the McDonaldization theory are Dominos Pizza who guarantee to provide pizza to the clients within half an hour, same with Pizza Hut who promise to deliver skillet pizza within 5 minutes in there shops.

Predictability: McDonald offers predictability with a offer to provide the same products and services over time. It's a step to build a organised environment by quality services over time. It says that the burger that was consumed in a electric outlet in United Kingdom should have the same flavor when eating in a shop in United States of America. The employees employed in the organizations who follow McDonaldization are also predictable who follow regulations talked about by organizations.

Control: Control is a method which is accompanied by McDonaldization organizations by which there employees are pre instructed to do particular responsibilities, some would be ranking at the money counter and will be coping with the requests and the money, they don't be making out the burgers, plus some employees will be making burgers and they won't be allowed to stand at cash counters. This working of employees are always supervised y the mangers in their individual stores. Organizations which employ technology in their McDonaldization process helps in serving in offering out the customers consistently.

Benefits of McDonaldization:

The 4 factors explained by the McDonaldization obviously indicate that the process can be used for providing good services and quality food. Economic Columnist Robert Samuelson also agrees to the goals and aims and the business structure model described by McDonaldization and also boasts that McDonald is best junk food restaurant which puts the targets of the McDonaldization into real life. Organizations that have embraced McDonaldization acquired many positive effects and also customers obtain get more options in range of products and services that happen to be listed below (Ritzer G, 1993):

Huge range of products and services are available to the customers with various selections and options.

Availability of the favourite products more easily and under one roof structure.

Uniformity in the merchandise and services by the organizations embracing McDonaldization.

Costly food items and services are now affordable by folks.

Increase in efficiency of the organization.

Better service, better quality, increase in profits.

Evidence supporting positive and negative aspects of Cultural Homogenisation:

Cultural Homogenisation has also been applied by Walt Disney Co. in aiming to gather the global tourism/hotel with demands and needs in promoting Disneyland Resorts. Disneyland was built-in California and within couple of months it had reached throughout the world. Utilizing the same idea and it was thought that start of the Disneyland in the Hong Kong will also gain same acceptance as it got gained throughout the world. Disneyland is at the top of your brain of every vacationer and had become a part of the culture atlanta divorce attorneys land. The Cultural Homogenisation got made Disneyland a trademark instead of something selled by Walt Disney Co. (Reisinger Y, 2004). This popularity of globalization had only made Disneyland famous but has also helped in attaining more profits by giving excellent service and entertainment. The theory of McDonaldization does indeed apply over here by which Disneyland has attempted to make a mark by combining culture of different nations by providing quality services and products to the clients. But the notion of launching Disneyland failed in Hong Kong credited to ethnical issues. The area was built-in Hong Kong with the same concepts which were employed in all other nations, i. e. starting of the Disneyland with the theme of Chinese language culture. Chinese visitor was reacted in different ways to the idea since it didn't have any indication of the mix culturalization or any different culture which would attract Chinese tourists. It had been said that tourists who liked the Disneyland in the California didn't like the Disneyland in Hong Kong. The primary reason for the failure is that the management didn't built recreation area according to the traditional western style since it was not a part of Chinese tradition. They had to make plenty of changes based on the customer requirements and requirements. This resulted to an enormous investment by the Walt Disney Company in getting the changes done according to the customers.

Cultural Differentiation:

Cultural Differentiation occurs because of the changes taking place in society, the lifestyle of the folks, the inter communication between 2 people or 2 categories or 2 civilizations. Cultures do change regarding change in the technology, ideas, politics, etc. "Tourism/hotel significantly affects the changes induced through contact between societies with different ethnicities" (Reisinger Y, 2004). Travel and leisure/hotel performs an important role in transformation of the culture. Regarding to Robinson (1998), Tourism/hotel can create such changes in culture of the number nation that it can be irreversible. Relating to Pearce (1995), Visitors are seen as medium for social change. The broadening of the ethnical elements such as ideas, food, drink, etc which impacts the culture is named as ethnical diffusion. In tourism/hotel the change in the culture which is designed by the countries is known as cultural diffusion. The ethnic elements which get modified due to the social diffusion are terminology, food, selection of music, and so many more. Regarding to Lockwood A, Medlik S (2000), Customer demands and needs are changing consistently under great pressure, for business or for personal entertainment travel and leisure/hotel industry have become a part of the day to life of a person. Cultural diffusion is although used to describe the common factors between two cultures, but additionally it is criticized. "Although the idea of ethnical diffusion is often used to clarify similarities among cultures, it's been criticized for implying that various civilizations would not be capable of development if it were not for ethnic diffusion" (Reisinger Y, 2004). Although McDonaldization has been used to bring 2 or even more cultures together there are some negative areas of the theory. McDonaldization helps in enhancing the civilizations in different countries by different culture elements such as food, clothes, drink, etc, but this change in the culture tradition of the nation also affects the change in the attitude of people where people make an effort to get adapt to the new cultures and traditions thus leaving again there age group old customs and cultures. As said by Teboul (1988), the techniques and the ideas used to reduce the price and improve the efficiency of the making industry, but this system would be undesirable to providers. Matching to Ritzer G (1993), the internal problems and issues only bring about inefficiencies, i. e. the fast expansion of the fast food hotels can give rise to the health issues to the clients and the affect the environment. Ritzer G (1993) also takes up the issues related to the quality and the assistance which also impact the hotel industry.


George Ritzer's McDonaldization of Population is a theory which can be used by many junk food industry and organizations to be able to globalize and offer quality service and food. Societies do change appropriately with respect to the cultural elements in so doing making a major change in the adoption of culture by the nation. Additionally it is seen that the ethnical differentiation occurs because of the cultural homogenisation where organizations originate from different cultures and they develop in various countries inheriting different civilizations, thus getting on changes in civilizations to different nations.

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