Marketing management of the university
Effective development of United States universities at the present stage is impossible without the use of methods and methods of marketing. The increasing role of marketing in the field of education is associated with such objective trends as increased competition in the market for educational services, increased consumer selectivity, reduced sets, reduced budgetary funding, commercialization of education, etc.
However, in the practice of United States universities, marketing has not yet been widely disseminated, and "... only a small number of educational institutions are focused on studying, forecasting and satisfying the needs of consumers and using modern marketing strategy and tactics."
Analysis of practice shows that the range of marketing use in United States universities varies. For example, according to AP Pankrukhin, the author of the work "Marketing of Educational Services in Higher and Additional Education", depending on the commitment to marketing, universities can be divided into two groups: "production orientation" and marketing orientation .
From the point of view of other authors, we can distinguish three levels of application of higher education marketing:
• higher - orientation to the marketing concept of market management;
• The second - the use of individual components of marketing;
• Inferior - the introduction of only some elements of marketing.
The graduation of higher education institutions into three levels more clearly reflects the current situation of the application of marketing in the field of education. This is also true because the universities belonging to the second and third levels are the majority. Marketing them basically is considered as the tool of stimulation of sale. At best, a marketing or advertising department is created, which organizes the participation of the university in exhibitions, holds "open days", places advertisements in the media. In the worst case - these issues are handled by an employee of some department, for example, a selection committee.
More advanced in terms of marketing universities, specialists in the marketing department are engaged in addition to the above-mentioned pricing of educational services, conducting marketing research, segmenting the education market and other problems. In some non-state universities, marketing departments carry out the function of the sales department, that is, they engage in recruiting students, signing contracts, vocational guidance.
Like any activity, marketing in a university is impossible without management.
Marketing management allows organizing the production and distribution of educational services in such a way as to ensure the greatest possible balance of supply and demand.
Marketing as a management method is based on functions that are integral parts of any management process. These include: planning, organization, coordination, control and motivation.
Planning is a kind of managerial activity related to drawing up plans for the activities of the educational institution and its components. Planning determines the system of goals of the functioning and development of the university, all its structural units, as well as the choice of means and ways to achieve them. Marketing planning requires a lot of intellectual labor and the participation of specialists from different levels of management, so three basic principles must be observed:
• Develop plans should first of all those who then implement these plans;
• the level of competence in planning should correspond to the level of competence with respect to the management of the resources of the university;
• provide flexibility and adaptability of planning in accordance with changes in the external and internal environment of the university.
The latter principle is the most important, as it takes into account the perspective dynamics of demand for educational services and products.
The marketing planning process involves the sequence of certain steps (see Figure 2.2).
Planning is not always done in this order, but regardless of this, it performs the following functions:
• supports a purposeful and forward-looking way of thinking and acting;
• Coordinates decisions and actions in the field of marketing;
• serves to inform employees about the necessary resources;
• motivates employees, if achievement of their objectives depends on the achievement of their personal goals;
• creates prerequisites for evaluating and monitoring results.
In the management of modern marketing, the most appropriate is the application of strategic planning, within which:
• the educational services and products, markets and segments with which the university will operate will be approved, as well as quantitative and qualitative goals (image, market share, etc.)
• the marketing strategies are fixed, that is, the principles of behavior are defined in relation to market
Fig. 2.2. Stages of marketing planning in the university
partners (consumers, competitors) and approaches to the formation of a marketing mix;
• resources are allocated to organizational structures in accordance with the strategic plan.
In practice, different approaches to marketing planning are used. The most logical is the TSA approach according to which the following stages of this process are singled out:
• carrying out analysis (the economic activity of the enterprise, the market and prospects for its development, market environment, target segments, consumers and competitors, SWOT analysis);
• Developing business and marketing strategies (identifying key target markets, highlighting key benefits, positioning the product, etc.);
• Development of implementation programs (planning elements of the marketing mix, developing a budget, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the plan).
Organization as a management function determines the integrity, organicity and unity of any business entity.
The higher educational institution is inherent in all the features characteristic of the organization. It is an educational institution established and operating on the basis of US law on education, which has the status of a legal entity and implements educational programs for higher professional education in accordance with the license.
The main tasks of this management function are:
• formation of the structure of the university (faculties, departments, laboratories, departments, branches, libraries, etc.);
• providing the university with everything necessary for its normal work: staff (faculty, researchers, support staff, etc.), equipment, buildings, finances, etc.
Coordination is a function of the management process, ensuring its continuity and continuity. The main task of coordination is to achieve consistency in the work of all structural units of the university by establishing communications between them. To perform this function, both documentary sources and the results of meetings, meetings, conferences are used. Technical communication facilities are of great help in coordination, for example, the introduction of a local computer network that allows you to quickly exchange information, and also respond quickly to deviations in any work.
Control is one of the management functions, whose task is to audit the results of marketing activities carried out at the university and take corrective actions. This function provides:
• control over the implementation of activities planned by the plan;
• Measures to correct all significant deviations from the plan.
The main tools of the monitoring function are observation, accounting and analysis. In the general control process, control acts as an element of feedback, because according to its data, the earlier decisions and plans are adjusted.
Effectively delivered control must necessarily have a strategic focus, focus on results, be timely and fairly simple
Motivation is a management function designed to encourage teachers and staff of an educational institution to actively work to ensure the quality of training.
The labor activity of scientific and pedagogical personnel will be more effective if the factors of labor motivation, which form the basis of their labor potential, act in the educational institution. The labor potential consists of the psycho-physiological potential (abilities and dispositions of a person, his health, working capacity, endurance, the type of the nervous system) and personal (motivational) potential that determines what abilities and to what extent the employee will develop and use in the process of labor activity.
There are three types of motivation of the teaching staff: material, socio-psychological (moral) and organizational (administrative).
The material motivation includes monetary (wages, bonuses, additional payments, grants) and non-monetary incentives (preferential vouchers, free or reduced medical and dental care, free postgraduate study, doctoral studies, institutes and faculties for in-service training, internships, ). Financial incentives can be both positive through the incentive system, and negative - through a system of sanctions, fines, penalties.
Socio-psychological motivation includes the following factors: labor successes of an employee, recognition of his merits, the possibility of career growth, the prestige of work, professional skills, respect from colleagues, management, friends and relatives, the possibility of self-fulfillment, independence, (gratitude, letters, awards), etc.
Examples of organizational motivation are the correct arrangement of employees, a clear definition of their functions, delegation of authority, flexible working hours, etc.
The activities of educational institutions in a market economy conditions the need to create a management concept for a university focused on marketing and involves the restructuring of the entire organizational structure, taking into account the philosophy of marketing.
The basis for the management of the marketing activities of an educational institution (like any other organization) is as follows:
• analysis of market opportunities of the university;
• selection of target markets;
• Development of a marketing mix;
• evaluation and control of the educational services provided.
Higher education institutions should be able to identify emerging market opportunities.
Market opportunities of the university are the main activities of the educational institution, taking into account the conditions of its functioning, and, first of all, the conditions of the external environment.
For successful marketing activities, the university needs to be able to predict both possible difficulties in the future and emerging new opportunities. Therefore, the university, examining the external environment, focuses on finding out what threats and what opportunities it holds in itself. Important for the effective operation of the institution has a definition of its resources, as well as strengths and weaknesses.
The analysis of market opportunities of the university is used to develop the strategy and tactics of the educational institution.
Selecting target markets involves estimating and forecasting the demand for educational services, segmenting the market, selecting target markets and positioning the educational institution on the market.
The marketing mix is a set of verifiable marketing factors used by the university to achieve its goals. It includes the following elements: educational services and products, price, distribution and promotion.
Some experts allocate the fifth component - personnel, which is legitimate for an educational institution in which the human factor dominates. The importance of staff in the marketing mix is not limited to the qualifications and professionalism of teachers in the classroom. From the point of view of marketing, their behavior in out-of-class time, the style of communication with students, colleagues, etc. is equally important. An important aspect of the use of personnel is the special training of secretaries responsible for telephone calls, admissions officers, receiving documents, and other persons involved in the implementation educational services.
Higher education institutions are producers of the following types of educational services and products :
• Educational services;
• Scientific and technical products;
• educational and methodological products;
• intelligent products.
Despite the presence in the activity of a particular institution, as a rule, of the whole spectrum, educational services are crucial.
In connection with the expansion of the scope of activities of universities, this list can be replenished and modified.
Of no small importance in the activity of the university is the pricing of educational services and products. At the present stage, the role of pricing in the educational sphere has increased significantly due to the wide range of additional paid services provided by state universities and the development of a broad network of non-state higher educational institutions. And since all educational institutions function in a market economy, they must take into account the cost of the services provided, the needs of consumers and their solvency, in addition to the cost price.
Allocation in the market for educational services involves the sale of educational services and products. The most common channel for the distribution of educational services is direct sales. At the same time, their impact is influenced by the location of the university in the city, the state of its buildings and facilities, the degree of equipping its laboratories with modern equipment, the convenient location of transport, etc.
Promotion provides for the wide activity of educational institutions in order to disseminate information about educational services and products, establish links with consumers to attract them to universities (on a budgetary and extrabudgetary basis) and establish contacts with other interested persons. The main methods of promotion are advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and Public relations.
Studies conducted in a number of United States universities have shown that they have already realized the effectiveness of advertising and successfully apply it in their activities. In this case, the greatest preference is given to information advertising (a list of specialties, conditions and timing of admission, etc.). However, in recent years, more attention is paid to advertising the image of the university. This is due to the fact that universities offer basically a typical set of specialties and often the decisive importance for entrants in choosing a future profession is the image and reputation of the university. In this regard, the role of Public Relations has increased. It has already become customary in United States literature to translate this term as "public relations". The main goal of working with the public is to create a positive image of the university in those segments of the market that may be interested in the services it provides.
Personal sales as a way to promote educational services and products ... includes personal contact between the potential consumer of the service and the representatives of the educational institution, which inform, for example, key factors in the success of the university, training of teachers, explain the advantages of this education system, etc. "
Not all universities consider the advantages of such an effective way of promotion as sales promotion , which provides for a system of activities aimed at teachers and employees who participate in the recruitment of applicants on a budgetary and extrabudgetary basis , entrants-medalists, entrants-athletes and other categories; carry out work on the vocational guidance of schoolchildren; conduct other activities related to the implementation of educational services.
In addition, the forms of incentives are also olympiads, according to the results of which grants are given for free admission to the university or counted for profiling entrance examinations.
Evaluation and control are important elements of marketing, the task of which is quantitative and qualitative assessment and accounting of the performance of the educational institution.
Qualitative indicators are used to describe the state of the marketing object (characteristics of consumers of educational services, their motivation, etc.). Quantitative indicators allow you to determine in specific numerical values the results of marketing activities.
The main purpose of the control is to determine the degree of deviation of the current indicators from the planned tasks.
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