Importance of marketing in the period of modernization of education
Over the past two decades, the United States system of higher education has functioned under conditions of reform and adaptation to emerging market relations. There was a profound structural restructuring of the education system, the main results of which were the diversification of types of educational institutions, educational programs, the formation and development of the non-state sector in the education system, the growth of paid educational services, etc.
The transition to a market economy contributed to the development of marketing in the field of education, through which educational institutions respond to external influences of the environment, adapt their internal capabilities to the requirements of market participants.
Marketing in education is both commercial and non-commercial in nature and is aimed both at creating, successfully promoting and implementing educational services and products, and for obtaining a favorable social effect (Figure 1.1).
Marketing allows you to study the demand for educational services, assess the impact of various labor market factors on the performance of the educational institution, identify the patterns of the formation of demanded
Fig. 1.1. The functions of marketing in education
specialists, to develop and implement the marketing policy of the functioning of the education system.
In accordance with the government's policy of modernization of higher education, the role of marketing in the activities of universities has significantly increased. This is due to the need to find ways to improve the effectiveness of management of universities, which is possible only if marketing is used and its tools are constantly improved.
Modernization of United States education takes place in the face of increased competition in the market of educational services. Universities that use the marketing campaign are striving to meet the needs of the population in educational services more qualitatively than competitors.
The main characteristic of the competitiveness of an educational institution is the quality of educational services provided to them. It is not for nothing that improving the quality of higher professional education is one of the priority tasks of modernizing education.
The introduction of Total Quality Management (TQM) - the methodology of universal quality management, which has been implemented worldwide for the last 15 years - is helping to improve the quality of education in United States universities. TQM is based on the quality assurance standards laid down in the ISO 9000 international standards. Initially, the use of quality management methods has become the most widespread in the industry. However, at present, the implementation of the elements of this system and the creation of a quality manual for educational institutions are being carried out practically in all countries of Europe and in the USA.
The main factors determining the quality of training specialists (in accordance with international standards ISO series 9000), should be considered:
• technical - the material and technical base of educational, scientific, support and service units of the university;
• technological - educational technologies, including creative technologies, computer training programs, Internet technologies, Web technologies, etc.
• human (social) - system of relationships between students and staff of the university;
• Administrative (organizational) - a well thought out organizational structure and a clear management of the institution as a whole and management of the quality of education in particular;
• Economic - financing, planning, pricing, etc.
The first three groups of factors (the material base of the university, educational technologies and active qualified personnel that influence the educational process through the intellectual capital of the teaching staff - the teaching staff) form the basis for training specialists meeting modern requirements. These factors can be considered the foundation of quality. The fourth and fifth groups of factors (organization and management of the university, including the quality of training specialists, and funding education) can effectively implement the educational process.
However, despite the importance of each group, the human factor dominates the management of the quality of training specialists, which is conditioned by the fact that "... the quality of education is determined not only by the quantity and quality of knowledge, but also by the quality of the personal, spiritual, civil development ...
The introduction of TQM in United States HEIs will allow to solve the problem of improving the quality of providing educational services in order to meet the needs of the society and train specialists who meet the requirements of the current stage of the country's economic development.
The need to improve the quality of higher professional education is due to the fact that the acceleration of scientific and technological progress predetermines, on the one hand, the rapid aging of information, on the other - the accelerated process of updating human knowledge. In this regard, there is an urgent need for constant updating of knowledge, improving learning technologies.
At the present stage, the need for updating knowledge is partially solved by information technologies, the introduction and mastering of which in universities requires substantial financial investments. In addition, the goal of changes in higher education is the expansion of the number of educational programs, the choice of the form of training, the increasing of the conformity of the offered educational services with the requirements of consumers, employers and the state, diversification of sources of financing.
Quality management is associated with the management of marketing in two ways. On the one hand, consumers should receive true promises regarding the quality of educational services through promotion tools: advertising, public relations, promotion of sales. On the other hand, marketing is responsible for feedback to consumers, using surveys and other ways of obtaining information.
The implementation of marketing technologies involves the consideration of such factors as the orientation towards the demand for educational services, the latest achievements of science and technology, the use of effective methods, technologies and training aids, the individualization of training, mobility that allows you to quickly change the nature, content and terms of training, and number of students.
The federal program for the modernization of higher education provides for the formation of a new model for training a specialist with higher education. In conditions when the state support of the university directly depends on its competitiveness in the market of educational services, on the quality of training specialists who will be in demand in the labor market, it becomes clear that marketing of higher education is one of the leading directions of activity of any higher educational institution.
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