Marketing Information Support
After studying the material of the chapter, the student must:
• the current state of marketing research;
• The process of planning a marketing research;
• marketing information system;
• methods and sources of information;
be able to
• analyze the current sources of marketing research for decision-making;
• Develop a marketing research program;
• information about the internal capabilities of the enterprise;
• information on external conditions for the development of strategic and tactical solutions;
• A system for processing and analyzing marketing information.
The role and place of marketing research in the activities of enterprises. Directions of marketing research
In order to function successfully, the enterprise must have complete information about the structure of the market, the level of demand for it, consumers, competitors, etc. However, the required information may or may not be available late. Their accuracy and completeness is far from always sufficient to successfully realize the capabilities of the enterprise. This forces companies to engage in marketing research that allows them to receive in time the missing or additional information.
Marketing information is one of the most important factors of effective activity, a prerequisite for making deliberate decisions about the nature of the firm, the scale, and the forms of economic activity of enterprises. Several definitions of marketing research are known.
1. Systematic determination of the range of data required in connection with the marketing situation facing the firm, their collection, analysis and reporting on results.
2. Collection, processing and analysis of various information taken to reduce the uncertainty that accompanies the adoption of any marketing decisions.
Marketing research, which represents the analytical function of marketing, differs from the usual data collection and systematic analysis of all external and internal current information by the fact that it is conducted with a strictly defined goal that involves solving a specific problem.
Thus, the marketing research is considered as a purposeful process of planning the collection and analysis of information, which is focused on solving the marketing problem facing the company.
With the help of market research, you can solve a number of problems:
• Strengthening communication between producers and consumers, i.e. the main agents of market relations;
• getting the opportunity to better adapt to fluctuations in demand in the market and even to changes in the needs of the population as a whole;
• getting an idea of both the existing needs and the allowable costs, so that the enterprise can regulate them in accordance with the costs of competing firms;
• development of the most effective development strategies, pricing policies, advertising campaigns, etc.
At the present stage, representatives of domestic business mainly turn to detailed marketing research when:
• they enter the market;
• plan, create, bring to the market new products;
• the company's activities are not stable;
• New opportunities arise in the consumer market.
A systematic study of the market of consumer goods and services of United States entrepreneurs is of little interest, although its absence seriously hinders the effective development of domestic enterprises. After all, now the successful development of the sphere of consumer services is impossible without the wide introduction of the marketing concept of management, involving the systematic use of an integrated system of marketing research.
In marketing research, salespeople are now more than ever in need of those who, when designing a retail outlet, determining the required qualifications of employees, must foresee how consumers will react to it. After all, the growth of customers' income, the rapid development of the consumer market, undoubtedly, raise the level of customer requirements for the quality of goods, service. Marketing research allows sellers to provide a competitive advantage, reduce commercial and financial risks and by how the buyer treats a product or service, assess the strategic and tactical activity of the company, improve the success of market communication activities, determine the optimal parameters for positioning services, the nature of their life cycle, as well as the marketing strategy of each phase.
Every day, market research strengthens its position among the ways to achieve the competitive advantages of enterprises, becoming an integral part of the marketing activities of an increasing number of market participants. By conducting research on their own or using the services of marketing, consulting (consulting) companies, managers of enterprises and organizations come to realize the importance of such studies as an indicator that can significantly increase the level of validity of management decisions.
It is difficult to imagine all the variety of activities that are carried out in the course of marketing research and often go far beyond the banal identification of consumer opinions about a particular product. To date, the list of tasks set for marketing research is quite heterogeneous and directly depends on the dynamically changing situation in the market, at which companies with different potentials are represented, and within the enterprise itself. The most common are collection, processing, summary, storage of information on a certain range of issues, analysis of the influence of microenvironment factors on the activities of the enterprise, assessing the capabilities and behavior of competitors, assessing the capabilities of the enterprise itself.
In addition, marketing research is important in the course of strategic planning. Experts in the field of consulting identify two significant obstacles that constantly arise in management, especially in the strategic. The first is the limited information field in which to make decisions, the second is the so-called problem of chicken and eggs, when it is unclear where the beginning and end of strategy development are. To overcome the first obstacle and is aimed at conducting marketing research. That is why, when considering elements and stages of strategic planning, marketing research is singled out as an independent unit directly influencing the company's development program.
Based on the definition of marketing as a system for managing the production and sale of a product that is aimed at the consumer market, the first principle of marketing should undoubtedly be called market knowledge and its comprehensive study. The market is an environment in which the firm acts both as a seller and as a buyer. Therefore, exhaustive information about this environment for the enterprise is an urgent necessity.
The enterprise acts on the market in two ways: it buys the resources necessary for production, while at the same time it sells its goods (service). Therefore, he needs to know the volume, structure, elasticity, dynamics of consumer demand for his products.
Marketing research can have a different focus, depending on the problems that need to be addressed, the goals and objectives that the firm poses.
1. The situation analysis should provide an understanding of the environment and the consumer market, identify the strengths and weaknesses of the firm, opportunities and threats, and evaluate the positions of competing companies.
2. Development of an enterprise strategy - it is required to determine the sphere of influence and target market segments; develop a positioning system; create programs for individual products, prices, product promotion systems, etc .; to carry out marketing monitoring in order to adjust the strategy of the marketing program.
Market research of the market is two-level. First, the current situation is analyzed, so that it is possible to effectively organize operational activities, realizing the objectives of the company for the near future. The second stage of measuring the market opportunities allows the development of strategies for survival and successful functioning for a longer term. The main result of market research is an assessment of its market environment, which along with the forecast of market development makes it possible to react quickly to any changes in the market situation, effectively maneuvering the company's resources.
Thus, a deep knowledge of the consumer market should be considered as a condition for the survival and profitable operation of the company. But at the present stage the existing market research system is practically absent. Perhaps, we can only talk about preparing companies for activities in unstable conditions.
The methodology of marketing is based on the thesis that the firm is able to achieve success, focusing on the needs of the buyer, which provides a choice of consumer goods.
The study of consumer behavior requires the following studies:
• the volume and structure of the unmet demand of buyers for a particular type of product;
• the relationship of buyers to new products, its consumer properties, assortment;
• reasons for the consumer's refusal of the goods (services);
• attitudes towards modern trends in various fields;
• the extent to which families are provided with certain goods and services;
• conformity of the price offered by the producer to estimates of the significance and quality of goods and services on the part of buyers.
By now, in theory and practice of marketing, a wide arsenal of funds designed to study the motives of buyers, their not only conscious but also unconscious reactions to one or another type of product, a certain situation in the market (testing, surveys, questionnaires , panel studies to find out the opinion of customers about any changes in services that provide feedback to customers.
For an enterprise entering the market for the first time, the study of consumers is necessary to determine the scope of production activity. The company is not a newcomer to the market, knowing the characteristics, interests, tastes of its buyer, puts more specific tasks in the course of marketing research.
When studying consumer behavior in the market, it is necessary to take into account the maximum possible number of factors, each of which acts with varying degrees of intensity and at different time intervals. This increases the accuracy of forecasts and calculations.
When marketing research consumers' behavior is based primarily on two types of typology. The first takes into account the sex, age, occupation, income, family composition, location and living conditions, i.e. demographic and socio-economic characteristics. At the heart of the empirical typology lies the psychological analysis of consumer behavior (attitude towards innovations (progressive or conservative), life values, interests and passions, etc.). Thus, buyers with similar demographic and socio-economic characteristics can be represented as "mods", conservatives, pragmatists, aesthetes, maximalists, "independent" and others
One of the most important areas of market research is market segmentation that allows you to identify the profile of the most likely buyer of a certain type of service in different market segments and to predict on this basis what changes need to be made in quality, service level and other characteristics of services for a specific market segment, as well as in the advertising target line of the enterprise.
The effectiveness of segmenting the consumer market directly depends on the degree of the differences between buyers (otherwise it is impossible to separate segments), the similarities of variables for consumers grouped in one segment, whether the enterprise is able to study the characteristics and requirements of buyers to form their groups, and and also to select convenient channels of interrelation with the various identified groups of buyers.
Carrying out of marketing research, in addition to market segmentation, involves the identification and analysis of the company's main competitors (goal, tasks in this market segment, pricing policy, strength and weakness, the specifics of service delivery, etc.) . Without this, the development of an effective competitive strategy is impossible. Increased competition will require the transition of marketing activities to a higher level with the complication of forms. Based on the potential of its enterprise and the possibilities of its penetration and consolidation in this market segment, the marketing department recommends one or another strategy of market coverage in order to position on it the services that the enterprise offers to provide to the consumer.
Deep study of the position of competing firms is necessary for detailed planning of the marketing complex. The analysis of the product promotion system is aimed at finding out the effectiveness of different methods and forms of the advertising campaign and promoting the product as a whole, including promotion of sales, formation of the company's image.
When studying the pricing system , it is necessary to build a price strategy of the company, analyze the discounts offered to consumers, determine the price range, marginal costs and revenue, the sensitivity of buyers to the level of prices for certain types of services. All this gives an opportunity to form a correct pricing policy of the company.
To factors of the macro environment, requiring study, include the demographic situation in the region, the culture and mentality of the population of the region, the level of its revenues, state policy in the field of supporting small and medium-sized businesses.
Thus, in order for the enterprise not only to successfully work in the consumer market, but also to develop, a systematic, purposeful collection of operational marketing information about the market situation and consumer behavior is required.
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