Integral quality indicator as a characteristic of...

1.4. Integral Quality Score as a Product Competitiveness Characteristic

We consider competitiveness as a property of production. Its quantitative characteristics are different indicators of product competitiveness. The main, most common indicator of competitiveness is an integral quality indicator. It was proposed by the staff of the All-Russia Research Institute of Standardization in the 1970s, and then standardized (2).

The integrated product quality score (I) is the ratio of the total useful effect of using the product to its intended use (P e ) to the total cost of its creation (Z n ) and operation (Z e ), i.e.

(1)

For example, in the tire industry, the integral indicator is defined as the ratio of the mileage indicator ("mileage") to the cost or price of the tire.

For a washing machine, it is considered as the ratio of the amount of laundry washed over the whole service life to the total costs that are formed from the cost price and the costs of repairing and paying for consumed electricity.

In the future, we will give the integral indicator a broader meaning, understanding by it the relative characteristic, which is determined by the ratio of the complex quality indicator (U), reflecting the utility of the product, to the consumption price (C Σ ), emerging from the sale price and consumer costs during operation:

(2)

It is this comparison is guided by the average consumer, choosing the necessary goods from a set of analog goods. It is the quality/price ratio that is widely used by consumer organizations in our country and abroad, determining the rating of goods based on their competitiveness.

Quality and "competitiveness", of course, the terms are not identical. The term integral metric - this is the bridge between them.

Because the essence of the concept of "competition" - this is a rivalry, it becomes necessary to use a relative indicator of competitiveness - the level of competitiveness.

The level of product competitiveness is a relative quantitative characteristic.

The basis for the definition of the term can be put the formulation, which was proposed by AN Litvinenko and AM Tatyanchenko, who in the early 1980s. conducted an in-depth study of the competitiveness of machine and technical products and proposed to understand the competitiveness of the product, which reflects its difference from the competitor's product both in terms of the degree to which it meets the specific social need, and the cost of satisfying it " [115].

If the above statement is taken as a basis and bind it by the time of the time, then you get an accurate and capacious definition of the term: level of competitiveness of the goods - the relative characteristics of the product, which reflects in the period under consideration its difference from the competitor, degree of compliance with public needs, and the cost of their satisfaction.

The level of competitiveness (K) is determined by the following formula:

(3)

where I 0 - an integral measure of the estimated output; I a is the integral measure of the analog product.

If K & gt; 1, then the estimated product outperforms the analog product.

In Table. 1 compares the competitiveness of American and domestic rocket carriers (see [45]).

Table 1

Indicators of launch vehicles

Metrics

Types of missiles

Shuttle (USA)

Energy (USSR)

Carrying capacity, t

24

100

Cost, $ million

360

66.3

Integral rate, t/mn USD

0.067

1.5

From the data of Table. 1 it follows that the level of competitiveness of the Energy is approximately equal to 21.

For a comparative comparison of goods on competitiveness, estimated by the integral indicator, a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system is used, in which, as a rule, the quality (complex quality indicator) is represented on the vertical axis, and on the horizontal axis - the price (sales price or price consumption). Within the system, a rectangle with four quadrants is drawn. This method of graphical representation of competitiveness, which shows the position of an object relative to analogs, is called object positioning (Figure 3).

Fig. 3. Competitive Product Positioning

Sectors: 1, 3 - goods with intermediate values ​​of competitiveness; 2 - goods with high competitiveness; 4 - goods with low competitiveness; - the position of the rocket "Energy"; - the position of the Shuttle rocket "

Competitive advantage of the goods - a qualitative and (or) value characteristic showing the superiority of this product over competitor goods in meeting the buyer's needs. The advantage can be expressed directly as a competitiveness criterion or in a mediated form - through factors: improved packaging, raw materials, technology and the like.

thematic pictures

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