Forks of the barriers of perception of a new product
Recall the main conclusion of the model of customer behavior based on the thesaurus: differences in the thesaurus of the buyer and the goods can prevent the perception of the goods and its purchase. What specific barriers to the perception of innovation should an entrepreneur remember?
First of all, two types of perception barriers should be distinguished:
Perceptual barriers perceptions are inherited by a person at the genetic level. As the instinct of sucking milk mother is born with the child, so the instincts of rejection of certain objects of the external world appear simultaneously with the appearance of man to the light. The mechanisms of appearance and functioning of inherent barriers of perception by modern science have not yet been revealed.
Acquired barriers perceptions appear as the human body develops and accumulates experience of consumption. The more informational potential (thesaurus) of the consumer, the more the quantity of goods the buyer is able to absorb. As a rule, the perception barrier can arise at the stage of product identification.
A type-A barrier occurs if the product has been partially identified, recognized on the basis of accumulated experience as undesirable for consumption (the mind establishes a barrier of perception of negative experience). This phenomenon is based on the fact that the analysis of sensory information uses two sources of information: sensory signs and expectations. And it is the expectations based on the previous experience of consumption or knowledge of such, impose their perception on perception and lead to the rejection of the consumption of this product. In the economy, the existence of a type A barrier of perception can explain the care of business units about business reputation and the good name of the firm, the nature of inflationary expectations, etc. Also, consciousness can limit or prohibit further consumption if the product has not been recognized, i.e. is recognized as unknown, new, having established for this a barrier of perception of the impossibility of recognition, hereinafter referred to as a perception barrier of type B. A similar barrier from the point of view of communication is known as the lack of fundamental knowledge. The consumer thesaurus is too low to identify the product. A person can not even understand what is in front of him and what benefit from this product can be extracted.
A vivid historical example of the existence of such a barrier is the invention by King Gillett of a safety razor. The traditional razor looked like a sharp knife, and the design of a safety razor was radically different in appearance. The buyer did not understand the purpose of the proposed design at all. The inventor was almost ruined because of the presence of this barrier.
Both these barriers are presented below in Fig. 2.5 and 2.6.
Fig. 2.5. Type A perceptual barrier
Obviously, the type A perceptual barrier leaves the consumer less likely to start consuming the product, since without conscious intervention, it does not allow any further consumption, including virtual consumption. In addition, the occurrence of a type A barrier is much more common than situations where the consciousness of a healthy mature person can not completely recognize the observed product. However, both perception barriers are characteristic for consumption of product innovations, which carry elements of novelty for the consumer. I would like to cite several modern examples illustrating the presence of barriers of perception when consumed
new products and their negative impact on the marketing of innovations. Both situations, cited as an example, were observed at the enterprises of St. Petersburg.
Fig. 2.6. B-type perception barrier
Barrier A. The small shipyard has developed models of boats and boats made of fiberglass. Starting with the export of ultra-small fiberglass boats abroad, the company has set a strategic goal to present its products, a product line of fiberglass boats, on the United States market in different regions of the country. Unlike foreign consumers, fishermen, hunters and tourists in our country did not have much experience in using fiberglass boats and reacted with caution to certain distinctive features of the new product, for example, to the glistening glossy surface of boats, which, in their opinion, had to quickly scratch and lose its appearance, the light weight of the boats, giving rise to a sense of unreliability of the design, and the white, fleet, and too noticeable, in the opinion of domestic consumers, the color of the boats. As a result, a barrier of perception A emerged, which was expressed in transferring the experience of using unreliable plastic products to a new product. To overcome barrier A, which hampered the sale of boats, special measures were taken, in particular, the company started to produce this product in a new color version. Despite the fact that nine out of ten boats sold abroad were bright white, marketers, under the influence of consumer demand, decided to change the color of the product to dark green, as the technology used allowed it. A number of boats were produced even in a two-tone version of the "khaki", imitating mud stains. Other special measures to overcome the barrier A have not been taken from consumers, since it quickly disappeared naturally, as positive responses from the consumer to the consumer spread. It turned out that fiberglass boats outperformed wood in strength, the shiny gelcoat on the surface does not wear out, and the light weight of the new boat makes it much more transportable and convenient to operate.
Barrier B. At the turn of the 1990s, A small research-and-production enterprise entered the consumer market with a product innovation - scissors "zigzag". These tailor's scissors allow you to cut the fabric in such a way that special edge processing is not required before the products are sewn. By that time, the company had the technological capabilities of high-precision manufacturing of working surfaces of scissors, using for this purpose technology and materials used in the manufacture of turbines. This product innovation was unique for the United States market, and the company faced selling difficulties caused by the barrier of perception B, when consumers did not know how to use the new product. Only after a piece of cloth cut by "zigzag" was put into the transparent blister pack of scissors in the factory to demonstrate to the customers the advantages of a new method of cutting fabrics and stimulate virtual consumption of the product, and also after explaining to marketing organizations the principle of operation and advantages of using edge scissors zigzag at exhibition expositions, the barrier was overcome, and the sale of a new product reached the planned volume. It is interesting to note that consumers in the Polish and Romanian markets, where the new product was also distributed, were already familiar with this method of processing fabrics using similar products from a well-known foreign firm, and the perception barrier B did not affect sales to the same extent as in the domestic market.
It should also be noted that in addition to these psychological barriers of perception inherent in innovative products, there are also traditional barriers to the consumption of any product associated with poorly positioned, of which the price barrier is most often considered.
Additional complications arise if the firm was created recently, and the buyer is unfamiliar with the firm (its image has not yet been formed). This also makes it difficult to promote the product on the market.
However, the product novelty has some unique features that make it possible to meet the demand more effectively. This circumstance, naturally, facilitates the promotion of the product novelty. The examples cited convincingly show that when the barriers of perception are successfully overcome, the goods begin to enjoy a steady demand and bring the company revenue.
In connection with the presence of barriers to the perception of new products - different degrees of consumer awareness of the goods - the company is useful to divide customers into several standard categories.
First, depending on the degree of awareness of the product of the firm, customers are divided into three categories.
1. Customers who hear about a product for the first time Such customers need a complete information service. The client needs to explain the advantages of the product novelty, give information about the price of the goods, the place of possible acquisition, after-sales service, etc. It is not excluded that in some form it will be necessary to train the customer to use the goods.
2. Customers who are aware of the product but have not yet purchased it. The main task of the company in this case is to force the buyer to use the novelty for the first time. The tools of the solution can be: a stimulant purchase of information impact, free distribution of samples (sampling), transfer of goods for rent, manufacturing of goods by small (cheap) volumes and other forms of sales promotion.
3. Old customers of the company who have already purchased this product. The company's task in this case is to make them regular customers. To ensure that new lots of the same goods are bought, to interest the client with upgrades of the base model. The most important tool for preserving the customer is a quality and all-inclusive service for the product.
Depending on the willingness to acquire technically complex products, buyers are divided into technophiles and technophobes.
Technophiles are those customers who are happy to purchase any technically complex product. They are fascinated by the technology itself, regardless of its purpose. Technophiles are more often young and well-educated people with a fairly high income.
Technophobes are people who experience discomfort when using technically complex products, afraid to buy them. Technophobes are those with a low educational level and a solid age. The older the person and the less his level of education, the less willingly he acquires and uses technically complex goods. For example, 25% of the population in the United States has never used a personal computer.
The tools for overcoming information asymmetries between the firm and the buyer, the buyer and the goods will be described in detail in the sections on methods of promoting the goods on the market, service, etc.
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