7.4. Indicators of insincerity of a person, observed in the process of communication
It is possible to describe the real processes that are taking place with the help of the scientific and practical tools developed on their basis. The authors developed a systematic description of the indicators of insincere communication, depending on the forms of their manifestation and the level of functioning of the psyche (Table 7.3).
Table 7.3. System description of the insincerity of a person observed in the process of communication
7.4.1. Psychophysiological level
This level includes two forms of manifestation of insincerity indicators: the vegetative and kinetic forms. Let's consider them in more detail.
Vegetative form of manifestation of insincerity indicators
Indicators of insincere communication associated with the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
With the emotional excitement that usually accompanies the process of distortion of information by the communicator, the autonomic nervous system (VNS) also produces some noticeable changes in the body:
- the way of breathing changes (frequent/rare, deep/shallow)
- the person begins to swallow more often;
- there may be profuse sweating; reddening or blanching of the linden and its individual parts;
- the twitching of the lips;
- pupil dilated;
- rapid blinking;
- micro-tension of facial muscles and other changes;
- holding your breath when you receive particularly important information.
If the subject experiences fear, anger, depression, guilt or shame, then for him, a marked breathing, a bulging chest, swallowing sweat, a smell or the appearance of sweat is significant.
The activity of the SNC is very difficult to censor. However, such changes signal the presence of emotion, and not about what kind of emotion it is. Therefore, in similar situations, the question is relevant: in this connection, the interlocutor had strong emotional reactions?
Skin color change.
It is believed that blush is a sign of embarrassment, accompanying also shame and guilt. It is more typical for women than for men. The face blushes with anger. But the paint of anger and the blush of embarrassment or shame can vary in intensity, localization on the face or duration. The face blushes only with uncontrollable anger or if a person tries to curb anger on the verge of collapse. With more controlled anger, a person can whiten or turn pale, as well as from fear. Pimple can also appear if the expression of anger or fear is hidden.
With negative feelings (pain, fear, anger, anger), the iris of the eye darkens, with positive (joy, love) becomes lighter. There are also changes in the appearance of the eyes due to the contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye-nose apple. The movements of these muscles determine the shape of the eyelids, the visible zone of the proteins and the iris of the eyes, as well as the general impression that the eyes produce. But the movements of these muscles do not give reliable indicators of distortion of information.
With emotional excitement, blinking intensifies. When a person is excited, the pupils widen, but arbitrarily, at their own desire, this can not be achieved, since this index is regulated by the autonomic nervous system. This can be a sign of excitement, anger, fear.
Tears are also a function of the autonomic nervous system, but they are characteristic only for some emotions. Tears are caused by sadness, suffering, a sense of relief, in some cases, pleasure and irrepressible laughter. Thus, suffering or sadness may appear. Tears of pleasure will not leak if laughter itself is suppressed.
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