Feedback and noise, Noise or background noise - Basics...

Feedback and noise

An indispensable element of any self-regulating system is feedback. In the theory of communication, feedback is understood as the recipient's response to the source message. With feedback, communication becomes a two-way process, allowing both sides to adjust their goals, and their behavior towards each other.

Feedback is a reaction to what is heard, read or seen; information (verbal or non-verbal) is sent back to the sender, indicating a measure of understanding, trust in the message, assimilation and agreement with the message.

The term feedback appeared in cybernetics - the science of control and monitoring processes in systems of very different types. It is thanks to the use of the principle of feedback that cybernetics has become the general theoretical basis for solving the problems of information processing and management. It has found its application in the widest areas of human life: from the design of control and communication devices in electronics and sophisticated technology (in airplanes and spacecraft), the creation of automatic prostheses and automatic medical instruments to the design of machines with intelligence elements (self-learning computers). Therefore, feedback is called the core concept of cybernetics (E.Kolman), the universal principle of cybernetics and living nature (IL Poletaev), the secret of life (N. Wiener) and the secret of general orderliness, organization (P.Latil). In cybernetics, the feedback is understood as the process of obtaining information about the consequences of decisions and actions of the system in such a way that, if necessary, change its behavior and bring it closer to the desired goal.

From the point of view of cybernetics, biological, social and mechanical systems (living organisms, people, societies, mechanisms) operate according to the same principles, similar patterns of behavior are observed everywhere.

Feedback in the course of social communication is different from similar processes in automatic systems, since the recipient's response can not be predicted with 100% accuracy. Unpredictability of the reaction in some cases can be the main reason for comedy or, conversely, tragedy situations.

It is of fundamental importance for managing communicative processes that the feedback is:

• controlling (regulating) backlash;

• the impact caused by the transfer of information;

• Impact with its ultimate goal of increasing the organization of the system.

In the presence of feedback, the sender and the recipient change communicative roles. The original recipient becomes the sender and goes through all the stages of the information exchange process to send its response to the initial sender, who now plays the role of the recipient. Effective information exchange should be two-way directed: feedback is necessary to understand the extent to which the message was perceived and understood.

Feedback can greatly enhance the effectiveness of information exchange. It is thanks to feedback that the source of information finds out whether the desired result of communication is achieved (positive feedback) or not, or the message caused the wrong reaction to which the source calculated (negative feedback). In a number of sources, the opinion is expressed that, in order to increase the effectiveness of communication, negative feedback is even more practical than positive, since it can become the basis of constructive dialogue (remember the statement about the dispute in which truth is born). According to a number of studies, a two-way communication (in the presence of opportunities for feedback) compared to a one-way communication (feedback is absent), although it proceeds more slowly, nevertheless more effectively removes social tensions, is more accurate, and increases confidence in the correct interpretation messages.

In any case, stable feedback is a necessary condition for effective communication.

Noise or background noise

In conditions of real communications, it is practically impossible to construct a process of transmitting information without direct or indirect noise (background) support. Is it only in conditions of deep outer space. In the language of communication theory, noise is what distorts the meaning of the transmitted information message. Overlaying various rustles, sounds, background tracking, etc., can not only complicate the process of transferring information, but even completely block it and discredit it. Thus, during the Soviet Union, radio frequency "jamming", which created radio interference and noise, was widely used by the special services to combat Western radio propaganda, which made the work of foreign radio stations more difficult. Hence, in the process of technical and technological communication, such a concept as "noise interference" appeared. More noise is discussed in the section "Communication Barriers".

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