Mechanical Safety of Goods - Theoretical Foundations...

9.3.3. Mechanical safety of goods

Mechanical safety - absence of unacceptable risk to life, health, property of consumers, which might be caused by mechanical influences.

Goods and their packaging can be a source of mechanical danger, which, as a rule, is more inherent in non-food products and is associated with the principle of the work of the goods or with poor quality of manufacturing parts, assemblies, units.

The greatest risk of injury is caused by mobile mechanical aggregates, nodes and parts in motion; Compression and impact mechanisms; details located under large static and dynamic loads; vibration of machines and devices. The danger is represented by the elements of the packaging and the hulls of machines and devices that have a sharp, sharp and corners and unclosed edges, creating the risk of pricks, cuts and other injuries. Dangerous elements of glass, ceramics and plastics of increased brittleness, which create fracture of pointed splinters.

Among consumer goods, vehicles have the highest level of mechanical danger. This is due to a large number of factors, and it is not yet possible to make motor transport safe.

However, to reduce the risk of harm to life and health of people, vehicles are equipped with belts and airbags, trauma-safe and steering wheel and salon shape elements, active head restraints, etc.

The main objectives of designing high-safety cars are to reduce the loads on a person with a sudden drop in speed due to an emergency braking or collision, create a safety camera from the car's body that prevents injuries from the outside environment, provide a minimum amount of injuries in contact with the driver and passengers with body parts and interior elements. At the present time, cars are being developed that cause fewer injuries when the pedestrian hits a pedestrian due to a soft bumper, a hood airbag, etc.

Vibrational loads have a mechanical nature, which pose a danger to human health. Goods that generate vibration loads are electrical and pneumatic tools, power generators, household washing machines and refrigerators, vehicles. For example, in vehicles, vibration generators are internal combustion engines and the process of interaction of wheels with a road micro-profile. The general vibration acts on the person through the seat, and the local vibration - through the controls and the footboard. Low-frequency vibration in the frequency ranges 4-12 and 20-30 Hz is most dangerous for human health. These frequencies are resonant for his body and cause negative reactions of the body. Local vibrations are dangerous in the range of medium frequencies - 63-125 Hz.

With vibration acceleration of 9.8 m/s2 and a frequency of 5-20 Hz, the visual acuity, speed and accuracy of perception of visual information decrease in a person, coordination imbalances are observed, especially under the action of vertical vibration.

Local vibration causes functional disorders of blood circulation and the neuromuscular system of a person. Vibration causes disruption of the central nervous system, high fatigue of a person. To reduce vibration in the construction of vehicles provides for the depreciation system.

The mechanical danger of utensils made of porcelain, faience, glass and other brittle materials, which collapse with the formation of sharp parts, is characterized by the danger of piercing injuries and cuts. To reduce the risk of this danger, manufacturers produce shockproof dishes made of glass and plastic.

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