Models of consumer behavior - Marketing

Consumer behavior patterns

The model provides an opportunity to reflect the client's behavior when he chooses a firm that provides services. To this end, they study how certain consumers evaluate certain goods and sets of goods (ie the system of preferences), analyze purchase plans, demand for certain goods and services, as well as demand changes under the influence of different factors depending on the size of the property of the population, structure and volume of services and goods sold. Find out exactly how consumers react to various marketing techniques (prices, the nature of the services provided, advertising arguments, etc.) used by the firm.

The motivating factors of marketing (the nature of the product, price, to some extent the methods of distribution and stimulation) and other stimuli penetrate the consumer's mind, causing a certain reaction and response. The main forces and events of the political, economic, scientific, technical and cultural environment that surrounds the client act as other irritants.

Let us consider in more detail such models of consumer behavior as the analysis model "costs-benefits", the paradigm of non-confirmation of expectations, the model "determinant attributes", the integrated model.

In the interpretation of K. Lavrok and C. Weinberg in relation to the behavior of consumers, the analysis of costs - benefits can be represented as uncommitted scales, on one cup whose costs or costs, and on the other - benefits. The model is based on the assumption that the consumer, when choosing a product or service and making a purchasing decision, compares (weighed) his possible costs with the benefits that he can get using a product or service.

The model represents three variants of consumer weighting of costs in relation to profit:

• The balance is in equilibrium, i.e. costs correspond to probable benefits;

• the balance scales with benefits outweighs;

• outweighs the balance with costs.

Accordingly, there are three possible types of consumer behavior. In the first case, he is indifferent to buying, not seeing the benefits of costs. If the benefits outweigh, the consumer is ready to buy. In the third case, the consumer will not make a purchase and will start looking for other options to meet the needs. Applying this model, the managers and marketing specialists of the firm have the opportunity to adopt a clear strategic decision that will lead to a purchase. For example, you can use discounts, apply strategies two in one or additional and free & quot ;. So, in the restaurant and club business, this model finds expression in the strategy of "happy hours". The consumer receives a 50% discount or two suppers at the price of one at a visit to the institution at a strictly fixed time (from 16 to 18 hours). The consumer expects its own benefit and in general does not think about the fact that the demand for food service services is unstable during the day and the restaurant needs visitors in this unpopular time.

The advantage of this model is its simplicity, and the drawback is that it is not able to reflect the level of significance for the consumption of certain benefits, interpreting the consumer market as something one-dimensional and not subject to segmentation.

The paradigm of non-confirmation of expectations is borrowed from social psychology, the theory of staff motivation and the theory of organizational behavior. In the cost-benefit model it turns out whether the consumer will decide whether to buy, and the paradigm of non-confirmation of expectations focuses on another: "Will the consumer return?" Will the consumer remain satisfied? In some aspects, this paradigm is analogous to the analysis of "costs-benefits". But if in the first case the consumer weighs the benefits and costs, in the second case he compares his expectations and perceptions. According to the paradigm, the consumer has three "post-purchase" state. If the product (service) exceeded his expectations, then he is satisfied or even delighted. Most likely, he will return. If the product (service) does not meet its expectations, then the consumer experiences a feeling of dissatisfaction and, in the presence of alternatives, he is unlikely to return. This model is now considered the most recognized scheme of consumer behavior and is used as a basis for conceptualizing the quality of services. However, it does not disclose the concept of the "benefit basket" and shows that some characteristics of the goods (services) at the same time confirm expectations, while others do not.

Another model of consumer behavior (model determinant attributes ) was developed after the American psychologist F. Herzberg, one of the most influential figures in the field of business management, came to the unexpected conclusion: money is by no means the main motivation staff to work. Two groups of factors have been identified that affect motivation and state of satisfaction in different ways. According to the theory formulated later, hygiene factors are first necessary, creating the prerequisites for motivation and the emergence of a state of satisfaction, and then motivators are required to ensure a state of satisfaction. Marketers, studying the properties of consumer products, have drawn similar conclusions. It turned out that the consumer evaluates the product as multi-attribute and multidimensional. Some attributes affect the degree of satisfaction (attribute determinants), while others are perceived by the consumer as a matter of course - instrumental attributes. And the attributes-determinants are instrumental and psychological attributes. The consumer himself determines the degree of importance of this or that attribute. Hence it follows that the marketer needs to form a consumer scale of significance and preferences. The founder of the ideologists of the Northern (Northern European) marketing school Christian Gronroos (Finland) revealed the definitions of product quality, highlighting functional and instrumental.

The integrated model combines all the previous ones. It is based on the following research results:

1) there are a number of options to meet the need;

2) the satisfaction is affected by a few attributes-determinants of a product or service, ranked by the consumer in importance;

3) in the process of consumption, the buyer compares his perception of attribute determinants with previous expectations;

4) the role of the consumer is not limited only by the decision to purchase - it is inevitably involved in the post-trial evaluation process;

5) taking the decision to buy, the consumer, being a rational being, calculates the maximum benefit for himself.

Such a model will help the manager to determine what needs to be done, what is needed from the managerial point of view to force the solution of the problem - to measure the expectations and perceptions of the consumer, to correct the inflated advertising promises, to bring the given attribute to the desired level. It is not ruled out that neglecting these issues will lead to detection by the nearest competitor using SWOT - analysis of weaknesses of the service offered by your firm. And he will be able to easily entice the consumer.

The considered models of consumer behavior can be useful for domestic producers of goods and services, which are interested in consumer behavior of their consumers. Taking as a basis at least one of these models, service providers will significantly increase the ability to control and influence the behavior of consumers, which will help to achieve success in competition.

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