LATERAL MARKETING AS INNOVATIVE MARKETING, The concept...

LATERAL MARKETING AS AN INNOVATIVE MARKETING TYPE

As a result of studying this chapter, the student must: know

• basic concepts of lateral marketing;

• history and prerequisites for its occurrence;

• principles of lateral marketing;

• the main approaches to the formation of the company's innovation policy;

• The essence of the process of lateral marketing;

• concepts of lateral marketing; be able to

• highlight the differences between lateral and vertical marketing;

• Identify the situations in which to apply! lateral marketing;

• own technology of lateral marketing at the level of the market in general, goods, prices, communications and distribution channels

• Apply lateral shift methods: union, inversion, elimination, hyperbolization, reorganization;

own

• the principles and technologies of lateral marketing;

• skills of structuring the archive of ideas of lateral marketing shifts;

• By the methods of creative thinking of Edward de Bonnet.

The concept of lateral marketing

Lateral marketing is an activity aimed at creating non-standard, creative approaches in the development and optimization of marketing business processes and the development of new products.

The approaches of lateral marketing are based on the ideas of lateral and divergent thinking and are designed to search for new ideas not by the method of expecting inspiration, but through the use of special technologies.

Divergent thinking (from Latin (vergere - divergent) is a method of creative thinking, usually applied to solve problems and problems.It consists in the search for a set of solutions to the same problem.Divisions of divergent thinking were dealt with by E. Torrance, J. Guilford, K. Taylor, G. Grubber, I. Hain, A. Shnsder, D. Rogers

The brightest of the listed scientists is Guildford Joy Paul (1897-1976), an American psychologist who developed methods of factor analysis of intelligence, widely used in the US in the 1950s and 1960s. to diagnose the creative capabilities of engineers and scientists.

Lateral Thinking (lateral thinking) is a method of non-standard approach and problem solving. The term suggested in the late 1960's. Edward de Bono, now one of the most authoritative experts in the world in the field of creativity, "guru" management and marketing.

Edward de Bono was born in 1933 in Malta, where he graduated from the university, continued to study medicine, psychology and physiology at Oxford and then taught there, as well as in Cambridge, Harvard, London. At present, along with lecturing and consulting practice, much attention is paid to activities in the Supranational Thinking Organization in The Hague. The author of almost 50 books translated into 35 languages.

In 1989, he was invited to take the chairmanship of the Committee of Nobel Prize laureates. Leading industrial corporations, such as IBM , NTT (Japan), applied to the method developed by him for the development of weighted thinking, DuPont, Prudential , Shell, Eriksson, McKinseys , Ciba-Geigy, Ford and many others. Currently, Dr. de Bono directs the implementation of the extensive special educational program developed by him for general educational institutions and is designed to promote the development of children's creative thinking skills. This program has long been recognized in official circles and has found the widest application in many countries of the world.

Dr. de Bono is the founder of the Institute for Research on Creativity and Cognition (started in 1969) and the International Forum of Creative Workers, which unites representatives of many professions and leaders of the world's leading enterprises. In addition, he established the International Community of Creative Workers in New York to help UN member countries (the United Nations) develop new ideas.

The most important of his works de Bono considers I right - you are mistaken , and the most popular - "Six Hats of Thinking" .

The concept of lateral thinking with submission de Bono firmly entered the English language and has already taken a place in the dictionaries.

Lateral thinking has the same basis as creativity, and humor, but unlike them can be applied as deliberately as logical thinking. Lateral thinking involves restructuring patterns, moving away from restraining patterns and creating new patterns.

The lateral thinking is completely different from the traditional vertical thinking (logic, mathematics), where the movement occurs in successive steps, each of which must be justified (Table 9.1). Vertical thinking uses standardized problem solving algorithms. De Bono gives a comparison: vertical thinking deepens the existing pit, and the lateral digs a new pit. The best creative thinking you'll find is digging out a lot of holes that will be deep enough.

Table 9.1

Characteristics of convergent/vertical and divergent/lateral thinking

Convergent/Vertical Thinking

Divergent/lateral thinking

Logical, rational

Gaming, associative

In one direction

In many ways

Remains within the topic

Moving away from the topic

Homogeneous, devoid of contradictions

Heterogeneous, assumes contradictions

Tested solutions

Finds new ways

Criticisms improve convergent thinking

Criticism interferes with divergent thinking

The right solution

Many original solutions

Source: Nelke M. Creativity techniques.

The ideas of E. de Bono about creating a new one were very close to Philip Kotler and his co-author Fernando Trias de Bez, who applied the ideas and approaches of lateral thinking to marketing, thus creating an addition to traditional marketing.

F. Kotler defines lateral marketing as a workflow that when applied to existing goods or services results in innovative goods and services that cover needs, target consumers, or situations not currently covered, and thus is a process that offers high chances to create new categories or markets. Thanks to the ideas of E. de Bono, the creation of a new product has become a matter of technology that is in the sphere of influence of marketers.

Lateral marketing allows you to generate ideas, which are followed by standard tasks: re-equipment of production in the event of a new product, the use of new materials, the recruitment of new specialists in the case of new promotion methods, the risk that the product

will not go & quot ;. Lateral marketing will give an advantage at one of the stages of the chain, making companies more dynamic.

Thus, the goals of lateral marketing are:

• identification of new needs that the product can satisfy if it is modified;

• Expansion of existing market segments due to changes in characteristics and attributes of the product;

• Identification of additional needs for existing customers;

• Analysis and identification of additional situations of use of the product when it is modified;

• generating ideas for modifying goods based on an existing product;

• Analysis of substitute goods for attacking an existing product.

The technique of lateral marketing is a sequential

three stages. Initially, the focus is chosen, the level in relation to which the shift is made (market, product, the rest of the marketing mix). Next, the shift is provoked to generate a discontinuity. At the final stage, when connecting a gap by applying valuation methods, a relationship is established, resulting in a new product, usually becoming a new category, subcategory or market.

The main stages of lateral marketing, developed by Philip Kotler and Fernando Trias de Vez, are presented in Fig. 9.1.

Step 0

Choose a product or service

Stage 1

selection of focus, loop1 vig. The level of the goods is determined

the view to which we want to produce lateral) lateral marketing: the level of definition) a, the level of the rest of the marketing mix

Stage 2

provoking on the basis of sixoperations

a lateral shift for generation of discontinuities: replacement, inversion, union, hyperbolization, elimination, reorganization

Stage 3

Thinking about consecutively otsl. and positive

both connections of the gap using three techniques: the process of buying, the extraction of the usefulness of other things, finding a possible environment

Fig. 9.1. The main stages of lateral marketing

* The lateral shift is a change in the course of thought, placing an obstacle in the middle of a sequential chain of a logical chain.

This approach can be used for all elements of the marketing mix: product, price, place, promotion (Table 9.2).

Table 9.2

Selecting the lateral shift focus

F. Kotler in his work "Lateral Marketing: The Technology of Searching for Revolutionary Ideas" gives quite a lot of examples of the generation of lateral shifts (Table 9.3). However, all the examples given are already considered on existing products, which are difficult to consider new at this stage, believing that under new products (generic

The lateral shift focus

An object that can be changed

Marketing gap generation method

Product

1. Material goods.

2. Packing.

3. Brand attributes, product use, or purchase process

Replacement is to change one or more items of a product. An example, you can replace "professors teach students" on students teach students & quot ;. Students one by one are preparing a lesson. Each day one of them explains the lesson to the rest, and the professor acts as an observer.

Combination is to add one or more items to a product or service, keeping everything else unchanged. For example, Redesi was the result of the idea of ​​a bicycle on electric traction, in which the batteries are charged when they are driven by pedals.

Flip is the conversion or addition of a particle not to an item of a product or service. for example, freshly prepared pizza turned into stale, and now it has filled refrigerators and refrigerators around the world.

Deleting is to remove an item of a product or service. For example, the idea of ​​a phone without a wire led to wireless phones, and a perfume without a bottle led to the development of aromatic candles for the home. Hyperbolization is the exaggeration or understatement of one or more elements of a product or service or in the image of a perfect product or service. So, removable contact lenses were born as a result of the idea that contact lenses can be taken every day.

Reorder is to change the order or sequence of one or more items of a product or service. For example, the idea of ​​packing not yet cooked popcorn led to the creation of popcorn for microwave ovens

Price

Pricing Formula

Place

1. Places of distribution.

2. Trading formats.

3. Time to market

Promotion

1. The formula for communication.

2. Types of communication channels

Market

1. Need or utility.

2. Goal:

3. Place.

4. Time.

5. Situation.

6. Experience

or a new product category) we understand used by consumers along with traditional ones, possessing unique properties. The new product destroys the habits and existing behavior of consumers and requires the creation of new consumption technologies, sets new bases for competencies. We will give examples of such innovations, which are currently at the stage of commercialization of projects.

Table 93

Generating a marketing gap.

Creating shifts to interrupt logical thinking

Operation

Market Level

Item Level

Marketing Complex Level

Replace situation

Popcorn in discos, not in cinemas

Hot dog from cookies instead of rolls

To pay for diapers, you take out a loan

Inversion

Sending roses when the couple breaks up

Pizza not delivered to your home

Stores without prices for goods

Join

Champagne

for parents and children

Hot Dog with Ketchup

Buying gasoline in kiosks

Hyperbolysis

A pencil that never scribbles

200-liter bottle of Coca-Cola

A picture you always return after purchase

Exception

A car that can not go

Laptop without screen

Clothes without advertising

Reorganization

Writer, then reader. Reader, then writer

Turning on the lights when leaving the house

Payment of phone calls before they are committed

Employees of the advertising agency Sunrise in Yekaterinburg invented to print on air fresheners excerpts from the recently published books. Stories on air fresheners. Is not it a good way to make a bestseller out of a book? Very much! The original advertisement was tested by the book network "100 000 books". Ego is not the continuation of novels in a series of fresheners, it is one of the most striking and catchy passage from a book on an air freshener, which is likely to be propelled by the purchase of a certain book. And, of course, they did not forget about advertising their company on every balloon sticker with the inscription "Nothing to read?" 100,000 books! Buy one! & Quot ;. The store manager in an interview with Komsomolskaya Pravda said: "Unfortunately, now interest in reading falls. This original advertising is designed to activate the United States reader. To the advertising agency "Voskhod" we ordered 8,000 cans. "

Within a month, the network stores "100 000 books" increased the number of their visitors by 23%. The unexpected effect of the original advertising made me take into account the idea of ​​introducing a new format of books - "Short stories on air fresheners" .

This example illustrates the application of lateral marketing technologies on the product - the book, the focus - the marketing mix - communications, the lateral shift - the union (Figure 9.2).

Fig. 9.2. Example of using lateral marketing - a book

The following example will consider the sportswear market, the focus is the marketing-sales complex, the lateral shift-replacement (Figure 9.3).

Fig. 93. Example of the application of lateral marketing - sportswear

The famous Runbase brand store is more like a city sports club for runners than a regular outlet. This unusual store for runners is located near the Imperial Palace, surrounded by a vast park that has long been a favorite place for runners from all over Tokyo. Runbase is equipped with 16 shower cabins, 248 storage boxes, which are offered for rent to fans of running. Moreover, the store offers its customers to rent sportswear and footwear, which is best suited for running. Salespeople-consultants of the unusual store Adidas Runbase are always ready to share advice and recommend to customers the most convenient option for sneakers, leggings, trousers and shirts. It is interesting that sportswear can be changed at least every day, testing different collections and models before buying.

Not every brand can decide on such a loyal option of interaction with its customers. This is the destiny of really strong companies, absolutely confident in the highest quality of their goods. But the reward for such loyalty to buyers is quite high - buyers are willing to pay the same, with love and loyalty to the brand, which offers them quality goods, professional approach and comfort, and care, making them happy.

Finally, our third example will concern the design services market, the focus is the color selection service, the lateral shift is the order change (Figure 9.4).

Fig. 9.4. Example of using lateral marketing - the market of design services

The pen for choosing the exact color of Scribble - this is the design concept of the invention that will shake the world when it finally enters the market. For many years designers have been struggling for the perfect technical realization of a tempting idea - to paint in exact color. The concept of the Scribble pen is this: you bring the smart pen-scanner to the object you want to draw. A handle recognizing Scribble colors scans the color of this object and "remembers it". Moreover, it prints out the formula, how to mix the ink available in the database so that the color is exactly the same as the object, and not what you have in the palette.

After that - draw an object on paper (if you can draw). Make sketches. We do not know what kind of object the form will have (especially if you do not know how to draw), but as far as color is concerned, the color will be - the tunic is what it was in reality.

Who needs the invention of a pen for color matching Scribble? Of course - the designers in the first place. To all who are engaged in the design of apartments and general interiors. Next - fashion designers. To everyone who sews costumes, inspired by nature, who makes sets (bows) from disparate parts of the wardrobe, who needs to pick up a scarf to the purse, and wallpaper to the curtains.

Everyone who sketches sketches in the notebook - harmonizes the colors and fantasizes about the palettes - the Scribble scanning pen will come in handy very, very.

But the artists handle Scribble is not useful, because artists (like their "colleagues" - physicists interested in the section "optics") know: there is no "real" colors in nature. Red the apple changes its color

during the day, depending on how it falls on the light from the sun or the shadows of other objects, for example, shadows from foliage.

But artists of a different type, looking for a harmonious color interior or wardrobe of the woman of fashion, will remain with the Scribble scanner handle are satisfied. Artificial synthetic colors though and various, but are rather stable and predictable.

In the end, for the selection and determination of such commercial shades, it would be desirable to invent a mobile application akin to Shazam in music. As Shazam, the defining song from the speaker, such a mobile application for the designer would define the number and color cipher from the palette of this year.

thematic pictures

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