Market Segmentation And Goal Marketing Marketing Essay


The marketing of leisure especially open public leisure service is new since marketing originated for providing products profitably, marketing is simple it about understanding the needs of prospects and understanding the needs of customers and giving an answer to them(George, 2004). It all about achieving the needs in our possible client and making the general public know what leisure is approximately and what leisure services offer to the public and the huge benefits that one can get in participating in leisure programs. Leisure services and facilities be based upon satisfied customers or each goes out of business (George, 2004). Example if we provide a leisure program in a specific community and no person is considering taking part in that program then we will walk out business. Marketing is not about advertising but can be involved with the needs and wishes of potential customers. Indeed leisure management itself is essentially a marketing process-meeting the needs and requirements of people through leisure opportunities. Marketing effect us all, the purpose of marketing isn't just about marking revenue, but also about client satisfaction, the grade of the services, the turnover, the range of people, the choice and opportunity of the program, the improvement /profit made and other relevant standards. (George, 2004). marketing is the top part of leisure services.


For many years, marketing had not been part of recreation area and recreation career in the public and nonprofit sector. Organizations hired visitors to plan and implement programs but no-one to tell the general public about them. Marketing was kept up to the programmer and could have consisted of expanding flyer, distributing a brochure or mailing out a media release. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

The concept of marketing has modified, marketing in leisure service has relocated beyond flyers and brochures to integration of marketing mixture, marketing plans, focus on marketing and general market trends. Marketing is an innovate area; almost never can an agency attract way too many people to use its programs and services. Thus, it is important to know the fundamentals of marketing to be able to increase use of programs and services to the required level. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Definition and record of marketing

Marketing can be defined as the purposeful planning and execution of the pricing, place and promotion of ideas, goods and services to produce an exchange of the time or resources that cause the satisfaction of individual needs and organizational aims. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Planning and execution of





Satisfaction of specific needs


Organizational objectives

Exchange of energy and resources

Figure 1. 1 Explanation of marketing (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Marketing has not always been identified and performed in this fashion. marketing history can be divided into four eras. this consists of the production time, the sales era, the marketing era and the service marketing era. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

1. Development era

The industrial trend evolved how people worked well and spent their money. Increasing numbers of people functioned in factories and were able to mass-produce products for consumers. This age concentrate more on goods than what the consumer wants. The production will choose the goods, put it on the marketplace and the client will buy the goods. people where able to buy things for the first time, demand often go over source. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

2. Sales era

Beginning in the 1930's and during great major depression resource exceeded demand for most products. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008). Sales period is an interval in history where companies competed with others to promote offers and even buy goods. Therefore communication, advertising and branding became more important throughout the united states to promote companies to boost the market right now companies remain completing against other companies to get more popularity to sell their products. (www. blurtit. com). This is even more true for leisure and entertainment sectors, which continues to be doing with other companies to gain acknowledgement since it add prices and it very good for everyone.

During this time, sales and marketing became synonymous. Also during this time period, a great deal of advertising was done by people who had nearly no control over the product. This approach continues to be seen today in a lot of leisure services companies where the responsibility of the marketing staff is to sell programs to users without having any source on the programs. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

3. Marketing era

This period which started in the early 1980's, produced from increased conclusion and noticed organizations becoming more responsive to the needs of consumers. Marketing personnel examined consumer needs and then developed products to meet that needs. Marketing thus became an important function of product development because it was customer driven rather than product driven. It had been also during this era that area and recreation businesses saw the worthiness in marketing and started out marketing their programs. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

4. Service marketing era

This era is comparable to the marketing time except that it includes increased the give attention to marketing services and ideas in addition to products. This time right now remains customer centered and the value of services as a product is highly emphasized. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Goods vs. services

Marketing for all three sectors only became prominent through the marketing and service marketing eras; both eras are incredibly similar with the primary difference being truly a service or product orientation. When looking at the nice vs. service, there are four main variances, intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity or inconsistency and perishability. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Services are considered intangible whereas goods are considered tangible. a tangible goods can be sensed through touch, like a leisure management textbook, a seat etc. on the other palm, services are considered intangible. the consumer experiences something, such as a dance lesson, however the service cannot be necessarily be physically touched. Second, services and products differ predicated on the inseparability of services and their creator or companies. Services must be consumed at the place they originate and can be used at that time they are simply produced. Utilizing the dance lessons example, the lessons must be used when the trainer creates it at the dance studio room. Consumers cannot take this service home and use it when they feel like it. Unlike the merchandise u may take it home and use it whenever you feel like it (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008). E. g. tv set, you can view TV at any time u want to view it.

Third, there may be more heterogeneity in services than in goods. For instance you decided to buy a Toyota yaris car, there are 10 vehicles on the floor, each in various color, because the products are homogenous, there is no need to operate a vehicle each car in each color to decide which one is the greatest. The automobile are standardized, development and assemblage are rigidly controlled and inspected before distribution. Which is the contrary with service, the service do not have heterogeneous. The dance lesson will change based on prep, mood and experience of the teacher, location of facility ect. Since people can't be totally standardized, services will will have some variability. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Finally, service differ from goods in conditions of perishability, services are perishable given that they can't be stored. However the unsold car will always be available for customers waiting for you long after creation. Whereas the boogie lesson presented on Monday for two hours is fully gone once the lessons time moves. car makes can mass-produce their car to sell it for greater than a yr, but since services is perishable, dance lessons can't be mass-produced to be used for another time, since it cannot be stored. The recreation profession deals with both goods and services, whether it is selling outdoor equipment or running Birds Park in Durban. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Market segmentation and concentrate on marketing

Since people do not have the same needs and wishes, benefit from the same things or take part in the same activities or benefit from the same outdoor recreation. market segmentation and target marketing are needed. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a heterogeneous market into smaller homogenous subgroups that are similar in conditions of desires, needs, demographic, information and they respond to the marketing mixture. Target market selects a couple of market segments to give attention to (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Before you can choose the prospective market, the marketplace must first be segmented. A market is all the actual or audience of product/services. Market segmentation allows an agency to check out its different marketplaces, their individual needs and the products that meet those needs alternatively than mass marketing way, while mass marketing presume that everyone wishes the same thing example developing a leisure program without doing proper needs research for potential individuals but just assume will like this program or that the program will appear to all people. another example, lets say the local community centre in Glenwood offers a trip for youngsters to Johannesburg which includes transport cost, an individual hotel room for your week, tickets to watch a match (Soweto derby )and everything meals at a cost of R1500 person. Inside a mass marketing methodology the business would market the trip to the whole youth locally than concentrating on the junior that are able to visit this trip. Market segmentation is a much better use of money and time because attempts are targeted at groups that are most likely to act in response (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

Selecting a segmentation strategy

When identifying whether to portion a market, it is important to establish whether the market is identifiable, ecological, accessible and responsive. In market segment that is identifiable, people within the section can be recognized from the overall population, that will reveal how big is the market and its purchasing electricity or its sustainability. The market shouldn't be so small as to be poor use of resources but not so large as resemble a mass market (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

The market portion should also be accessible. People within the segment must have the ability to be reached by circulation and campaign of the merchandise. isolated seniors or homeless people may end up being difficult groups to access whatever the value of offering recreation to them. A market segment also needs to be attentive to the marketing mix. You will find two aspects of responsiveness: the power of the program to meet the needs of the portion to the marketing initiatives. both aspects need to occur for the portion to be feasible. The last segmentation conditions for the playground and recreation job is identified need. Youth vulnerable, inactive children and low income people are simply a few types of segments which may be excluded predicated on the other three rules but may need services provided by the job and represent a fair portion of the community

(Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

Bases of segmentation

Bases of segmentation are ways which a mass market can be segmented into smaller, more homogenous categories. Leisure use five different bases: demographics, geography, psychographics, behavioural characteristics and benefits. The most common bottom is demographics, this includes, and gender, age, income, ethnicity and contest, education, erotic orientation etc. leisure services providers usually use demographics to segment their market. (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

A second segmentation basic is geography. this variable consider such factors as geoclusters and closeness, geoclusters or how strongly people live to each other, this assume that people who live near to the other person in maybe neighbourhood they discuss many common characteristics, the leisure providers can select market segment predicated on that. comparable to geocluster, proximity recognizes how close people are to the service. There is a relationship between closeness to a service and use of this service. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008). A person who lives a ten minutes from a park is a lot more likely to work with the park than a one who lives one hour from the park. That is why it is important to provide leisure facilities close to people because no-one will be prepared to travel mls just to visit recreation area or leisure facilities. (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

Psychographics include personality, inspiration and lifestyle or social class variables. Psychographics data can be difficult to assemble, yet they could be beneficial if used in conjunction with demographic data. lifestyle parameters are particular interest to park and recreation pros. these parameters are a mixture of activities such as vacations, hobbies and entertainment, pursuits such as family, community and work etc psychographics includes all lifestyle parameters define a person. leisure providers can use psychographics to promote leisure services to certain individuals. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Selecting a goal market

Once market has bee segmented into different communities, target markets must be picked. determining which sections to focus on will rely upon several factors, including resources available and odds of the Segment to react to marketing efforts. A couple of three basic ways of selecting a marketplace: undifferentiated, differentiated, and concentrated strategies. An undifferentiated strategy assumes the mass-marketing approach that everyone will be reached by one marketing mix. This approach ignores different market segments and focuses on all them. The general public sector is most probably to utilize this method because market research skills, time and money limit a better segmentation strategy. Differentiated market segmentation identifies that market section require different marketing strategies. A number of segments are determined and specific marketing plans are developed for every segment (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008)

Concentrated market way identifies a clearly defined target market and concentrates its resources and marketing combine on that particular market. the commercial and non-profit industries are more likely to use this marketing strategy than the public sector. Many leisure services companies show their marketing weakness by disregarding market segmentation and concentrate on marketing. managers are expected to use limited resources as best as you can and any administrator attempt to mass market something is squandering resources. (Hurd, Barcelona and Meldrum, 2008). We all know that people will vary and their interest differs. mass-marketing is the waste products of time, money and energy, by grouping people relating to their needs and requires the manager will save money, time and effort by wedding caterers to prime candidates

Marketing mix

Marketing can be involved with providing the right products and services and then forging the best romantic relationships between customers and products and services. The "marketing mix" is the means by which that romantic relationship is indicated. (George Torkildsen, 2004).

Marketing blend -is the integration of product, place (or distribution), prices and promotion. It is the careful and purposeful mixture of these elements which makes marketing effective. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008). Marketing combine is split into four Ps-product, price, place and advertising.

1. Product

The product (like the service) is the foundation of most marketing. It's the product of exchange with consumer or customer. If it provides the client satisfaction, he or she may continue steadily to buy it. A product goes to a product life-cycle-phase that products proceed through from inception to loss of life, including introduction, development, maturation, saturation and decrease. (George Torkildsen, 2004).

It may be thought that the products are facilities (squash and golf courts) and activities (theatre-going and aerobics). yet in reality, they are the vehicles so you can get to the "real" product-experiencing satisfaction through leisure 'involvement', this is the unit of exchange with customers. If customers do experience satisfactions or worthwhileness, they will want to 'buy' them again, hence a leisure centre's products are not merely the facilities and activities on offer, but the activities they offer and the interactions with the customers. The leisure product is the satisfying or beneficial experience produced from contribution in or participation with a task in a person's time for leisure. Which means product is not goods, however the experiencing of satisfactions. Leisure is intangible, until you have it. The soccer ball not sold today can be sold tomorrow; the stadium seats not sold today can be sold tomorrow. The stadium seat not sold today is lost permanently. Its "sell by" date is in advance of the experience. Leisure can't be stored, the merchandise is perishable, as well as the product is delicate and unpredictable. It really is easily damaged. (George Torkildsen, 2004). Sizwe can damage the ball, but can have the ability to still play with even though damaged, he can be able to kick it, throw it around etc, but a customer treated rudely at reception, double-booked on the court or unable to get a drink at the club in fair time, may take her or his custom elsewhere. Leisure behavior is less predictable than work behaviour. in leisure customers have choice and can fickle! (George Torkildsen, 2004).


The product /service are first released to the marketplace. That is a phase where the number of participants is few and marketing is employed to convince people to try the service; the main focus is to expose people to the service. This is done through heavy promotion, such as two-for ones discounts; buy one get one free etc (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)


The product starts to experience quick growth in the amount of participants as the early customers continue and clients emerge. During this stage of the life-cycle, there's a heavy reliance on the term of mouth and various promotional efforts to extend the growth stage so long as possible. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)


Growth slows in this period and the products stay static in this phase the longest. Most marketing initiatives are directed at the older program because they're sound programs that remain seeing growing amounts. At this time, different market can be explored and programs adjustment made, marketing campaign are changed to accommodate this two changes or even to simple attracts more folks. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)


At the saturation stage, sales level off and number of consumers peaks. Those who find themselves loyal to the products keep purchasing it at a reliable rate, this is called brand commitment. Any people who drop out are substituted by new consumers, thus keeping steady numbers of consumers. Promotional efforts may change to attracts new users and keep maintaining royalty (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)


When there's a steady reduction in customers, the merchandise has relocated to decline period. During this level your choice on what to do with the program have to be made. Program options include petrification, loss of life and extension. If petrification is chosen, this program is still left as it is and will phase itself out until there are no more customers. The program can also experience loss of life in that it is simply stopped. The most elaborate response to the decline stage is by using expansion strategies that manipulate the product or the mark market: market penetration, market development, product development, product replacement and diversification. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Market penetration

When a preexisting product that is targeted to a particular market slides into decrease stage, market penetration may be used to extend the life of the merchandise. Market penetration leaves the existing product as is and goes deeper in to the existing target market. This may suggest changing the marketing ways of attract challengers' customers, or using heavy advertising to encourage nonusers within the prospective market to become consumers. Within market penetration, increased promotional results are used to focus on people in the forex market who've the objective to take part but have not yet done so. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Market development

Market development searches for a new market segment for the prevailing product. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

Product development and product replacement

Both product development and replacement are extension strategies for a new product and an existing product. With product development, the old program is substituted by an completely new program, whereas with replacement unit, the old program is changed by a better version of the same program (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)


Diversification, the previous extension strategy, commences the merchandise life cycle all over again since it introduces a new product to a fresh market section. With diversification your choice was created to move in an totally different route. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008)

2. Place

The second P in the marketing blend is place, also referred to as distribution. Place is how organizations get the product to the customer. Place can include parks, recreational centers, golfing lessons, resorts etc. It is not by chance that a business locates itself in a certain section of the city or that one programs are not offered in determined recreational centers. Comprehensive research is completed on distribution channels and level, community structure, location convenience and atmosphere (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Distribution channels and intensity

Since parks and entertainment is a diverse career and encompasses the general public, nonprofit and commercial industries, distribution channels range widely. Distribution channels are either immediate or indirect. In direct distribution, something goes directly from the designer to consumers, whereas an indirect circulation stations has facilitating agent between the designer and the consumers. Those involved in the distributions of products are believed channel members. the general public and nonprofit areas will often have fewer channel people and a far more direct distribution way. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Commercial recreation businesses such as resort will also use a primary channel of syndication, for many services such as room nights or meeting and transformation services. The commercial sector may also use an indirect route of distribution includes wholesalers and retailers. As well as the channels of circulation, there is intensity to consider within the marketing mix. Intensity of distribution is the "family member availability of a service to the customers". Given the nature of the recreation profession, level is a factor regarding both facilities and services. Facility intensity is concerned with specific things like the quantity and location of golf courses, pools, hotel rooms and motorcycle trails. For other businesses they also consider the location of facilities. Many large communities, for an example are cognizant of the necessity to have entertainment centers in various neighborhoods, including low-income neighborhoods. service distribution has lots of the same concerns regarding the number and variety of programs offered in each location (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Not all service providers in the recreation profession have the same power of distribution. Three degrees of distribution intensity are used in the leisure profession-intensive, selective and inclusive. Extensive syndication "creates maximum amounts of opportunities to enjoy a program". Parks and playgrounds are leading example of intense circulation because many areas make an effort to provide both within a brief distance of all residents in a community. Exclusive distributions, where facilities or programs are limited to a select few. at the very top golf little league, an snow rink ect are types of exclusive distribution. In the center of these two intensity levels is selective circulation. Selective distribution assumes a program can be performed at a few location or a few lessons of an application are offered over summer and winter at one or two facilities (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Community composition

Understanding the composition of the city is an important factor that cannot be emphasized enough, most areas have several neighborhoods, each using its own characteristics, people and work and leisure activities. what goes on in a neighborhoods and what is located there will have a significant impact on whether it's a good distribution channel. Gaining an obvious picture of community structure includes wearing down the location by area and investigating

What companies are in the community (industrial, technological or large vs. small businesses),

Overall education of the city and potential staff for the business enterprise,

Cost of living,

Economic viability,

Direct and indirect competition in the region for the proposed business (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

These factors will see whether proposal business will succeed or not. A nonprofit corporation that delivers services for low income people must not choose a highly industrialized area with people who earn high income.

Location accessibility

Products -facilities, programs, activities-need to be accessible to the people they for. Therefore, the syndication insurance policy should be predicated on the marketplace search about customers, their homes and work locations, travelling and ease of access factors in addition to the products and prices. Hence, it is very important for services and facilities to be put in locations that customers can reach easily. We have to make the facilities both literally and socially accessible. (George Torkildsen, 2004).


The last component of place entails the service itself. The atmosphere or the looks of the center and its own neighbourhood can catch the attention of or eliminate potential customers. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Services may be available, accessible with the right price but customers may still not take advantage of the opportunity. This is where promotion and communications come into play. (George Torkildsen, 2004).

3. Pricing

We need to match people's needs with products at a cost they are willing to pay. The charges policy can be an important factor in financial planning and in the overall strategy. It really is a vital part of marketing. Should we price high and then reduce; price low for quick penetration of the market, price at one rate for all your customers; or offer special rates, savings and plans? Commercial marketing is revenue orientated, therefore price is sensitive. Products must be gauged at the right price to catch the attention of customers to buy. (George Torkildsen, 2004).

Pricing is merely one factor in making options. Price may not be as dominating a factor as we may think. Cheapness is one criteria, especially for the financially disadvantaged but not necessarily the sole criterion. Rambling, camping, golf, museums, threatres and athletics for example, are relatively cheap activities but yet they appeal to only certain small sections of the populace. Public preferences can be notoriously fickle. We may offer 'superior' products to enhance standard of living, health and offer them at no change, yet many will like mediocre, expensive, even damaging-to-health substitute products. The truism is the fact prevention is extremely difficult to market; yet how easy it is to provides remedies! (George Torkildsen, 2004).

Pricing strategies

There are three strategies for establishing prices. These strategies including penetration costing, neutral pricing and skim costing (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Penetration pricing Establishing prices intentionally low to appeal to clients, sometimes contributes to price wars when other companies must match the low price to stay competitive. This strategy is often found in pubic sectors. Downside of penetration rates occurs in the non-profit and commercial industries. the general public sector can subsidize programs with taxes revenue, however the non earnings sector must break even and the commercial sector needs to generate a earnings. if all three of the areas offer fitness facilities that complete against each other, the public industries is most with the capacity of using penetration costs to lure customers from commercial and non revenue industries which cannot operate facilities at a deficit. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Rather than setting up prices extremely low such as penetration costs, if a business sets prices that aren't exceptionally low or very high, it is utilizing a neutral prices strategy. This middle-of -the street strategy reduces the importance of price in product selection and depends on other things such as quality and customer service to entice customers. although the purchase price is not excessively high, in neutral prices it is almost never placed below the rest -even point so revenues still pay for product, thus reducing the unfair advantages that some some general public businesses have with penetration rates. Spending one hour in a major department store will do to realize that there surely is another pricing strategy -skim prices. the focus of skim costing is revenue era with this plan, products are listed predicated on what the market bear. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Pricing play a vital role in the marketing combine and a lot of factors need to be considered when choosing any price to ensure that the clients can afford to pay the price for services and to consider customers from disadvantage communities.

4. Promotion

The last piece of the marketing mixture is promotion. promotion communicates the worthiness of the product-it is a mouthpiece of the programs to speak. With parks and entertainment in particular, many products are usually services. As discussed, a significant difference between your two is tangibility. When a tangible product is marketed, the merchandise can be exhibited in adverts. However a service doesn't have that luxury. Instead, a benefits strategy is taken to make a service seem more tangible. a benefit is anything of value to a consumer, so somewhat than promoting something as just a service, it ought to be promoted as a lot of money of benefits that a consumer will get from the service. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

The promotions blend is the means where the business communicates the benefits associated with its products. That is done through advertising, sales marketing promotions and incentives, personal advertising and publicity. to reach your goals, the promotions combination should follow the ALDA approach-increase awareness(A), attract interest (I), arouse desire (D), initiate action (A). there are four elements that can be used in campaign which is advertising, sales offers and incentives, personal offering and publicity(Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).


Advertising is any paid form of communication through the marketing that is paid for and manipulated by the sponsoring company. This means that an organization purchases ad space and has control over what switches into that ad. You can find many choices for buying advertising, including Television set, radio, newspaper, advertising on the internet etc. choosing which press to use is not easy since one must consider first the choices of the target market. Uncover what they watch, read or listen to as a group. Media preferences are different significantly by market segments. Also, the sort of product dictates what type of advertising to by. Some products are better fitted to certain types of mass media. Cost is also a advertising determinant and the the one which would be the most influential for parks and entertainment agencies. Television advertising can be expensive, whereas radio and publication ads maybe less expensive, this will not imply that non earnings and general public sector cannot use Television to advertise their services (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

The last media buying consideration is the communication. If the message is not hard and short, billboards and papers is the perfect option for advertising but if the message is complex, then radio or TV might be an improved option. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Sales marketing promotions and incentives

Sales offers and incentives have a financial value to the buyer and are used for a while to stimulate consciousness or lead visitors to participation. This type of advertising can be categorized as promotional rates (buy two get one free), free offers (1st lesson free), prices (free t-shirts) and celebrates (local or countries stars used as spokespersons or available at events or for autograph signings. sales promotions and incentives are most often used to introduce new programs. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Personal selling

Personal offering -use of direct, face-face discussions to market a product or service. Leisure is 'sold' essentially through people. The public's impression of a service or service is often made on the flimsiest or small event with a member of staff. To be effective in personal offering, it is necessary that the person concerned will it really with passion, so that he / she is regarded as being capable, effective and caring. The function of personal offering consists of a two -way communication process and can offer valuable responses information about existing and potential recreation programmes. If the message does not reach people, there is no point in sending it. And if it reaches people, do they understand it? The concept must be highly relevant to the marketplace and also be portrayed in such a way that it draws in, somewhat than detracts. The media are major vehicle by which managers can speak their products and services. However the word of mouth and recommendation could be the most successful for the reason that a large proportion of leisure facility users include friends and like-minded groupings of men and women (George Torkildsen, 2004).


Since most local expert leisure services have a minimal promotional budget, it has resulted in many focusing more on promotion. This normally takes the form of pr announcements, feature articles and occasionally, a leisure centre may write its each week column in the neighborhood newspaper. It really is a useful approach to conveying information to customers, and potential clients, about changes in a program and informing the community of the results of fittings in the local leagues and contests. To maintain a facility regularly in the public's mind. it is necessary periodically to get general interest stories associated with the facilities in the local newspaper, since not absolutely all readers browse the arts and activities pages. Coverage of the leisure program or event or issue can fix a graphic in your brain of the general public. This is attained by informing and including them and keeping them current with reports. good press coverage can help the public to say that their money on a leisure service is well spent. (George Torkildsen, 2004).

Public relations

Often the terms public relations and marketing are being used interchangeable when in reality they are different yet included functions in a firm. Andersen distinguishes both the following

Public relations is principally a communication tool, whereas marketing includes communication and the marketing mix

Public relations looks for to influence understanding, and behaviour, whereas marketing tries to elicit specific behaviours, such as purchasing, joining and donating

Public relations will not define the goals of the company, while marketing is intimately involved with defining the objective, customers and services of the organisation (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Given these dissimilarities, public relations is often as multifaceted form of communication used to create a positive position image of an organisation for its internal and external publics. inner publics include staff, board members and volunteers, whereas external publics include such group as users, residents and community associates. Public relations primarily deal with inside and external communication media relations and communications relationships (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

External and inside communication

External and inside communication promotes understanding and acceptance of the business. it can't be assumed that just because people be employed by the company, they understand what the company does or support company causes, programs and business tactics. Internal marketing communications such as notifications, weekly reviews or e-mail lists serve to heighten employees' knowledge about the organisation. Exterior pr provide information to increase understanding of what the business does. it isn't be puzzled with advertising, its contains information that is more standard and addresses the image of the organization all together and not just for this group can include newsletters, annual studies brochures ect (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Media relations

The multimedia play a prominent role in shaping public opinion, consequently; positive media relations are an important part of pr. Organisation take three methods to the multimedia, the reactive strategy, proactive way and the interactive way. A reactive approach can be used to respond to requests from the multimedia for interviews, concerns etc. in sport, this may include request for interviews with coaches or players, photo sessions or information. A proactive approach occurs when the business gives the mass media information before an occasions or activity wanting to gain publicity. An interactive approach involves growing partnerships and relationships that are mutually good for the agency and the mass media (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).

Community relations

The last piece of pr is puzzle is the relationship of the business with the city as a whole. Community relationships- a confident relationship developed between agency and the city where it is out there that is enhanced by communication, education, provision of services to the city (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008).


Marketing is the purposeful planning and execution of the costing, place, and campaign of ideas, goods and services to create an exchange of their time and resources that cause the satisfaction of specific needs and organizational goals. (Hurd A, Barcelona R. G and Meldrum, J. T 2008). marketing in leisure is essential since the general public need to be acquainted with the leisure program and the advantages of participating in leisure. Marketing in leisure is more than syndication of flyers but it involved planning, selecting market segmentation, marketplace and much more. If the public does not understand what is leisure they will consider it as something which have no value and they won't be a part of it. It really is up to the leisure services providers to market leisure and propagate the info to the general public. Communication, marketing mix, media play integral part of marketing. marketing is a vital part of any corporation and it very important to managers to understand marketing comprehensive because it is the useful tool to accomplish organizational aims.

Reference page

1. Hurd, A; Barcelona, R. J; and Meldrum, JT. (2008) Leisure Services Management. USA: Human Kinetics

2. Torkildsen, G. (2004) Leisure and Entertainment Management. USA: Individuals Kinetics

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