10.2.2. Types of advertising psychological impact
The main types of influence in advertising communications are information, persuasion, suggestion and motivation.
Information forms the basis of an advertising message, but information alone, devoid of emotional background, can not be considered a full-fledged advertising.
Information by its nature is always neutral. It does not address the emotional sphere of our consciousness, it is devoid of personal meaning, does not affect our needs, interests, and even more so - our system of values and attitudes. In other words, the information does not affect our motives. Its psychological function is to ensure the memorization of the transmitted material. Information does not imply testing this material, its comprehension, critical evaluation, etc. To such information it is possible to carry announcements of the newspaper "From hand to hand". Such information acts as only one of the components of the advertising appeal.
Persuasion can be defined as one of the most important ways of psychological advertising. The essence of this method is to convince the buyer of the merits of the advertised goods, to convince them of the need to acquire it, it is directed at the rational sphere of the potential buyer's consciousness, i.е. advertising appeals to his mind.
According to the points of view presented in the literature on this issue, the process of persuasion involves a critical comprehension of the information received, correlating it with one's own life experience. Convince - then using arguments to prove the need for this product for the buyer, its advantages.
However, to persuade a potential buyer that he needs to purchase a particular product can be only if the buyer has the need for this product. If the buyer is offered something completely unnecessary, then the process of persuasion will be powerless.
Let's say a buyer is really interested in this product. Having received the information and arguments in his favor, the buyer carefully weighs everything for and against & quot ;. If the arguments persuaded him, the purchase will take place. If not, there will be no purchase.
Three groups of arguments are used in the persuasion process.
The first group. It includes arguments based on indisputable truths and on the personal experience of those who are persuaded. For example: "Do you want to be healthy?" Our medical center ... Who does not want to be healthy? ".
The second group. Gives a positive argument in favor of the product.
Third group. Gives negative information warning the buyer about the difficulties, and even the danger, if he rejects the goods. However, a negative appeal in advertising violates its basic principle - "pleasant impressions of pleasant things". Negative arguments can be used only in rare cases when the absence of an advertised product threatens the fundamental values of the buyer - health, prosperity, career, preservation of social status, etc.
Argumentation in advertising. As a rule, advertising uses two methods of argumentation: logical and psychological.
o Logical way refers to the rational sphere of our consciousness. That is, it indicates a problem known to the consumer, and immediately suggests its solution. The scheme is simple, but, nevertheless, it works well: "Do you have a problem? It is very simple to solve ... Buy ...
o The psychological way appeals to the opinions, feelings and interests of those who seek to persuade advertising. In this case, advertising refers to the emotional sphere of our consciousness. She tries to convince the consumer that her offer will satisfy the personal interests of the buyer: "Do you want to be paid attention to men? Paint your hair with the color of "Vella Color", and you will be irresistible! ". Another effective way of psychological argumentation in advertising is to appeal to the people: "Everyone uses this tool (commodity), and you?". This technique is designed for the conformism of most buyers, when people rely not on their judgment about the product, but on the judgment of most people. It is based on trust in the experience of a large mass of people. Example: "The new generation chooses Pepsi!"
As advertising practice shows, appeals of a psychological rather than a rational plan have greater success. The greatest effect is achieved by combining both logical and psychological arguments.
All advertising argument is based on the facts - what is the advantage of this product. In the case of arguments, the arguments can also be presented in the visual series. Advertising persuasion is promoted by the repetition of advertising: they could not convince the first time, they convinced with the twenty-first. Either the brain was tired of resisting, or really liked the product.
Mailing list ("direct mail") and mail marketing ("direct marketing") as a form of persuasion in advertising. These technologies are based on a personal, personalized, individualized appeal to the buyer, the consumer. The task of the mailing list is not only to sell the goods, but also to establish a dialogue with the consumer, long-term communication. The address appeal to consumers, based on the knowledge of certain data about it (its economic position, inclinations and habits, needs and interests) gives a very good effect.
Benefits direct mail and "direct marketing": selectivity, confidentiality of treatment, an active response of the audience, control over the back reaction of the consumer, the variety of forms of treatment, concealment from competitors, the ability to track fluctuations in the mood of potential buyers.
American researchers argue that mailing is today one of the most effective ways to influence the consumer. Basically, it's sending out catalogs and promotional letters to customers asking them to use a free phone. Postal contact allows you to establish long-term friendly relations with consumers. The consumer's confidence in such forms of advertising rises sharply. Accordingly, the persuasion effect increases.
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