Marketing Essays - Sexual Appeals

Sexual Appeals


The reason for this dissertation is to determine the effectiveness of an instrument called erotic appeals found in the advertisement on advertisement popularity, brand recall and belief. Appeals utilizing overt erotic information are normal in mainstream consumer advertising. Intimacy charm is pervasive in advertising and is utilized with increasing frequency. As advertisers seek out ways to break through muddle and draw attention to their messages, the use of sexually oriented appeals have been used as a communication strategy (Saunders 1996). Analysts like (Soley and Kurzbard, 1986), believe advertisers are progressively more using sexual appeals in order to draw attention to their products and these appeals have become more explicit. Nonetheless it is unclear as to whether the effects of intimate appeals have a far more of positive impact or negative result. Many experts for example, Reichert, heckler, and Jackson (2001) claim that when erotic stimulus is utilized in advertising, viewer's perceptual and processing resources are directed towards the erotic information in the advertising rather than towards brand. There also can be found a substantial body of research that suggest erotic appeals can lead to successful advertising for example la head to (1990).

The author made a decision to investigate the effects of erotic appeals because he found both positive impact as well as negative effect of erotic appeals in advertising and there appears to be a little conclusive proof its effectiveness.

The main targets of the study project are to discover if:

  • Sexual appeals in advertising are successful in getting the consumers.
  • Consumers can remember the brand of advertisements which have used sexual appeals.
  • Advertisements using sexual appeals have an optimistic impact or negative effect on consumers.
  • Consumer reacts diversely with different amount of explicitness.

First the author will use the secondary resources to describe what intimate appeals are and then your effects of erotic appeals (positive and negative). Then the author will try to describe the role gender appeal performs in adverts.

Primary research will be conducted to research further the result of sexual appeals in advertising. An analysis of the results and then your limits of the job will follow this. Finally the author will pull conclusions from both the secondary and major research offered.

What are erotic appeals?

Sex charm is an instrument used by the advertisers in their advertising to attract the prospective audience. Sexually suggestive imagery is a robust device employed by advertisers to create an irresistible fascination between the product and targeted consumers. Through connecting intimate ideas with confirmed product, advertisers desire to cloud the differentiation between product and flesh, real product function and sexual satisfaction. In associating a product with sex, promoters alter the thought of the product in the mind of the consumer, and, in doing so; alter the reaction of the consumer to the product.

Sex in the advertising is the use of sexual interest as an instrument of persuasion to sketch attention to a particular item for ingestion and it considered one of the very most influential tools of marketers and specially advertisers. (en. wikipedia. org). intimate information whether by means of the pictures, looks or reviews, has been shown to blend up predictable range of emotional responses within audiences (hecker. et. al, 2001). The author further state that sexual appeals can be defined as communications, whether as product information in the advertising contexts or as persuasive appeals in cultural marketing context, which are linked with intimate information. Lambiase and Reichert claims five different types of sexual content recognized in advertising campaign, these five are, nudity, sexual, behaviour, physical appeal, sexual referents and erotic embeds.

According to Ramirez and Reichert (2000) another meaning if an ad is considered to be intimate, are if these four characteristics are included, physical top features of models such as clothing, entire body and general appeal, behaviour/movement, contextual features such as camera results and intimacy between models.

There are various writers who have defined a job of intimate appeals in advertisements like Shimp.

Sex plays three tasks in advertising (Shimp, 2003). First of all sexual material acts as an initial attention lure and retain understanding for a longer period often by having attractive models in challenging poses. Second, potential roles are to improve recall of meaning points. The author continues to claim that erotic appeals create greatly better recall when advertising execution has a suitable relationship with the advertised product. Furthermore one third role performed by sexual content in advertising is to evoke emotional responses, such as thoughts of arousal and even lust.


Types of sexual information in advertisements

Lambiase and Reichert (2003) declare that there are five types of sexual information in advertising; nudity, intimate behaviour, psychical appeal, intimate referents and sexual embeds.


Lambiase and Reichert (2003) declare that displays of physiques constitute a crucial source of intimate information. When individuals were asked to recognize the characteristics in advertising that comprised nudity they referred to short skirts, small tops, muscular arms, bikini and lingerie's. The word nudity will not imply that models are completely unclothed; a suggestive dress is often represented by available blouses with partly exposed cleavage, small appropriate clothing that high light the body. Nudity is extremely exceptional in mainstream advertising and for that reason it is often represented by aspect and back shots of the model, tub and bathtub scenes, and occasionally frontal nudity from the waist up (ibid).

Sexual behaviour

Lambiase and Reichert (2003) continue to declare that although sexual content in the mainstream advertising leaves out the gender act, it can include sexually provocative behavioural display. Sexual behaviour can be diversified into advertising in two ways, as individual behaviour or social interaction. In the first form models can act sexually in advertisements by making vision contact, using different cosmetic expression and welcoming smiles with the viewer, flirting, and moving provocatively. In these ways the author further cases that models can connect sexual interest with the viewers or simple make an effort to bring out intimate arousal. Audiovisual characteristics of television commercials can focus on sexual behavior by demonstrating models moving and discussing seductively to the viewers. The next for of intimate behaviour involves two models or even more engaging one another in sexual contact. The amount of explicitness of the encounter may differ from simple shows of affection, to inferred intercourse (ibid).

Physical attractiveness

Lambiase and Reichert (2003) state that physical appeal among humans is a trial that is central for foreseeing social attraction and partner selection. Top features of appearance, including cosmetic beauty and tone, play a great role in erotic interest and desire. Because of this, actually attractive models in advertising can be, & most often are, considered types of gender in advertising. Persistence of elegance levels is manufactured by a evaluation by mean ratings and this score is known as from the models locks, face, complexion, eyesight contact, physique and behaviour (ibid).

Sexual referents

Lambiase and Reichert (2003) state that images and words that refer to intimacy or activate intimate thoughts, can be viewed as examples of sex in advertising. Based on the authors intimate referents in advertising can be defined as message elements, visible or verbal, that provide to bring forth or develop erotic thoughts. Erotic content calls for from in the visitors head, not in the advert. (ibid)

Sexual embeds

According to Lambiase and Reichert (2003) intimate embeds are defined as referents or kinds of sexual representation made to be identified subconsciously. Common types of embeds include things that are designed or positioned like genitalia and small concealed announcements of naked people and body parts. Intimate embeds are built-into images by advertisements designers and are planned to look undetected by those who find themselves viewing the advert (ibid).

In a study by Ramirez and Reichert (2000) the most crucial definition of that which was perceived as erotic in an advertising campaign were physical characteristics. Physical characteristics can be divided into three subcategories; clothing such as 50 % naked and restricted dresses, appeal, and body such as cleavage and chest. There were no dissimilarities between what men and women perceived as erotic concerning clothing, but men mentioned physical appeal as a significant factor twice as often as women performed. Overall men were a little bit more likely to establish sexiness in this way (ibid).

The second most frequently definition of that which was considered as intimate, involved movement (Ramirez and Reichert, 2000). According to the writer this category included behaviour such as flirting, dance and shaving, demeanour such as provocative, sassiness and fun loving, and voices such as performing, moans and groans. Within this category there were no significant differences between the genders ideas both concerning the classification and the subcategories (ibid).

The third most frequent meaning that characterizes sexiness was contextual features (Ramirez and Reichert, 2000). This category included photographic such as its experienced paced, camera roams over model, placing, music, light such as hazy and shadows, and photographs in dark-colored and white. The writer state that there have been no difference concerning the first four subcategories between the genders, but women were more likely to reference black and white as a adding factor to sexual appeal.

When one or two is in deep embrace, which is the fourth most frequent definition of sexual charm, a gender difference surfaced (Ramirez and Reichert, 2000). This category is divided into four sub categories, voyeurism, projection, models needing sex with audience and fantasy-like. According to the authors there have been no significant gender variations in this category and there have been also few that recognized this category as sexiness and then the author's express this category as not meaningful.

Positive and negative assignments of gender appeals in advertisements

Alexander and Tudd (1986) contend that advertisement makers must be acutely alert to the reactions (both positive and negative) of these market to the utilization of probably controversial intimate appeals as ad stimuli.

There are evidences of both results as well as unwanted effects of sex appeals in adverts there are some writers who think love-making appeal has an optimistic effect and there are a few writers who think sex appeal has a poor effect on advertisements.

Positive effects of intimacy appeals

One might ask 'why do promoters promote sex appeals?' the response in its purest form is the fact that it works well generally in most cares and relating to Bumler (1999), most advertising professionals use sex appeal as the utmost powerful weapon in their arsenal and for that reason they use graphic images to get and hold to viewers' attention. From a marketing perspective, sexual appeal may be advantageous for the easy reason that they prey on basic natural instinct and therefore, an unbelievable motivational factor, which really is a desirable attribute to break through chaos. Adverts that attract attention have the increased likelihood to affect persuasion, especially in a saturated press environment typified by unaggressive viewing subjection (Reichert, heckler and Jackson 2001). Numerous research studies have revealed that sexual appeal, when used in advertising are breathtaking, likeable, arousing, impact inducing, memorable, and somewhat more likely to increase interest in the topic advertised in comparison to non-sexual charm (Severn, belch and belch 1990).

According to Shimp (2003), intimacy appeals provide several crucial jobs in advertising. First of all, sexual materials in advertising functions as an initial attention lure to the advertisement, which is referred to as the stopping vitality of gender (Yovovich, 1983). Attention is essential condition for learning attitudinal changes and behavioural effects, easy to associate, feeling inducing, and most of all, memorable. Finally the third role of erotic content in advertising is to evoke mental responses, such as sense of arousal, thrills, or even lust, which can create arousal and desire for the product (Bumler, 1999). Matching to Hoyer and McInnis (2001), this role may affect the consumer's feeling and can bring about favourable cognitive processing of the ad and raise the persuasion impact. As well as the aforementioned roles, Richmond and Hartman (1982) dispute that sex charm in advertising is also effective in eliciting dream or expressing the imaginative fulfilments of motives, such as erotic gratification.

Latour, Pitts and Snook-Luther (1990) have provided understanding into the psychological impact of sexual appeals, specifically the level and nature of evoked arousal and behaviour towards the advertising campaign and brand. They may have found a primary relationship between the positive arousal evoked by sexual appeals and evolutions of the brand. Nonetheless, whether sexual appeal elicits a confident or negative effect is determined by the appropriateness to the advertised product. Richmond and Hartman (1982) ascertain that sexual stimuli will improve brand recall only when it comes with an appropriate romantic relationship with the product category and the advertising execution. When love-making appeal is utilized inappropriately such as utilizing it solely as an attention device, exploiting the female body, degrading the female role or insulting propriety, weakened brand recall may occur and could in fact create a negative attitude to the brand. Therefore that the use of sex appeal in advertising must be appropriate to the type of products being advertised and when gender appeal is utilized thoughtfully and correctly, it could produce appropriate and adequate results.

Negative effects of sex appeal in advertising

While studies show that overt intimate portrayals attract focus on an advert, other numerous advertising research have also suggested that unacceptable and abnormal use of erotic content can in fact have lots of negative effects. Regularly, studies have exhibited that sexual appeal attracts attention to the advertisement, typically without a corresponding edge for brand information processing. Erotic content may be eye-catching and entertaining, but it might not be communicative and might distract the audience from the communication.

Reichert, heckler, and Jackson (2001) claim that when erotic stimulus can be used in advertising, visitors' perceptual and handling recourses are aimed towards the erotic information in the advertisement rather than towards brand. Severn, belch and belch (1990) also claim that the utilization of explicit erotic messages in advertising may interfere with consumers' processing of message arguments and brand information, which in turn may reduce communication comprehension. Furthermore, relating to Stewart and Furze (2000), initial devices such as sexual stimuli overwhelm the meaning, and are negatively correlated to both recall and persualtion. Finally, there has been evidence to claim that overt sexual appeals may have detrimental effects on behaviour toward the advertisement and brand, and therefore may reduce purchase motive (grazer and Keesling 1995). These conclusions led McInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski (1991, cited in Hoyer and McInnis 2001) to improve the proposition that hedonic appeals, such as intimate stimuli, increase drive to process the advertisement execution, but essentially at the trouble of the brand. Many of these threaten to do something as potential risks of using love-making appeals.

The elaboration possibility model (elm) offers a framework to comprehend the role of sexual appeals in persuasion (Shimp 2003). Relating to elm, persuasion can occur along a continuum of elaboration. Persuasion caused by extensive issue-relevant pondering is known as central route processing, whereby receivers engage in vigilant study of note information. As receivers' motivation, opportunity, and ability lower, receivers are less likely to engage in systematic elaboration and are subsequently more likely to rely on peripheral cues to steer their decision making. Research suggests that this technique occurs in response to intimate appeals in advertising (Severn, belch and belch 1990).

It appears that numerous advertising utilizing making love appeals appears to get attention but do little for the advertised product. For instance, Judd and Alexander (1983) discovered that ads with attractive female models increase ram for the image in the advertisement with no difference in actually reading the information of the advertisement. Specifically, nudity and erotic content was found to increase attention to the ad, however, not necessarily improve recall or positive behaviour towards a brand. As a result, sexual appeals activate less debate elaboration and joining thoughts than will non-sexual appeal. Additional research also claim that, as the level of nudity and erotism increase, the intended communication effects either become negative or dissipate(la head to, Pitts and Snook-Luther 1999). Therefore, regardless of the persuasiveness of intimate appeals when used in advertisements, chances are to be the consequence of peripheral procedures and therefore may be tranent.

In additional to the aforesaid negative effects of advertising, bad uses of intimacy symbols in advertising can lead to unacceptable perception by audience. Corresponding to Courtney (1983), the common use of making love as an advertising technique has elicited significant consumer protest. In addition, as clutter raises in advertising, consumers appear to be more able to bodily avoid advertising and tune out (Bumler, 1999). Because of this, every marketer has pragmatic need to stick out. As marketer give attention to developing text messages that stick out too many of them forget that their concentration should not only be on the executional devices, but on the core subject matter.

Review of current theory

In this section the author will present the current theories surrounding how sexual appeals work in advertising. It is necessary for advertisers to understand how consumers will process their adverts to make them successful. This specific dissertation needs to understand the effects that erotic appeals will have over a consumer's potential to process information in advertising.

Get benefit your essay from our expert article writers. . .

Information handling

Information processing identifies the process by which a stimulus is received interpreted, stored in recollection and later retrieved, (Engel, Blackwell and Miniard 1994)

Nowadays we are exposed to hundreds of advertisings every day in publication and mags, on TV, on billboards. ' Advertising normally forms part of the large number of stimuli to which we pay no attention' (Kelvin, 1962-65). There are specific ads that get our attention. Regarding to Adam (1890) cited by health 2001), attention can be defined as "focalisation and awareness of consciousness". It is because we favour the perception of some stimuli more than others. However, even if attention-getting stimuli are present in an advertisement it generally does not necessarily mean that the viewers will bear in mind it.

The storage area process is really important to advertising. Time elapses between the initial contact with the advertising campaign and enough time when the viewer will be asked to make a genuine purchase decision. Thus it's important to know how consumers process an advert and for the purpose of this dissertation, how sexually focused advertisements help or hinder this technique.

First the writer can look at two separate theories about how it is assumed an advertisement can lead to brand learning.

Hierarchy of effects model

Consumer researchers are suffering from those models to be able to clarify different levels of consumer response to advertising.

The AIDA model originated in the 1980's and is also in use today. The AIDA model implies there are four phases involved in motivating a consumer to get. The advert must create attention, get interest, stimulate desire, and invoke action, (Bergman and Lindquist, and Sirgy, 1997)

Daniel starch developed model in 1925, "to be effective an advertisements must be observed, read, believed, appreciated and acted upon. " The model marketed the necessity to make an advertisements easy to comprehend, credible and interesting, cited by hill and O'Sullivan, (1999)

Russell Colley's model DAGMAR has four phases, awareness, comprehension, conviction and action. Colley is convinced that an involvement should be made to carry the customer along through the stages towards eventual purchase, (hill and O'Sullivan, 1999)

These models count on the assumption that clients respond rationally. They encompass the traditional view that this persuades consumer to choose a brandname and that the degree of knowledge learned all about a brandname corresponds directly to the attention paid (heath, 2002).

Controversially, Robert heath (2002) has discovered that promotional initiatives may be effective in another type of and more technical way. His theory of low engagement processing demonstrates how he believes advertisements influences brand learning.

The low involvement processing model

Researchers into cognitive science have discovered that memory is organised into three components; attention, short term, memory and long-term memory. You can find two types of permanent ram, sometimes termed conscious recollection and implicit memory, called unconscious or non mindful memory. (Goode, 2001)

In recent years it has been found out that advertising has the power to work at a non-conscious level therefore with the ability to influence us without us realizing it. Health (2001) cited Daniel l. Schacter (1996)

"IT MAY SEEM That Because You Pay Little Attention To Commercials On T. V Or In Newspaper publishers Your Judgement About Products Are Unaffected By Them. But A Recent Experiment Showed THAT FOLKS Tend To Prefer Products Featured In Advertisements They Barely Glanced At Several Minutes Previously- EVEN THOUGH They Have No Explicit Storage For Having Seen The Advertisements. "

Implicit memory functions in two ways, it records what's received and it also works conceptually in the semantic recollection. The implicit memory space cannot work out conclusions or emails that require to be interpreted (heath, 2001). Instead it links feelings and feelings to an ad sub- consciously so that these can be recalled at a later time (Goodge, 2001). As the implicit memory can't work out messages or evaluate an advertisement it's important for an effective ad to work at both high and low participation levels, or quite simply reach the mindful and non mindful memory.

The elaboration likelihood model makes an attempt to make clear how each one of these ideas work and highlights the role of intimate appeals in the ram process

Elaboration likelihood model

"The elm of persuasion is a theory about the operations accountable for yielding to a persuasive communication and power of the behaviour that result from those operations, "

The ELM provides earth work for different techniques an advertising campaign can persuade. A couple of two ways that an advertisement can charm to a consumer, either factually or psychologically. Factual messages give attention to informational reasons to buy and will tend to be effective if the buyer is motivated to pay attention to the advertisement. Drive to process the communication depends upon the relevance of the product advertised, the need for cognition and the responsibity of the buyer to process the advertising campaign (Berkman et al. , 1997). If the factual aspects of the advertisements are what appeals to the buyer, the central route to persuasion is considered.

Sexual appeals generally take a peripheral path to persuasion. Consumers who are not determined to process the advert information react instead to the feeling the ad arouses. Berkman et al. (1997) noted;

"Given an extremely determined audience of consumers who are willing to expand cognitive effort to process marketing information, factual information work best. Low drive and low cognitive ability mean emotional appeals could be more effective. "

Both traditional and new ideas of how brand learning works seem to be to suggest that erotic appeals will boost the attention paid to the advertisement.

Sexual appeals as an attention grabbing device

The most common method of appealing to attention to an advertisement is to use creative devises, such as sexual appeals. Creative devises are used not only to get attention but also to "make an advertising sufficiently interesting and attractive" for the note to be documented and memorized (heath, 2001). It has been widely quoted that sexually driven advertising are successful in getting the consumers attention, (Alexander and Judd, 1978 cite baker, 1961; Richman and Hartman, 1982).

The next section will study how intimate appeals gain attention.


Howard (1977) cited in Wilson and Moore (1980) identified arousal as;

"Usually the degree of tension in the torso. . . . . Which gave go up to attention and search in the consumer decision process?"

It is thought that arousal is a form of consumer motivation. Sexually explicit ads shown that if the stimuli used is too explicit it'll lead to a decrease in the cognitive capacity designed for message elaboration (Engel et al. , 1995). Thus, a consumer would be watching the sexual appeal but not necessary the other components of the ad, like the merchandise and the note that the advertisings is trying to covey. The idea of perceptual filtering talks about this research.

Perceptual filtering

Sexually oriented adverts are a popular method o breathtaking. The issue with this method is that attention is divisive, we use a system called perceptual filtering. ' heath (2001) cited Rose (1992);

"Perceptual filtering. . . . Ensures that, of all information arriving tab ones eye or ears at any moment, only a small proportion is really remembered. . . . "

This subsequently means that the greater attention is paid to the attention is paid to the interest getting device the less attention is being paid to other aspects of the advertisement, such as the brand name and product information.


In this section the writer has away lined the theoretical knowledge essential to understand how information in advertising is refined by consumers how intimate appeals influence this technique.


The methodology chapter will show how the data was gathered and discover the answers to the study questions and by doing so fulfil the purpose of my dissertation. The section starts by saying the research goal. It remains by presenting the research approach and the study strategy used. From then on, a display of how the data collection was completed follows


The purpose with the research is to state what's to be accomplished by conducting research can be used (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-paul, 2001). According to Yin (2003), research can be categorised as exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. Additionally it is possible matching to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2000) to have significantly more than one goal.

Exploratory studies are valuable method of finding out, what is happening, to look for new insights, to ask questions and to evaluate phenomena in a new light (Saunders ET. Al, 2000). Based on the writers' exploratory research is an especially useful strategy if u desires to clarify the knowledge of a problem. You will discover three principle ways of performing exploratory research (ibid).

  • a search of the literature
  • talking to professionals in this subject
  • conducting focus group interviews

The target of descriptive research is to accurately portray of account of people, situations or events (Saunders et al, 2000). Corresponding to Eriksson and Wiedersheim-paul (2001) descriptive research entails the choice of perspective, aspects, level, terms and concepts. It is also necessary to notice, sign-up, systematize, classify, and interpret (ibid). The creators further declare that good description is usually a necessary groundwork when the analysts want to describe, understand, predict, and/or decide.

Studies which create casual connections among factors may be termed explanatory studies (Saunders ET. Al, 2001). To make clear means to review cause-effect connections (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 2001). It has to be explained what causes produce what results (ibid). The emphasis is on studding a situation or issues in order to clarify the relationship between different parameters (Saunders et al, 2000).

The research purpose and questions of our own dissertation reveal that initially my dissertation exploratory. In the beginning it is looking to formulate and precise problems, to give us as analysts an orientation in the question to be invested. When the info is analyzed it becomes descriptive, as I record, register, and identify the finding of my research. Finally, when responding to the research questions in the final chapter it will become just a little exploratory, though a quantitative procedure and a more substantial sample would have ascertained this to a greater degree.


Studies can be of two types, qualitative and quantitative research, based on the researcher's type of data. Qualitative research consists of numerical data that usefully can be quantified (Saunders ET. Al, 2000). It could range between simple counts including the rate of recurrence of occurrences, to more technical data such as test ratings or prices (ibid).

The conclusions of qualitative research are based on non-quantifiable data, such as attitudes, principles or perceptions (Lundahl & Skarvad, 1992). Qualitative research is characterized by the possibility to explore a subject in a real as is feasible (Saunders ET. Al, 2000). The writers further declare that the type of qualitative data has implications for both its collection and its analysis. To be able to get the richness and fullness associated with qualitative data it cannot be accumulated in a standardized way, like quantitative data (ibid). Instead the purpose with the qualitative methodology is to get a deeper knowledge of studied area (Holme & Solvang, 1991).

The choice of approach in my own dissertation depends on the goal of research. I find that it's of great importance to reach a closer connection with my studied items in order to achieve a better understanding of my stated goal in section one. Since I am studding people's attitudes and perceptions towards different advertisements that I'll show, the choice fell on the qualitative methodology for my thesis.


The collection of research strategy depends on three conditions (yin, 2003). These three conditions are; the type of research questions posed, the control an investigator has over real behavioural events, and the focus on contemporary in contrast to historical happening. Yin (2003) says that we now have five most important strategies in neuro-scientific social sciences: experiment, survey, archival research, history and case study. The relation between the three conditions and the five different research strategies are available in the table below:


Forms of research questions

Requires control of behavioural events

Focus on

Contemporary events


How, why?




Who, what, where, how many, how much?



Archival analysis

Who, what, where, just how many, how much?




How, why?



Case study

How, why?



The most significant condition for differentiating between the various studies strategies is to recognize the type of research questions being asked (yin, 2003).

The most frequent types of questions are produced as "who, " "what, " "how, " "why, " (ibid). yin (2003) boasts that, in general "what"- questions may either be exploratory, where all strategies can be utilized or about prevalence, where surveys or the examination of archival files are favoured. "How" and "why"- questions will tend to be more suitable in case studies, experiments or histories (ibid).

As the research questions in this analysis is based on "how" questions, I will haven't any control over the genuine behavioural events and our concentrate on the analysis will be on a modern day event. The decision I have is either to conduct a survey or a research study (or studies). As prior stated in our research I shall have a qualitative way, a review is not appropriate. Therefore, my choice of research strategy is to utilize case studies. In addition, the qualitative strategy takes a more in-depth knowledge of my purpose, which can be best attained by adopting this strategy. The characteristics for a case study are that this involves a sizable amount of details, which a study usually not are capable of (Denscombe, 2000).

Find out how our expert essay writers can help you with your projects. . .


When collecting data for the research it can be either primary (accumulated for the first time) and/or secondary (information that already exists) data. It is more convenient to work with secondary data in the beginning of the research (Eriksson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 2001).

According to yin (2003) proof for case studies can be gathered in six different ways; documents, archival information, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artefacts. No source has complete benefits over others (ibid).

A good research study wants to utilize as many sources as you possibly can (yin, 2003). Matching to yin (2003) a major strength of research study data collection is the opportunity to use a number of different sources of evidence. This method of using different data collection methods within one study is called triangulation (Saunders ET. Al, 2000). The key reason why using triangulation is to ensure that the info is telling you what you believe that it is telling you (ibid).

Of the six data collection methods available I will use four of them. The one we won't use are archival information and physical artefacts. Archival files are characterized as correct and quantitative (yin, 2003). Since this analysis is qualitative this technique is not suitable for this study. Relating to physical artefacts is referred to as insightful as it pertains to social features and technological businesses (ibid). My analysis is targeted on attitudinal questions and therefore the use of physical artefacts is not befitting my dissertation.

The data collection methods that'll be used for this review are interviews, documentation, and observations. The records will be our secondary data and observations will work as our main data. The major way to obtain our main data collection will however be interviews. The key reason why I chose interviews is because of its strength to focus directly on this issue of the research study (yin, 2003). The potential down sides with an interview are that it could be biased due to poorly produced questionnaires and also there's a risk for reflexivity, where the interviewed person instructs the interviewer what she/he wants to hear (ibid).

When conducting the interview there are three different solutions to choose from regarding to yin (2003). These are open- ended, targeted, or structural interview (ibid). Regarding open-ended interviews yin (2003) claims that there surely is the possibility to ask key respondents about the reality of a specific manner as well as their views about certain incidents. In centered interviews the respondent is interviewed for a short time frame (yin, 2003). The interviews may still be open finished and assume a conversional manner, but it is much more likely to check out a certain set of questions (ibid). The third method of interview, survey is made on structural questions, such as a formal study (yon, 2003). The structural interview mainly produces quantitative data (ibid).

The kind of interview that can be used because of this thesis is the focused interview. The concentrated interview is used to validate or dismiss the ideas of this review. There will vary ways of what sort of focused interview can be carried out. Regarding to Lundahl and Skarvad (1992) a targeted interview can generally be conductive in person or by phone. Telephone interviews are less expensive and also frustrating making them useful when the interviewed is a long way away, however personal interviews can be longer and involve a lot more complicated questions (ibid). The non-public contact throughout a personal interview also allows the interviewer to receive more reviews from the respondents (ibid). The type of centered interview used because of this thesis will be concentration group and it will be conducted through the use of two group interview lessons.

Focus group includes an interviewer or moderator and six to ten individuals who discuss a single subject (Zikmund, 2000 and cooper & Schindler, 2001). The reason behind using six to ten people in the emphasis group is if the group is too small, a couple of associates may intimidate others while communities that are too large may not allow participation from each group member (Zikmund, 2000). The moderator begins the interview by launching the topic and promotes the group to participate in the talk (Zikmund, 2000). Ideally the discussion goes on from the group's effort (ibid). Our purpose is to acquire at least six people in each group.

The goal of the concentrate group is to provide the researchers just as much information as possible about how people regard this issue appealing (Head of hair, Bush & Ortinaw, 2000). Concentration group research is not restricted to just requesting and asking questions posed by an interviewer (ibid). The success of target group relies intensely on the group dynamics, the determination of group participants to socialize in the discussion, and the moderator's ability to keep the discussion on the right course (wild hair et al, 2000). The job of the moderator is to be sure that every person gets the chance to speak (Zikmund, 2000). A concentrate group can be run with a moderator team (Mitchell & Branigan, 2000). If so the principal moderator can be involved with facilitating the talk, keeping conversation moving and taking a few records (ibid). The assistant moderator needs more comprehensive records, operates the tracking equipment, and deals with other factors such as noise distraction and latecomers (ibid).

Followings are the strengths and weaknesses of the focus group interviews


  • It stimulates ideas, thoughts and thoughts that might not be raised in one to one interviews.
  • Ability to quickly and inexpensively grasp the key issues of topic.
  • Observe reactions to the study questions within an open finished group settings.
  • Participants respond in their own words, rather than being forced into a formalized method, and they can freely respond to each other's replies.
  • Spontaneous and unrestricted.


  • Hard to generalize the result, because it lacks representative ness in regards to to the target population.
  • Possibility of moderator interpretation bias which can decrease the reliability and trust worthiness of the info.
  • The data are more challenging and subjective to analyze.
  • Less likely than interview to produce quantitative data.

The reason why I've chosen to utilize focus group interviews is basically because it allows people to discuss their true emotions, anxiousness and frustrations about a specific matter. Also members can answer in their own words and can readily respond to each other's replies.

The secondary data because of this study is dependant on documentation in the form of print adverts and television adverts which will be shown to the individuals in the target groups to be able to stimulate debate. As these advertising are produces by someone else and for another type of purpose, the documentation is undoubtedly extra data.

According to yin (2003) a chance for immediate observations is created when making a field trip to a research study. When executing participant's observation the observer is not only passive, instead he might take part in the debate (ibid). Both direct observations and individuals observations will be used when collecting primary data. The associate moderator will take notice of the emphasis group and take down notes, which is often known as immediate observations. The basic principle moderator will guide the discourse and then therefore be considered a participant observer. After the target group interviews the two moderators will review the observation and find out the final outcome.

Sample selection

In this section we sophisticated how we went along when sampling respondents for the concentration group interviews, as well as the adverts, both tv set and publications, shown during the focus group treatment.

Choice of respondents

I have chosen students from Northumbria College or university of almost same era (19 - 21) and culture (Asians). The choice of respondents is based on my own preferences. I assume that this concentrate on group is interesting, because not much research in the region of our matter has been conducted on that group of people. Furthermore, that group of folks is not very young rather than very old and they are also in a day and age where advertising easily influences them.

Hair ET. Al, (2000) state that a homogenous target group where participants are aware of their common factors and feel safe with the other person is likely to create more natural and comfortable group environment than having a heterogeneous group. This sort of homogeneous group will promote more strong dialogue and freer discussion (cooper & Schindler, 2001). Many people can feel intimidated or uncertain to tone their opinions, thoughts, or recommendations to strangers (scalp ET. Al, 2000). Zikmund (2000) expresses that if the different type of folks is used, for example women and men, they can be divided into two focus teams and in that way, a diverse sample can be obtained even though each group is homogeneous. Based on these facts we provides people mutually that are comfortable to discuss with each other. Another aspect with the, is that this issue somewhat have a tendency to be sensitive and for that reason it is of importance that the students know one another and can speak readily in the concentrate group.

Choice of documentation

We have chosen showing three print advertising from different mags and one tv set advertisements. All these advertisements we perceive as sexual. The goal of showing these adverts is to promote the focus communities' conversation.

Data analysis

Yin (2003) expresses that each research study should focus on a general analytical strategy. A technique will help to treat the data fairly, produce convincing analytic conclusions and also eliminate possible alternate interpretations (ibid). Matching to yin (2003) there are three different preferable analytical strategies;

  • Relying on theoretical propositions, yin (2003) expresses that this is the most accepted strategy. The researcher collects data with the study questions and previous studies as basis (ibid).
  • Thinking about rival explanations, especially useful when doing case study evolutions (yin, 2003). This strategy tries to explain and test rival explanations (ibid).
  • Developing a case description, corresponding to yin (2003) which means that the researcher uses only once there is little or no previous research.

After choosing one of the three strategies, and data has been accumulated, the researcher can begin to work through the data in an analytical manner (mls & Huberman, 1994). Matching to miles and Huberman (1994) the qualitative research includes three simultaneously developing flows of activity.

  • Data reduction, the reason for making this is to make the data razor-sharp, sorted, centered, discarded, and prepared so that the researcher can get and check conclusions (ibid). As of this stage a within-case evaluation is often conducted in order to compare the collected data with the ideas used (ibid).
  • Data screen, in this stage the researcher, regarding to mls and Huberman (1994), requires the reduced data and exhibits it in an prepared and compressed way in order to make it easier to attract conclusions.
  • Conclusion pulling and verification, at this period the researcher commences to choose what things suggest by noting regulatory, habits, explanations, possible configurations, everyday flows, and propositions (ibid). However these conclusions should be placed lightly and some scepticism should be looked after (ibid).

This thesis will rely on the theoretical propositions that provided the material for the first two chapters. The research of this thesis will observe the three steps recommended by mls and Huberman (1994).

Validity and Reliability

When doing empirical studies it's important that questions and data selections are well prepared in order to avoid errors also to improve the quality of the study. Two important principles as it pertains to the are validity and reliability. Validity is a solution instrument's capacity to measure what it is meant to assess (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson, 2001). Validity is the most crucial requirement on the measuring device (ibid). Reliability refers to that when a later researcher should follow the same methods as explained by a youthful researcher the conclusions and studies ought to be the same (yin, 2003). To guage the grade of an empirical research four testing can be used (ibid). These will be provided in table below.

Case study techniques for four design testing:


Case study tactic

Phase of research where tactic occurs

Construct validity

- use multiple resources of evidence

- establish string of evidence

- have key informants review draft care and attention study report

- data collection

- data collection

- composition

Internal validity

- do pattern-matching

- do explanation-building

- address competitor explanations

- use reasoning models

- data analysis

- data analysis

- data analysis

- data analysis

External validity

- use theory in solitary case studies

- use replication reasoning in multiple-case studies

- research design

- research design


- use research study protocol

- develop research study database

- data collection

- data collection

Source: yin, 2003, p. 34.

Construct validity means to establish correct functional methods for the principles being examined (yin, 2003). As seen in the above stand there are 3 ways to increase construct validity; the utilization of multiple sources, establish string of information, and having key informants review a draft of the research study report. To get multiple resources of evidence we will use triangulation.

The sources will be; focus groups, records, and observations. Furthermore we let other people browse the interview guide prior to the emphasis group interview was conducted, which escalates the construct validity. Nevertheless the focus group interview was conducted in Hindi to make it more comfortable and convenient for the focus group. This was done so that the respondents could connect to each other readily and without the hesitation and later were translated into British which slightly lessens the validity.

Internal validity is only a concern in everyday or explanatory case studies (yin, 2003). For this reason, it is mostly applicable at the end of our research where final result is drawn. The inner validity inside our thesis is strengthened through pattern matching where the empirical based structure is compared with the conceptual ideas.

External validity deals with the situation of knowing if the case study email address details are generalizable beyond the research study results (Yin, 2003). Since we conducted target group interviews, which has the weakness that the results are not generalizable as stated in the stand above, the risk would be that the exterior validity is low. This anticipated to that it would be very difficult to replicate the research study by collecting data through two concentration group in the precise way as we've.

Concerning the problem of consistency we tried out to increase it by avoiding leading and subjective questions in our concentration group interviews. A similar question guide may also be used for both focus groups. Furthermore we also held all records from the interview to be able to build up a case study repository. However, it is hard to attain the same results for another researcher because people's perceptions and views may change over enough time.

Empirical data

This chapter will present the data accumulated to be able to answer the research questions. The info collection was conducted through two concentration focus group consultations. The two concentration group procedure will be provided separately, starting with the male students, accompanied by feminine students. The interview will follow the order of the conceptual construction. The subject areas in the interview guide will be utilized as sub headings in this section in order to help the audience understand how respondents responded the questions.

Interview: (Asians, age (20))

Our case study was conducted by having a concentrate group interview, an organization including 5 people. With this interview five students of Northumbria University all Indians were decided on. Three of them were the students of BA (Hons) in international fund final 12 months, one was the student of BA (Hons) in International business management final season and one was the college student of BA Engineering(Hons) electronics and communication second time. The male students taking part in the concentration group interview were of the age between (19 to 21). The interview was conducted within my home in Heaton. Prior to the interview occurred refreshments were dished up in the form of cold beverages and chips. The reason behind this was to help make the participants relax even though these were eating I provided the goal of my review and the way the focus group period had not been to make sure they are agree upon one solution, but to bring forward their specific perceptions and attitudes. The focus group interview started with us showing them one tv advertising and three magazine advertisements. The reason for doing this was to awaken their thoughts in order to enhance the forthcoming discussion.


Respondents define erotic appeal in advertising

We initially asked some general questions from them about use of erotic appeals in the advertising like 'what do u think erotic appeals in the adverts is and do u think it provides etc. '. Originally the male students said that sex markets. The major part of the group explained that if an advertising campaign is usually to be considered of erotic content the ladies had to have a physical appeal that was way over the common looking women. The appears of the models in the advertisement was also of great importance if it was regarded as sexual. Most of the people in the group said intimate appeal in advertising is more effective when seduction strategy is used rather than nudity. One respondent said:

"Advertisements where sexual appeals are being used often distract the interest of the viewer from the actual product or the brand to that sexual appeal used in the ad. "

But most of them were decided that they always speak about the advertisements in which sex is involved in any form.

After this small discussion we showed all of them the print adverts and the television advertisements and reviewed the questions from them there after

  • Have you seen these advertisements before?

I have chosen four printing advertisements out which three of these contain sex appeal. And the majority of the group customers have seen and in a position to identify all the three adverts which contain sex appeal and none of them have seen the fourth print out advertisement.

  • You show anxious reaction when u see nude women/man in adverts.

The finish for the conversation on this assertion was that sometimes respondents get tensed in particular when they are enjoying these kinds of ads that have nudity in it with the family. But nowadays this is so common that most of the individuals do not feel tensed while you're watching nudity.

  • You respond with energy arousal when you watch a nude men/female model in ads

Respondent's opinion because of this affirmation was that they actually respond with energy arousal when they see a nude man or women but it will depend on certain things like how beautiful the model is.

  • An advertisement with erotic appeal changes your attitude toward a brand

Some of the respondents were agreed upon this declaration however, many said it generally does not pursue us to buy any product or not to buy any product.

  • It is essential for the models to become more attractive than the standard women

All the respondents decided upon this statement. They said that being more beautiful is the utmost important thing for the models. Only beauty attracts viewer's attention.

  • It is all right to use sexual appeal in advertisements at each and every time.

This statement led to the conclusion that it's not okay to utilize intimate appeals in adverts at all times. It really depends upon the type of the product and the brand. It is all correct to use sexual appeals for the products it is pertinent to.

Data analysis

In this section the info from the empirical data and theory will be shown and analyzed in the region of the study questions. A within-case research will be conducted for our two target group lessons, by comparing the empirical data with the conceptual framework, which was offered in section two.

Definition of erotic appeal in advertising

The respondents believed that sexual charm is different then nudity. The students all agreed on that the models in the adverts are above average of what is considered good looking, and it takes on a great role how the models look if the advertisement is thought to be characterized as sexual. According to Lambiase and Reichert (2003) there are different types of sexual information in advertising; nudity, erotic behaviour, psychical attractiveness and erotic referents. As stated above, the respondents decided on that these different kinds have to in one way, or another be satisfied if the ad is known as to be erotic. We found out from our empirical data that men assume that physical attractiveness is more important factor than women feels. Men claimed that if an advert is usually to be of sexual content the ladies had to be way over average in looks. This is in accordance with what Ramirez and Reichert stated in their theory. Based on the authors men assume that physical attractiveness is an important factor twice more regularly than women does. The group went on it their dialogue and claimed that an advertisement doesn't have to include naked visitors to be erotic, only words and images can make it sexual. That is to be able with the idea from Lambiase and Reichert (2003). Based on the two focus groupings sexual behaviour such as making eye contact and using different cosmetic expressions can be of erotic characteristics as long as it is relative to the product that is advertised. Lambiase and Reichert (2003) did not mention anything about that the behaviour should be relative to the product, nonetheless they mentioned that sexual behaviours, like eye-contact, can make an advertisements sexual.

According to Ramirez and Reichert (2000) there are five different characteristics an ad may need to be defined as sexual. The most common are psychical appeal, motion and light and music. Psychical elegance we discussed before, furthermore movement and light and music. Psychical attractiveness we discussed earlier, furthermore activity includes flirting, dancing, moaning and groaning. In accordance with the theory the respondents arranged that this means a lot the way they move, especially the ladies talked about this, and the way models' eyes will work with the camera. The respondents thought that if the light is softened and if there is music in the advertising campaign, then they understand it as erotic and this is all relative to what Ramirez and Reichert (2000) stated in their theory.

People's a reaction to sexual charm in advertising

Respondents said it is okay using sexual appeals in advertisements, nevertheless they said too much making love is sometimes irritates them. They said it is fine to use intimate appeals in the adverts if it is relevant to the merchandise.

Majority of the respondent think that they get tensed when they see nude male or female models in adverts especially if these are watching these advertisements using their parents or family. A lot of the respondents arranged that the majority of the people take action with energy arousal when they watch nudity in adverts. It had been also raised to the talk that nudity has now a days become a common thing, not only in advertisements but also all over, that is why people do not get exited while you're watching advertisements including nudity. The idea Lambiase and Reichert (2003) declare that men do not respond tense when discovering explicit female nudity instead they behave with energy arousal is backed by the accumulated data.

This is also brought up to talk that nudity in advertising does not impact the purchase decision because nudity has a times become so common thing that it doesn't effect. But some times it does put negative effect on the intellects of the audience especially if it contains either needless nudity or nudity in excess. The theory from Lambiase and Reichert (2003) remarks that nude erotic appeals in advertising are adversely influencing the attitude to the brand advertised. Matching to Treise and Weigold (1994) a huge number of individuals are troubled by the use of erotic appeals in advertising, but if tastefully done it is nothing at all wrong. The respondents were agreed on this statement.



In the final section main conclusions and studies will be attracted based on the study (principal and extra) conducted for the dissertation. The purpose of these conclusions is to answer the four questions which were mentioned in chapter one and lastly implications for future research.

In a nut shell we can conclude that without doubt sex does sell. Decorative, attractive, partly clad models do help in recognition of any ad, and can create favourable attitude ratings. On the other hand, brand recall might not increase brand information handling, as in most cases the interest is diverted to the detriment of brand name and backup recall. Too much reliance on making love for advertising, especially when it isn't relevant, can be counterproductive. Thus, we believe that sex is effective so long as it is used in a relevant framework and within the appropriate level of explicitness.

On the basis of findings following conclusions can be produced:

  • People think that there may be too much making love in advertisements now days.
  • People face a whole lot nudity in advertisement that it requires extreme nudity or extreme beauty to allow them to get exited.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)