Models of communicative personality
VB Kashkin in his book "Introduction to Communication Theory" notes that people do not transfer mechanically information to each other, in their joint activities they create the consequences (perspectives) of communication. The American expert in communication theory P. Hani writes about the possible effect of our appeal to the recipient of the message, that their attitude towards us, and, more importantly, their behavior towards us is largely determined by our attitude towards them. This is in full accordance with the dialogic, interactive principle of communication.
Communication is carried out by individuals, they use their communicative competence, determine the strategy and tactics of communicative behavior, accumulate a certain experience. Of course, each of them does this individually, which allows us to talk about a communicative personality. Under the communicative personality, VB Kashkin suggests to understand a set of individual communicative strategies and tactics, cognitive, semiotic, motivational preferences formed in the communication processes as the communicative competence of the individual, his communicative passport (IA Sternin), visiting card (I. N. Gorelov). Communicative personality - the content, center and unity of communicative acts aimed at other communicative personalities, communicative person. The exchange of communicative information between representatives of certain social groups and subcultures (prisoners, youth and adolescents, scientists, etc.), their use of abusive vocabulary, jargon, regionalisms, professionalism and other stylistic means serve both actual contact-setting function and preservation of the appropriate communication environment (subtext: we are the same blood, you and me).
The term identity is a translation of the Latin word persona - the mask of the actor. Even ancient philosophers distinguished man as a physical body, the focus of physiological processes, and as a totality of human traits. Thus, the soul and body were contrasted in man. Aristotle wrote that the soul is the beginning of living beings, in nature some of its manifestations constitute its own states, while others are inherent - through the medium of the soul - to living beings. The juxtaposition of the two principles, material and spiritual, the dualism of body and soul, is characterized by a Cartesian paradigm named after R. Descartes. Non-Cartesian The paradigm does not set a rigid boundary between the spiritual and the corporeal, the subject and the object, admits their dialogic interaction and mutual influence. According to the definition of the philosophical encyclopedic dictionary, the personality is the content, center and unity of acts intentionally directed at other persons. Many modern definitions of personality are based on the notions of the dialogic (non-Cartesian) paradigm, the foundations of which are related to the works of our compatriot, literary critic, linguist and philosopher. M. Bakhtin. As each subject owns an object and each person owns a different person, everyone I belongs to you & quot ;. The human individual, endowed with will and aspirations, moods and assessments, is connected with other same human individuals who have their own manner of appeal, expression, behavior (including speech).
The communicative personality is not homogeneous. It can include various roles (voices, polyphony of personality), while maintaining its identity. Now they say that the communicative personality is included in various discourses, for example: Chekhov as a writer and as a doctor. One and the same person can be a student, a seller, a buyer, a racketeer, a victim, a child, a parent, etc. But in this case, the techniques of communicative tactics, for example, deception or persuasion, extortion or request - will be similar in different role contexts and close communication situations. They will differ in individual coloration (student-three and a teacher-teacher).
The main parameters for the communicative personality are three: motivational, cognitive and functional. VP Konetsky bases on these three parameters her two-stage model of communicative personality. Analogous parameters are distinguished by G. Burton and R. Dimbleby: needs, complex of knowledge - beliefs - stereotypes - assumptions - values - (previous) experience, feedback in the process of communication (perception of the interlocutor and his messages, self-presentation, choice and mutual evaluation of roles, emotional state).
The motivational parameter is determined by communication needs and occupies a central place in the structure of the communicative personality. If there is no need, then there is no communication, or there is pseudocommunication, which is most likely determined by the psychological need in the communication process as such, and not in communication (loneliness, game socialization, etc.).
Based on the communicative need, an communicative setting is formed which is pursued by the communicative personality over a certain length of communicative activity (communication tools and tactics vary).
The cognitive parameter includes a number of characteristics forming in the process of accumulation of the cognitive experience of the individual his inner world: knowledge of communicative codes, ability to perform introspection and autoreflexion; self-observation and self-awareness, meta-communicative skills, the ability to adequately assess the cognitive and communicative level of the partner, myths and prejudices, stereotypes and beliefs. The effectiveness of communication depends to a large extent on the compatibility of the cognitive characteristics of the communication partners.
The functional parameter includes three characteristics that define the communicative competence of an individual:
• Practical possession of verbal and non-verbal means for the implementation of communicative functions;
• Ability to vary communicative means in the process of communication in connection with changing the situation and terms of communication;
• Building a discourse in accordance with code standards and etiquette rules.
The cognitive parameter in this model is the link between the cognitive experience and the competence of the communicative personality, its communicative need and the specific communicative situation.
Depending on the way you use your communication potential, the individual can be assigned to one or another type. We always unwittingly adjusting under the interlocutor in the process of communication, i.e. we carry out a metacommunicative function. An experienced communicant manipulator must constantly consciously carry out this function (attention to the code and the process of communication, correction of its course). What are the characteristics of the main types of communicants?
• Dominant communicant: seeks to take the initiative, does not like being interrupted, harsh, mocking, speaks louder than others. To counteract such a communicant it is useless to use his own methods, it is better to adopt the strategy of "speech exhaustion" (enter into speech through a pause, quickly formulate your position, questions, requests, use "cumulative" tactics).
• The mobile communicant: easily enters a voice contact, jumps from one topic to another, speaks a lot, interestingly and with pleasure, is not lost in an unfamiliar situation of communication. It should sometimes - in their own interests - return it to the topic.
• A haptic communicator: experiences difficulties in the contact-establishing phase of communication, then beads and logical. It is recommended, when dealing with him, to use the "warming up" strategy. partner (introductory part "about the weather and nature"; the phatic communication).
• The introvert communicant: does not seek to own the initiative, gives it up, is shy and modest, constrained in an unexpected communication situation. In dealing with him, one should constantly carry out the fatic function in verbal and nonverbal form, not interrupt.
Effective classification of types of communication in a social group is suggested by the theory of transactional analysis of the American psychologist Eric Berne. The states of the I, or ego-state, are represented by behavioral programs ": Parent, Adult and Child. According to Bern, people in the process of communication constantly move from one state to another with varying degrees of ease.
The communicative personality is the most important component of the personality in general, because communication occupies 80% of the entire human existence (listening - 45%, speaking - 30%, reading - 16%, writing - 9%).
Communicator as a profession. Among the most common types of professional communicators, the following can be distinguished:
• Public Relations Specialist
• image maker;
• Press Secretary, etc.
The main task of the manager/public relations specialist is to answer three basic questions: Who? What? How? In other words, the goal of a manager/public relations specialist can be defined as:
• Identify the target audience (who are we interested in?);
• create a key message (that is, answer the question: what attracts the target audience?);
• choose the communication channel (how to send the required characteristics to the key message?).The image maker by influencing the mechanisms of social perception creates one or another image of the communicator, thereby affecting the value settings of the recipients of information and, in general, the behavior of the audience. >
Image - is a purposefully formed image that emphasizes certain value characteristics, designed to have an emotional and psychological impact on someone for the purposes of popularization, advertising, etc. Image is a symbolic-symbolic substitute for the communicator, it is the image that has developed in the mass consciousness and has the character of a stereotype. Typically, the object is attributed to such socio-psychological symbolic properties, which indicate its attractiveness and prestige. In communication, the image performs certain functions:
• identification (recognition); in the process of identification, the object becomes recognizable;
• idealization - an attempt to give out a wishful thinking;
• contrasts - the contrast reveals the merits and leveled the flaws of the object.
Spokesperson - a person expressing an official position and opinion on a particular issue and responsible for communication of a firm or an official with the media through press conferences , preparation and distribution of press releases. Experienced press secretaries can anticipate most of the questions asked and prepare answers in advance.
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