History Of Athletic Footwear

In this assignment of Marketing and Creativity a product is required to be picked and shown how it includes advanced over/ during its life pattern till date. The product thought we would be reviewed in this task is boots where there is particular concentrate on the athletic sneakers. The progression of the sneakers has been exceptional ever since its first design back in the 1800's. This creation has been impressive in many ways.

The trainer has changed in many ways adapting to life-style, tendency and needs. The athletic shoes have evolved to accommodate different needs of world. They may have change in developments and materials. They have even become lighter, plus more refined and nice.

The sneaker has been swiftly evolving over the last 20 years by using technology that makes each trainer different from

The reason I have chosen this product for my assignment is because tennis shoes play a essential in my healthy lifestyle. They are used to safeguard my feet and give additional support while i exercise. Without trainers I may have a whole lot of injuries.

An analysis will be achieved on different brands and on their strategy in learning to be a leader in the industry along with an recognition of a specific brand of choice and just why this is actually the preferred brand for me personally and how they perform on the market.

History of the Footwear

Footwear has been in presence to mankind for more than 20, 000 years which has been illustrated by Spanish carvings. Footwear over the generations has advanced in many forms and fashions for different practical and purposes. The evolution of foot coverings, from the sandal to present-day shoes that are marvels of engineering, continues even today even as we find new materials with which for our feet If one can deduce that basic shoe shapes have evolved only a great deal, it is necessary to discover why it has happened Considering shoes from various areas of the world, one can see undeniable similarities. As the Venetians were using the chopine, the Japanese healthy on high-soled real wood shoes called geta. Although shape is slightly different, the idea remains the same. The Venetians experienced no contact with the Japanese, so that it is not really a case of imitation

Shoes have always placed a special status for humans. Whether as symbols of riches and status or as easy cover from jagged stones, freezing snow, or other robust terrain, the history of modern human development goes submit hand

In this assignment special concentration will be put on a specific aspect of the sneakers category known as the athletic shoes. The sneaker is a comparatively modern invention using its root base in the Industrial Revolution. The word sneaker is traditionally defined a shoe consisting of a solid silicone sole attached to an upper made, usually, of canvas. While rubber soled shoes called plimsolls had been in use for some time for aristocratic grass sports, and Ruler Henry VIII was reported to acquire worn a sneaker-like shoe for playing playing golf, the true life of the sneaker did not start until American inventor Charles Goodyear copyrighted the process for vulcanization of silicone. Until that time, the trainer as we know it now, was simply not possible By the early 1900's, trainers were being produced by small silicone companies who customized in the development of bicycle wheels.

Evolution of the athletic shoe

The sneaker as it's commonly known as has changed in many forms such as shape, design, features, functionality.


In the early 1900's the typical form of the shoes would end up like a L. These trainers were suitable for specific use and the condition had not been important. It had been the utilization of the footwear that was important. The elevation of the boot would be right above the ankle which is also called a high top. . Also the shape of the shoes it was difficult to inform the departed or right part rendering it difficult to put up and making them relatively uncomfortable. This was a significant defect of the tennis shoes moving thru from time to era. However in 1920 the form of sneakers began to improved because they were now be created for other functionalities and kinds and comfort was very important to excel. These forms were designed to embrace the foot, that you can identify the left and right side of the shoe, comfort and style.

Table 1- Life pattern of the sneakers


Goodyear, then a rubber sneaker company and department of the U. S. Rubber Company- Naugatuck, Connecticut starts to manufacture silicone and canvas shoes under different names, finally settling on Keds as the best name.


Marquis M. Converse establishes Converse trainer company, revolutionizing the game of golf ball for more than half a century and becoming an American icon


Keds are the first mass promoted shoes. These shoes are later called Sneakers by Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Kid, because the bottoms are calm and make no sound on any surface


Adi Dassler, founder of Adidas, starts producing handmade training shoes in his mother's washroom without electricity


Puma Schuhfabrik Rudolf Dassler is founded and the world is released to the PUMA Atom, PUMA's first basketball sneaker worn by participants of the Western world German sports team


Sneakers will be the preferred shoes of teenagers and the symbol of rebellion. These cheap and easily obtained shoes are worn by students around the world. In the U. S. , cheerleaders wear sweaters, short skirts, and ankle joint socks with canvas topped shoes (or keds). The style is officially sanctioned when James Dean is photographed wearing his Levis skinny jeans and white tennis shoes.


Phil Knight, an enterprise major at the School of Oregon, and his coach, Bill Bowerman, partner to provide a low cost, hi-tech athletic footwear under the name Blue Ribbon Sports activities (BRS


BRS begins marketing new designs and technology and changes their name to Nike. Nike is known as after the Greek Goddess of Victory


Bill Bowerman pours plastic into his wife's waffle flat iron, creating the basis for the popular Nike Waffle Racer; a sneaker with the optimal traction of waffle bottoms, wedged heel, the padded mid-sole, and nylon uppers. Nike sold its waffle soled footwear by stating that four of the very best seven athletes at the 1972 Olympic Trials wore Nike shoes


Nike creates the first Nike Air single units, leading to the revolutionary Nike Air padding. Nike also releases their first running footwear with the copyrighted Nike Air technology, the Nike Tailwind


Nike emits the to begin a long line of shoes, the Air Pressure One. This durable sneaker has been released in a low, middle, and high-top editions. The Air Make 1 has survived over two decades with little change to its basic design and continues to stay a legacy and a fashion statement with its numerous colorways, however, the all white AF1 remains the favourite.


Chicago Bulls golf ball rookie, JORDAN, endorses a type of Nike shoes and clothes. Nike emits the first Air Jordan.


The design aspect of the sneakers has evolved within the centuries. The original designs were basic dark and white shoes with big laces with the plastic sole. Over the years the sneaker industry has become very competitive and design is one of the elements that companies use to gain competitive gain. Now sneakers are made with leather, towel, canvas, mesh each one of these materials are used to include additional comfort to the shoes for the users. They also have design shoes with no laces, important gems. The developing process has truly gone so forehead that shoes are designed to provide so much comfort to generate the illusion that you will be on air, and a lot of emphasis is played out on comfort.


When trainers were first created the key feature was to cover your ft. and provide a fresh level for comfort. Within time the features has increased enormously where one has to wonder what else you can get from a trainer. Some of the features introduced over the years are a pump to tightens the boot on you feet, reversible laces, additional support for your heel and instep, timers for running and the now have the ability to sync with digital lightweight music players. These features has been used to keep current and ahead thinking to keep ahead in the competitive market.


There were basic features for these sneakers back in the traditional time. The original purpose was to for all goal uses such as cleaning, gardening, going out. Within the 1950 the tennis shoes started to be used for hockey, then they had been used other sporting activities. Now in today's environment trainers are being produced for specific and multiple purposes. Companies have developed a tactic to market more shoes by making shoes predicated on the needs of the user. Based on the use of the sneaker each consumer will have different needs and there's a shoe suitable for that such as fashion, running shoes, and field hockey shoes football shoes etc.

Competitive environment of different brands

The athletic shoes industry has developed through the years where there were a whole lot of entrants into the market. It is becoming highly competitive where the relevant companies have implored stringent strategies into their organization to become industry market leaders and generate profits. The companies that will be analyze in this industry are Nike, Reebok, Adidas, Fila and Puma.

The improved customer spending in this industry has backed impressive progress of top sneakers companies like Nike Inc. , Adidas-Solomon AG, and Reebok International Ltd.

This new tactical trend in the athletic boots industry places more importance on general market trends and consumer wants. It also demands greater supply string management (SCM) technology, building a competitive benefit for those companies who've successfully achieved this demand. This new tactical trend also increases the barrier of access for the athletic clothes and footwear industry.

Branding remains the greatest source of competitive edge in the footwear industry. Over 75% of the industry is managed by branded items. Within the shoes sub-industry specifically, 80% of sales are brands. The competitive advantages gained from high brand reputation closely permeates four of the five causes in Porter's Five Pushes Model. This competitive benefit is realized through increased brand loyalty, increased switching costs, rivalry benefit, and increased hurdle to accessibility.

Marketing and Advertising Strategy

Adidas, Reebok, Puma and Nike have all employed in a variety of marketing. Even though the footwear industry has performed slower than others, both Internet marketing and e-commerce has recently helped the industry flourishes. For instance, Nike, Adidas, and Reebok have designed websites which allow customers to purchase products straight from the respected company. Such websites add to a solid marketing combination.

Nike's strategic marketing strategy includes advertising on television, the web, print out billboard, athletic champions that they use to endorse the brand. Sportsmen such as Michael Jordan and Lance Armstrong have contributed to the success of the brand. Nike also utilizes digital marketing. Aswell, Nike is rolling out a partnership with UPS to support their online sales and delivery system. While Adidas marketing strategy comprises of them promoting its website with a variety of contests concerning its endorsed sportsmen such as Dwight Howard NBA superstar and David Beckham world renowned football player. In addition they utilize Television and billboard advertising.

Puma marketing strategy has been one that involves unconventional and creative ideas to guarantee the seamless interplay of elements from sports activities, lifestyle and fashion that provides the brand its unique image. Whereas, Reebok takes on it safe and use their marketing strategies to a specific market portion, utilizing traditional advertising such as Tv set and print out advertising.

In today's society, the individuals of the world have grown to be extremely attentive to brand names, but Nike retains the most market share from successfully targeting a larger audience. .

Competitive and Market Strategy

Nike has a worldwide market show in athletic-footwear of 33. 2%, a market share higher than the 25% held by Adidas-Solomon and Reebok mixed. Nike's most favorable attribute and the source of its best sustainable competitive advantages is its brand. Puma has a global market show of 6. 8%, the third largest when compared to Nike Inc. and Adidas-Reebok. Puma's focused strategy and personal image have been one of its most successful forms of competitive benefits.

Chart 1

This is the point where this companies must determine if they will singularly follow a distinct segment market or a full-line strategy. To make this decision, the firms must weigh the cost of offering yet another product and the revenue generated by doing so. In order to understand this more fully we will study Porter's generic strategies construction.

In this competitive environment each brand must adopt a technique which they believe will best suit them to get competitive advantage in some away over the countless competition in this industry. These strategies assist in the business in planning and performing their operations and marketing communication and distribution. By utilizing Porter's generic strategies construction Nike, Adidas and Puma have all determined to be impressive and front thinking and these actions classify them as implementing the differentiation strategy where they target is usually to be cutting edge to get a clear business lead of the competition. Reebok has adopted a cost leadership strategy as they are concerned with offering affordable shoes to a very wide-ranging market. The concentration strategy has been fully endorsed and used by Fila as they specifically concentrate on women in their marketing activated aside from concentrating on a high end clientele cased on the distribution retailers.

Another strategy that the firms use to gain competitive benefit is by expanding and idea and patent. Among the exclusive licenses that distinguish Nike from the others of its opponents is the branded "Air" technology that the business uses to sell footwear. "The procedure utilizes pressurized gas encapsulated in polyurethane. " Reebok also developed a patent know as the Reebok Pump which used to help make the boot tighter on your feet when the pump on the tongue of the shoe was squeezed many times. Adidas also achieved it with a shoe called the Predator which includes rubber patches fastened with teeth-like dimples to the exterior of the kicking section of the boot in order to permit the wearer to use extra spin to the ball when passing and capturing.

Although some Nike Air patents have expired, Nike still keeps lots of succeeding Nike Air patents, and patents that cover specific features in a variety of athletic and leisure shoes that won't expire for several years.

Benefits to the Nike shoe

Core product- Nike guarantees that you will get a durable resilient trainer. They use materials that are appropriated based on the sort of sneaker and the utilization of it. Nike places a great deal emphasis on the core product that they take tennis shoes off the creation collection if 1 inch of an thread is out of line.

Functional benefits- These benefits that you will get out a wearing a Nike sneaker is sometimes incredible. The shoes are comfortable, fit for you foot, provides the support and more for your feet which means you can perform your best at whatever you do. The development of the shox and the move air technology provides additional support for your heels and feet for maximum comfort and performance.

Added value - the additional value that you get from Nike trainers is a sense of comfort and that you can do whatever you want once you are wearing Nike trainers. Nike presents their products like no other brand

Uniqueness of design

Shape & colour -The form of the tennis shoes are streamlined and form fitting. They are exact and fit the feet like glove. They have managed to develop the technique to develop shoes to match the different forms of feet and still make it look attractive. Nike use a variety of colours when involves shoes design. They use specific shade mixtures for different market and a few of these colors are smart. Their colour combination sometimes can look unequaled but somehow it works and the trainers are incredibly attractive.

Product design-the product design has been relatively the same with changes, they have created shoes like the Presto no laces merely to slip-on and its own comfortable. They may have had the opportunity to keep carefully the product design very simple but consistent with the Nike swoosh present at least at four locations within the trainer. .

Brand Appeal

Nike loves the level of popularity of its brand name, which is identified all around the world. Its name posesses trademark, and therefore makes it unlawful for other companies to infringe upon the Nike name. Aside from the brand name, the business also has a hallmark for the 'Swoosh Design' custom logo that identifies Nike Inc. Actually, Nike considers its name and the 'Swoosh' image to be the most effective assets; therefore, the company registered these trademarks in over 100 countries

Nike is the world leading sports shoes or boots and it is renowned because of its marketing campaigns and sports celebrity tie-ups. Together with the growing d's pinnacle position in the top quality goods market, strong marketing and star tie-ups would permit the company to get higher market share

Proprietary Knowledge

Nike has invested and achieved the most among any other sports activities company in expanding cushioning Systems that reduce shock, distribute pressure, and provide comfort for athlete's ft. Nike is credited with being the first ever to design shoes that encapsulates air to pillow foot-strike. The business's Scientists also have engineered a fresh model called "Zoom Air" for NIKE's jogging shoe-line. Focus Air Shoes are very light and they're made to bring the athlete's feet closer to the earth to permit greater maneuverability.

Nike's Innovation

Innovation can be explained as a process by which an idea or technology is translated into a good or service for which people willing to cover. This technology must be replicable at an economical cost and must fulfill a particular need. Nike has prized itself on invention especially with its award being successful web development, NIKEiD. com, the Shox technology and also with the joint venture with Apple to build up the ipod touch Sport Kit or Sensor.

Nikeid. com gave consumers the liberty to customize their own boots and gear, the website redefines the e-commerce business in the garments and shoes industry. Nike gains substantial competitive gain with NIKEiD. com which contributed to increase customer commitment, and provide Nike with valuable data on consumer habits.

The Shox technology originated to provide additional support and comfort for the heel of runners as Nike was focused on insuring that sports athletes are comfortable to execute at all times.

The development of the ipod device sport set up allowed Nike to permeate new marketplaces as these were able to fuse fitness with a digital player. No other competition had considered that idea. To present this new development, Nike redesigned a few of their shoes to support the sport kit sensor, which syncs with the ipod device. The sensor measures the experience and records the data on the iPod. Nike has done extremely well thru their effective marketing strategies. However it can be concluded that Nike has generated "Value Innovation". Value creativity is about making the competition irrelevant by creating uncontested market space. Through the use of these three new and progressive theories it could be clearly determined that Nike has anticipates the needs of the end user long before they even recognize it.

Nike Success story

The key features that are responsible for Nike's success in this boots industry are the ability to conform and create changes in the industry, offering retailers services and strong support. Nike places a substantial focus on marketing the business and its products. Among the primary explanations why Nike is so successful in popularizing its sneakers is basically because it utilizes activities stars as their spokespeople like the legendary field hockey player Michael Jordan, Serena Williams and Lance Armstrong.

The strategy that they developed was called "word-of-foot" advertising. Nike wanted to have their products be worn by the best players on earth which strategy paid enormously. Customers began purchasing Nike shoes or boots due to the product-quality image the runners were portraying, which strategy took the company's sales to new highs.



Nike performance on the market can be identified as way above average and their use of technology and figuring out customers needs show that they are forwarding thinking. It is important that the keep at this innovative process since it has been the main contributor because of their increase or keeping their competitive benefit in the industry.

However Nike still must examine their environment on a continuous basis as the conclusion is understanding how to adapt and modify quickly. Companies like Adidas and Puma are becoming innovative and are reaching out the needs to the customers with forward pondering principles and fashion.

Once Nike is still innovative they'll be the market leader consistently all they have to be adhere and live by their slogan and get it done.

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