INNOVATIONS IN PACKAGING AND THEIR MARKETING
Studying the material of the chapter will allow the student:
• the main elements of a modern packaging complex;
• the most significant innovations in the field of packaging;
• the main elements of design and labeling of consumer packaging;
• forms of protection of intellectual property rights in the field of packaging;
be able to
• accept, substantiate and evaluate key decisions in the marketing of new packaging;
• plan work in the field of packaging marketing;
• on the basis of market research, choose an adequate packaging design strategy;
• Develop marketing elements of the packaging complex;
• Strategies in developing new packaging;
• skills in developing a marketing concept for the new packaging;
• The methodology of packaging marketing;
• protection techniques for new models in the packaging of high-tech products.
Modern packaging complex
Elements of the packaging complex
The most important element of the innovation package is packaging ( packaging ), or more correctly a packaging complex. Indeed, many studies confirm that the buying momentum at the point of sales is triggered precisely by packaging. This forces the developer of a new product to take care not only of quality, but also of packaging their products. Packaging has now firmly taken the place of the fifth P in the innovation marketing mix, along with price ( price), product ( product), place (place) and promotion (promotion). Most marketers view it as an essential element of the product strategy on innovation. Today, when the market was flooded with goods, the competitiveness of the products being developed became directly dependent on the packaging. The United States market of high-tech products was flooded with products of foreign companies, which is well, colorfully framed and supplied with the necessary information. Packaging of domestic manufacturers often loses significantly in competitive struggle against the background of well-thought-out design of foreign products.Today, an urgent problem for United States innovative entrepreneurs is the creation of a competitive packaging that should ensure the promotion of a new high-tech product while being economical, convenient to use, and well protect the goods during transportation and storage.
Packaging is difficult to give an accurate definition. First of all, the package is the wrapper of the goods, which facilitates the implementation of the following functions: storage of goods, transportation of goods, product identification, rationalization of commodity trade, creation of the image of the firm and trade mark, ease of use of the goods, improvement of consumer properties of the goods. Elements of a modern packaging complex are: internal packaging; outer packaging; transport packaging; marking. In other words, the packaging of a commodity is a container, or a shell, of a product, container or material in which the goods are stored. It is intended to preserve the product after its manufacture, as well as to give the cargo compactness for the convenience of its transportation. In addition, packaging is the most important carrier of advertising. Packaging can also be defined as the capacity in which the product is contained, plus all those parts that are necessary to protect the contents during transport; for its correct use and in order to persuade the consumer to buy it. Among the main characteristics of the package is the suitability for processing, ease of transportation, external appeal and ease of use. Everything that is not the product itself can be called packing. However, sometimes it is very difficult to separate the packaging from the product. In a literal sense, it is impossible to separate the lipstick from the case, the matches from the box, the tube from the cream. The CD case is also considered by some not as packaging, but as part of the product itself. Packages themselves can contribute to the creation of new products. If there was no suitable packaging, then probably there would be no consumer goods such as shampoos, pancakes, frozen dinners, soups, concentrates and many others. Product improvement often occurs simultaneously with the improvement of its packaging. An integral part of the package is the label (sticker) on which the trademark and some other information (grade, description of the goods, etc.) are usually indicated. The attractive design of the label promotes the promotion of the goods along with the rest of the packaging.
Especially it is possible to select four functions which packing should perform.
Localization function. Any package means a limitation in a certain amount of a certain quantity of products. This packing function allows the produced product to pass through the distribution system: loading and unloading, storage, transport network, i.e. allows you to move the produced product from one place to another. As a result, the buyer gets the opportunity to buy goods where it is convenient. The ordinary buyer expects the product to be already packed. Packaging becomes an integral part of the development of modern forms of self-service, sales of high-tech products, sale of finished products in catalogs, etc. For many products, it is simply necessary to use a special package, for example, it is not possible to sell an aerosol spray paint without packaging, capable of withstanding the pressure of the propellant.
Thus, the packaging development process becomes an element of the development and production of a new product.
Protective function. This function of packaging should ensure, on the one hand, protection of the product being packed from the harmful effects of the environment, and on the other - protecting people and the environment from aggressive and dangerous products through their special packaging. Most of the products need protection from environmental influences, which can partially or completely ruin them: for household bleach, this can be protection against loss of chlorine, for potato chips - protection against increased humidity, for computer microprocessors - protection against electrostatic discharges, for household machinery - protection against mechanical damage. The protective function of packaging is extremely important, as in the world the mass of food products deteriorates, and does not have time to reach the consumer. The wide application of packaging helps to improve the efficiency of the food production system. For example, in India, 70% of food is spoiled and thrown away, and in the US, where the packaging industry is well developed, only 4%.
Packaging may include protective devices that do not allow you to carry unnoticed goods from the store.
The packaging should protect the environment (including people, nearby objects - shelves, handling equipment, storage facilities, the whole city) from its contents. Particular attention is paid to the protection of the environment when creating and improving the packaging of chemically active (or sticky), dirty or other products of this kind.
At present, when the boom of packaging production is observed all over the world, a significant problem is the protection of cities from the remnants of used packaging, rational use of raw materials for its production.
Ensure ease of use of the product. This function consists in the fact that the package must satisfy the customer's requests, provide the person using the product a maximum of useful services. For example, the package should be easy to open, allowing you to extract and use the product, and (if necessary) to close so that part of the product can be stored for reuse. In some cases, its contents should be practically inaccessible to curious children.
It may be necessary for the package to measure the dosed amount of the product or have a sieving nozzle, a gutter groove to facilitate the use of the product, or a special edge along the entire container to make it easier to break the paraffined paper or plastic film to the required width. Special packaging is required to preserve the sterility of some medical products, etc.
Packaging should be convenient, i.e. designed for an unprepared consumer, and understandable even without detailed instructions on how it operates. Packaging should be practical, i.e. suitable for the delivery of goods to the place of its sale; it must deliver the goods to the consumer in the form and sequence in which it is necessary for the effective use of its contents.
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