2.2. Forms of verbal communication
External and internal speech
Oral speech can be conditionally divided into external and internal.
External speech includes a polylog (defined as a kind of equal dialogue of many people), dialogue, monologue. The problem of dialogue is fundamental for studying the communication process.
External speech serves for interpersonal communication and, as a rule, is characterized by such qualities as: personalism and targeting in the process of communication; spontaneity and ease in direct communication; high level of situativeness in your daily routine; Emotionality. The main goals of external voice communication in everyday person-oriented communication can be both the exchange of information, and Fatic speech (communication for the sake of communication; ; about weather, etc.). As the main key feature of external speech, one can single out its accessibility to perception through the auditory or visual channel of other people.
Inner speech is understood as the communication of a person with himself. But such communication is not communication, as there is no exchange of information. Inner speech is very shortened, collapsed and almost never exists in the form of complete, detailed proposals. This is explained by the fact that the semantic and interpretational meanings of one's own thought are clear to a person, and therefore he does not need additional detailed verbal formulations. Expand inner speech only in those cases when they have difficulties in the process of thinking.
Oral and written speech
Depending on whether you use sounds or written signs for the communication process as semantic codes, there are different types of external speech, such as spoken (everyday colloquial, business , specially-professional, slang, etc.) and written speech. Oral and written speech have their own psychological characteristics.
In the process, the person perceives listeners, their verbal and non-verbal response to their own sign signals - the words themselves, their meaning, form, interpretation, etc. Receiving a fast feedback, he can correct, change his further speech, adjusting it to the specific conditions of feedback. In addition to the linguistic means proper, a person can also use extralinguistic (gestures, facial expressions, speech tempo, pauses, etc.), which also influence the degree of understanding by listeners of his speech.
Dialog (polylog) and monologue
Depending on the situations of communication, oral speech takes the form of a dialogical or monologic speech. Speech, which involves more than two people, is called a polygraph. In the process of dialogue (polylogue), people speak in turn. In a domestic conversation dialogical speech is not planned. The direction of the dialogue is determined by the statements of its participants, their comments and remarks, objections or approvals. The speech of each participant in the dialogue is supported by questions, answers, objections of the interlocutors. In a number of cases (for example, in an examination), the dialogue is deliberately organized in order to clarify a number of certain issues, and then the speech is purposeful.
Dialogue speech makes much less demands on the construction of a coherent and expanded statement than other types of external speech. In this case, often preliminary preparation is not required, since the interlocutors are in the same equal situation, they perceive the same facts and phenomena and therefore understand each other relatively easily. They do not need to express their thoughts in a detailed speech form. An important requirement for interlocutors in dialogical speech is to be able to listen to the interlocutor, understand him, his objections and respond to them, not his own thoughts. Dialogue speech is characterized by the active use of extralinguistic (non-verbal) means.
Monologic speech assumes that one person speaks while others listen. Monologic speech is manifested in various speeches: a lecture, a lecture, a speech on the radio or television, etc. The common and characteristic feature of all forms of monologic speech is its pronounced focus on the listener.
The purpose of such a speech is to influence the opinion (attitude, outlook, belief, etc.) of the listeners, convince them of something, or influence their information level or pass on to them knowledge. In this regard, monologic speech requires a coherent presentation of thoughts, as well as not only preliminary preparation of the text message of the speaker, but also scrupulous study and analysis of the intended audience. It requires the speaker to logically and consistently expound his thoughts, express them in a clear, accessible and distinct form.
With the help of written speech, as a rule, they turn to an absent person who will be able to read what was written only after some time. The absence of direct contact between the writer and the reader creates some difficulties in the structural (interactive) construction of written speech.
Written speech does not have extra extralinguistic means for better presentation of thoughts, as in oral speech: it can not use gestures, facial expressions, intonation, or pauses; it does not imply knowledge of the situation by the addressee (except for computer texts, when written information the component of the message can be emotionally enhanced with the help of specially and pre-specified symbolic symbols - "emoticons"). From the available selection tools, you can only use the selection of text elements in font, italic or paragraph. Therefore, written speech should be expanded, both semantically and grammatically. The writer must build his message so that the reader can understand it. On the other hand, in written speech, in comparison with oral speech, there is some advantage: the written can always be re-read. Also, unlike oral speech, written speech allows you to comprehensively, carefully, carefully and carefully study the semantic content of the message text.
2.3. Culture of Speech
Classical rhetoric has always paid much attention to the logic of constructing speech, the persuasiveness of argumentation. However, the latest scientific data of scientists-philologists and psychologists and the modern practice of interpersonal communications point to the inadequacy of this approach. The subject of interest in contemporary rhetoric is not only the speeches from the rostrum, but also other forms of communication: public appearances at meetings, rallies, participation in television and radio programs, presentations at business meetings, scientific conferences, international forums, etc. Therefore, speech can not be evaluated only from the point of view of reasoning, logic, as a certain one-dimensional phenomenon. The situation of verbal communication is a complex systemic education with many elements included in it. Specificity of the new approach can be considered a radical turn to the communicative side of speech. At the moment, such techniques are being developed: manipulation of the interlocutor (his misrepresentation, admonition, flattery, intimidation, emotional appeals, etc.), persuasion, etc.
Composition and style of speech. Typically, in rhetoric, a composition is understood as the arrangement of arguments.
The style refers to:
o choice of arguments;
o location of the main arguments that are important to the audience and possessing the maximum force of persuasion;
o location of the secondary arguments;
o choice of words (if the speaker uses non-literary words and expressions, he is regarded by the audience as an unauthorized person);
o correct pronunciation of words (a negative impression on listeners is produced by improper pronunciation of words, non-literary stress and similar errors);
o the right choice of synonyms (the speaker must choose words that would be understandable to the audience).
Folklore rules of speech etiquette. Yu. V. Rozhdestvensky in his book "Theory of Rhetoric notes that in folklore there are generally accepted rules of etiquette of speech, which are not common etiquette rules and refer exclusively to speech. The rules of speech etiquette are the same for different peoples and represent the universal of speech behavior. These rules are universal because without them it is impossible to build any language as a means of communication.
Understanding the productivity of the dialogue and guaranteeing its logistical productivity are formulated in the very source of speech activity - folklore rules of dialogue.
The basic rules of dialogue are given in the book by Yu. V. Rozhdestvensky General Philology (1979). They fall into three main categories: rules for organizing the dialogue, rules for the listener and rules for the speaker.
Rules for organizing a dialog are, in turn, divided into three categories:
The first digit defines the relationship of people in the dialog.
1. Evaluation of a person by knowledge of the forms of speech etiquette.
2. Prohibition of impolite speech and the recommendation of politeness.
3. Prohibition of insulting a word.
The second category defines the order of the conversation and contains the following rules:
1. The word goes ahead of the non-verbal action, precedes the non-verbal action.
2. Hearing precedes speaking.
3. A significant default is part of the dialogue, expressing the perception and understanding of what has been said.
The third category defines typical errors in the organization of the dialog.
1. An error occurred in the order of the dialogue.
2. An error occurred in the violation of the subject of the dialog.
3. There was an error in electing the participant of the dialogue.
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