Advertising Impact Models
Consumer behavior patterns are a key moment for understanding the advertising impact. Therefore, on this basis, modeling of advertising is formed. Let us single out several groups of impact models:
• market response;
• cognitive information;
• pure affect;
• The hierarchy of involvement.
Let's consider each group of the presented models more in detail.
Market response models. Typically, the impact of consumer product characteristics, prices, advertising and other promotion technologies on consumer behavior, measured in terms of sales, market share and brand selection. For example, the measurement of loyalty will be based on the measurement of repeat purchases, and not simply on the relationship to the brand. Models of the market response can be divided into models of aggregated and individual levels. Aggregate-level studies work with market development data, such as brand advertising costs, GRP level when placing advertisements, brand sales or market share. In individual-level research, measurements are used such as individual brand selection and the number of contacts with advertising messages per person (or household) that are derived from a single source.
The problem zone of research data is just what is usually called a market response, or the consumer's reaction to an advertising message. How long does the advertisement last? How long does it take for a customer to make a purchasing decision? Many econometric works of the aggregate level, considering the long-term effects of advertising, come to the conclusion that the duration of advertising effects depends on the duration and repeatability of the advertising campaign, as well as on the demand for the market product, its price, membership in a particular product category. Many researchers believe that 90% of advertising effects come to naught within 3-15 months. In other words, you can not once and for all invest in an advertised brand or product. Wanting to stay on the market, the advertiser simply has to constantly maintain knowledge about his product, to remind him. The intervals for such reminders and density of accommodation are calculated for each product category, taking into account the competitive environment.
In a large-scale study conducted in 1995 by American scientists, it was found that increasing advertising pressure leads to an increase in sales in established brands in only 33% of cases and 55% of cases in new brands. This conclusion corresponds to empirical evidence that the advertising elasticity is a dynamic variable that decreases during the product life cycle. Although long-term advertising effects are being reduced over time, current advertising effects are growing for the same period of time. Short-term effects are a prerequisite for achieving long-term effects.
An important moment in the market response models is the concept of the frequency of contacts with the advertising message. Again, there are not and can not be single recommendations. For different product categories, depending on the degree of maturity of the product and the level of competition, the optimal model is calculated. It is believed that, in general, the effective frequency of contacts with the advertising message is at least three contacts during the buying cycle. The next step on the way to efficiency is to expand the reach of the target audience.
Market response models are widely used in practice as part of strategic and tactical planning of advertising campaigns and when advertising is placed in the media. At the same time, real indicators of delivery of an advertising message to the consumer are taken into account.
Cognitive information models. This approach assumes that consumer preferences, for example, the relative weight of the importance of product characteristics, do not change under the influence of advertising and that consumer decisions are extremely rational. Advertising provides information and/or helps reduce search costs, such as time to buy. The advertising message allows the consumer not to run from the store to the store. All goods are classified by the consumer as two big categories: experience and search, where experience is divided into high categories, in which a considerable experience of consumption is required to assess the quality of the consumer, and low. For products from the search category, product quality and fairness of advertising applications can be limited to simple inspection (without testing) and evaluation of significant objective information (for example, price or consumer characteristics). A third category, trusted goods, can also be used to detail this classification. The average consumer can not determine the quality of goods from this category even after consuming experience (for example, designer clothes).
In this case, the division of goods into categories of experience and search can be problematic, since many goods (for example, cars) contain elements of two categories at once: search (for example, leather salon) and experience (for example, driving sensations). Nevertheless, existing studies note that the allocation of goods with elements of categories and goods within the category leads to greater accuracy and realism, a greater effect of influence on the consumer.
Companies that produce high-quality products can incur high advertising costs to communicate their quality to consumers and achieve a long-term advantage through this. The image of high quality and distinctive advantages reduce the consumer's sensitivity to the price and allow it to increase gradually.
Despite the fact that cognitive models are considered the most popular and working, advertising market practices still tend to need to present in advertising arguments that affect not only rational but also emotional responses. Here it makes sense to recall the model of a unique trade offer, which we mentioned earlier. In doing so, this concept is considered as part of a long awareness of the idea, considering that the brand should, if possible, differentiate itself through the material characteristics of the product and then ensure a positive communication of this differentiation. Classic advertising D. Ogilvy believes that "the promise, a great promise is the essence of advertising", but it does emphasize the information role of advertising. Consumer responses to advertising can be very affective (emotional), but in any case, cognitive effects lie in it.
Models of pure affect. In contrast to the economic paradigm, some theories do not pay attention to knowledge, but focus on the emotional response and feelings that advertising can cause. Within the framework of one of the groups of these so-called theories of "pure contact" ( Mere Exposure ), it is believed that knowledge of the advertising message is not mandatory, unlike the knowledge of the brand. According to this approach, consumers form their preferences on the basis of such components as location, feelings and emotions caused by advertising, or friendships caused by contact with advertising, rather than on the basis of product information. Two of these theories - the competition of response and optimal excitement - believe that unfamiliar, alien advertisements form hostility and they need a long time to achieve optimal efficiency.
The affective (emotional) response to advertising can also be classified into two types: one leads to the formation of a relationship to the brand, the other - to the formation of the attitude to the advertising message or to the expression of the attractiveness of the advertisement itself. Empirical evidence of the affective response and attractiveness of the advertising message was obtained during both experimental and field research. Some researchers generally tend to believe that affective processes can be formed independently of cognitive processes.
Absence of the cognitive aspect, presupposed by models of pure affect, makes it difficult to measure effectiveness. Asking about feelings, we still launch cognitive processes of knowledge and experience, cause cognitive distortions, deviations in the direction of cognitive methods and processes. At present, projective technologies, systems for decoding facial expressions and gestures are offered for measuring emotions, and it is also possible to determine the electrical conductivity of the skin, the dilatation of the pupils and the "brain oscillations" read out during electroencephalography (EEG). Unfortunately, none of the mentioned methods is still widely used to measure advertising affect, or even used in a measurement is poorly used in practice.
Typically, advertising works simultaneously on a cognitive and affective level. The considered class of models in effect introduced an affective response in the field of advertising effects studied and showed their importance.
Involvement hierarchy models. The idea that advertising should inform and then persuade is very attractive to promote sales. Persuasion models suggest the concept of a hierarchy of effects and the conclusion that early effects as a necessary condition for the emergence of subsequent effects are most significant. Hierarchy concepts played an important role in the development of advertising research. The number of stages can be increased or detailed, but the basis is the model "knowledge-affect-behavior."
Within this group of models, the concept of involvement is highlighted. Herbert Krugman (USA) defined this term: "Engagement is the number of links between the advertised product and the consumer himself, built during contact with the advertising message." This definition was followed by several more. One of them characterizes involvement as an "unobserved state of motivation, excitement or interest." It is caused by certain stimuli or situations and has incentive properties. Its consequences are the types of study, information retrieval and decision-making. "
Within the framework of modern persuasion models, great attention is paid to identifying factors (evaluation of attributes and product characteristics) and additional arguments (eg, celebrity recommendations). The refinement assessment, in fact, is a cognitive element, and the addition rather carries an emotional load. Thus, alternative directions of the consumer's response to advertising are presented.
Another multidimensional paradigm version of the belief hierarchy was proposed by Deborah J. Mackinnis and Bernard J. Jaworski in the form of a model with six levels of mental processing (intermediate effects):
• analysis of characteristics leading to the formation of mood;
• a basic classification leading to the transfer of pure affect;
• A value analysis leading to a heuristic estimate;
• the integration of information leading to a message-based belief;
• accepting a role leading to a belief based on empathy;
• Constructive processing leading to self-generated belief.
According to this model, complex advertising messages that require a conclusion about brand quality, based on persuasive arguments, need a high level of involvement based on concretization. On the contrary, advertising, linking the brand with attractive objects, requires only focused attention - low level involvement. At the same time, one should distinguish between the beliefs about communication, brand and product category. These beliefs of three types lead to the corresponding forms of perception (attitude to the advertising message, brand and product category) interacting with the behavior and influencing it.
Applied use of persuasion hierarchy models highlighted the importance of involvement as a conductor of advertising effects. As a result of the research, it is proved that consumers with a high level of involvement choose specificity for assessing the information contained in the message. Consumers with a low level of involvement choose a less specific way of evaluation, relying, for example, on the emotional perception of a celebrity recommending a product. In this case, the repetition of different versions of the advertising message positively affects people with low involvement and does not have any effect on people with high involvement. In other words, the repetition of a series of advertising messages can prevent (or postpone) the wear of advertising.
Low-involvement hierarchy models. The main alternative to persuasion is the sequence "cognitive-experience-affect", although cognitive here can mean nothing more than awareness of the categories about which the respondent has low involvement. Model by Andrea Ehrenberg & Awareness - trial purchase - binding " is typical for models of this class and believes that preferences are formed after the initial test purchase. In hierarchies of low involvement, consumption experience serves as the dominant factor, and advertising reinforces existing habits, structures experience, and protects the brand's right to the consumer. This category is called the hierarchy of low involvement, as it is related to the routine routine choices most often encountered in situations of low involvement. Here it should be canceled that the combination of advertising and other technologies promotion, for example product promotion at the point of sale, can have a significant effect on efficiency.
The practice of applying suggests that the experience of consumption has a greater effect on beliefs, attitude formation and choice than advertising, which in turn reinforces the habit or structures the experience of consumption. In particular, most studies note that advertising tends to mitigate negative consumption experience if it precedes a trial purchase, but does not affect beliefs and attitudes if the sample is positive. If contact with the advertising message precedes the experience of consumption, then advertising is relatively more effective. Empirical results show that the structuring effect of advertising is more stable if it is a mixed commodity category, i.e. when the quality is difficult to determine. This result corresponds to the conclusions of models of cognitive information about the effectiveness of advertising for search and experience goods (attributes) in those limits in which products with strong relevance of experience (attributes) can be characterized as mixed.
The presented criteria for the effectiveness of advertising and a group of impact models can be specified in some generalizations that should be taken into account when developing and placing advertising.
1. Experience, affect and cognitive are the three main intermediate advertising effects, and the omission of at least one of them leads to a reassessment of the importance of the impact of the rest.
2. The elasticity of advertising is dynamic and decreases throughout the life cycle of the product. Thus, the elasticity of advertising of new products is higher than for established brands.
3. The effects of advertising are rapidly declining in mature markets for everyday goods. Thus,
The frequency (from one to three reminders per purchase cycle) is sufficient only for advertising established brands.
4. The effects of buying and habitual loyalty are stronger than the effects of delayed advertising.
5. For goods of daily demand, the return (in sales) of advertising decreases quickly, usually after the third contact. After that, the advertiser should focus on reach, not frequency.
6. In order to be effective, advertising does not have to be informative or verbal; emotional and visual elements increase the preference.
7. Relationships with the brand are formed not only on the basis of beliefs about the product/brand. They can also draw on emotions.
8. The relation to the advertising message influences the relation to the mark only in situations with nskconcreting estimation.
9. In situations with low involvement, the repetition of different versions of the advertising message prevents a premature decline in advertising effects.
10. Knowledge and attitudes can be maintained at a high level if the advertising campaign consists of a series of advertising messages.
11. The experience of the consumption of the product exceeds the influence of advertising on persuasion, attitudes and behavior.
12. The impact of advertising is stronger on consumers with high behavioral loyalty.
13. Advertising is relatively more effective if it precedes the consumption experience, especially if this experience is negative.
14. With low consumer involvement and/or in a situation where the quality can not be assessed objectively (ie trust goods or goods, the evaluation of which requires long-term consumption experience), the impact of the product sample, its consumption and other forms of communication will be relatively low. In these cases, the role of advertising can be more important.
15. The effectiveness of advertising also depends on the context in which it operates. Beliefs as a whole are accumulated through recognition, acquaintance with the product, feedback from others, active use of all promotion technologies, including advertising. These communications
The technologies interact and lead to a synergistic effect.
16. Advertising efficiency does not depend only (or does not at all) on the individual cognitive response. But still established forms of measuring attitudes or other kinds of affect usually include verbal questions aimed at obtaining information about reactions to rational moments. At each subsequent level of formal processing of information, as it is considered, described and presented to others, the cognitive prevails over the affective.
There are other models and their modifications, also based on the hierarchy of effects, i.e. A set of consumer reactions that vary from the simplest to the most complex. Unfortunately, in practice only a small part of advertising appeals is able to encourage consumers to buy. Nevertheless, these models offer a tool for determining the desired characteristics for any communications.
The process of creating an advertising appeal involves receiving answers to the following questions:
1. Which group of consumers need to be covered (target audience)?
2. What should the audience say (the content of the advertisement)?
3. What should be the structure of the advertising message (the specifics of the organization of advertising messages for different types of distribution channels)?
4. How will advertising influence the target audience (advertising effectiveness criteria)?
In this chapter, the specifics of determining the target audience, the theory of advertising impact on the consumer and methods of considering the effectiveness of advertising are discussed in detail.
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