The mutual influence of advertising and media on each other in the XX century.
In the late XIX - early XX century. printed media acquire system features of a developed market characterized by periodicity of output, developed distribution system, the formation of its structure of the readership, which will soon be considered as a commodity for sale to the advertiser.
New trends in the development of periodicals
The sharp increase in mass production, the increased competition stimulated the rapid growth of the advertising business. Print media for the advertiser become an effective channel for the withdrawal of their goods and services to the market, acquaintance with the audience, persuasion of this very audience in the advantages of the advertised products.
Revenues from the advertising activities of periodicals significantly increase. For example, if in the 1880s. the incomes of publishers of newspapers were half of the proceeds from the sale of the circulation, and half from the payment for the publication of commercial announcements, by 1910, advertising revenues accounted for 65% of total revenues. Thus, commercial advertising has become the main source of revenue for the media.
The circulation of periodicals has significantly increased, their number has increased. The increased possibilities of printing enabled the operative release of an unprecedented number of newspapers and magazines, providing them not for narrow elite groups, but for a mass audience. In the future, however, the growth in the number of newspapers will tend to decline, which is noted throughout the XX century. This is primarily due to several factors. Among them can be identified: increased competition for advertising revenue, the emergence of radio and television, as well as rapid growth of magazines, the growth of publishing costs and the growth of concentration in the publishing business.
The mass media audience was promoted by expanding the practice of illustrating publications. The technology of making halftone photographic clichés, which appeared in England in the 1850s, was improved for a long time. It was first widely used in newspaper business only from 1897, when it began to be used in the production of the newspaper "Tribune" (New York), and then other publications. The improved technology provided fast and high-quality production of newspaper clichés. In addition, the production of a halftone cliché cost about 10-15 times less than the preparation of a hand-made engraving of a similar size, which ensured a substantial reduction in the cost of production of illustrated editions and the cost of the newspapers sold.
Technological innovation revolutionized the illustration of newspapers and magazines, the pages of which came a huge array of photo-illustrations. The number of illustrated editions has increased. In France alone, at the turn of the century, there were about 130 illustrated newspapers and magazines. Photo-illustration, along with the drawing, is actively used not only in the editorial part of publications, but also in advertising. Moreover, it was advertising that began the wide use of illustrations on the pages of newspapers. After 1910, the technology of full-color printing of journals is gaining ground, which made it possible to significantly improve the reproduction quality of illustrations.
Development of periodicals in the XVII-XIX centuries. laid the foundation for the formation of the main types of newspapers and magazines. In the XX century. This process continued and led to the creation of a modern system of established types of publications adapted to the conditions of the market environment. Advertising has made its corrections to the typology of the press and the structure of publications. Publishers are beginning to actively, although at first and intuitively, work on creating a media audience, which, in our opinion, has become the basis for the typology of publications. Perfectly understanding that the advertiser is interested in the size, socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the audience, many publications seek to focus precisely on these indicators in the conceptual development of structural and style components of newspapers and magazines. In this regard, as early as the beginning of the 20th century. it is possible to distinguish several main types of publications that take into account the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the audience when creating, drafting and editorial management of cases, which means they take into account the interests of the advertiser and think about the commercial success of their publication.
Mass media. The most important characteristic of mass newspapers is the desire to reach the largest audience. Publishers and editors of mass editions developed a special set of journalistic recipes, the pursuit of which provided an active interest in the editions of the readership, and as a consequence, no less active interest in publications and advertisers. Publishing a huge array of commercial advertising, mass newspapers had a significant impact on the formation of a consumer-oriented society.
Quality press. Originally the newspapers were intended for the elect. When the press turned into media, some publications continued the traditions of elitism and began to position themselves as publications intended for a literate and thinking audience. It's about the so-called quality publications. For a long time, the London newspaper The Times ("The Times"), addressed to the circles of the state and political elite, business representatives, the elite of the intelligentsia, remained an example of quality print. For an elite audience consisting of representatives of financial circles, stockbrokers, industrialists, banking managers and insurance businesses, the Financial Times newspaper was created in London in 1888. In New York, under the leadership of C. Dow and E. Jones, a kindred newspaper, the Wall Street Journal, was established, which became a reliable source of information for American managers and financiers. In this regard, we can not fail to mention the newspaper New York Times , who proposed to share news and comments.
The development of high-quality press was an important factor for the development of advertising, as the activity of the financial and economic sector of business needed its own advertising site, for which the mass press with advertising of everyday goods was clearly not suitable.
Weekly news magazines. The founder and bright representative of this type of magazine is Time ("Time") - a magazine founded by Yale University's young graduates X. Lewis and B. Hudden (1923). Representatives of the already formed middle class by that time were regarded as quite active consumers, aimed at regular purchases of quality goods and services. Unfortunately, the advertiser found this consumer only partially in quality newspapers and to a lesser extent - in mass newspapers. The middle class needed periodicals of a different kind. The creators of the magazine Time have correctly calculated that for this layer of readers it is necessary to offer a richly detailed facts, an expressively colored picture of various events - from business, domestic policy and international affairs to the novelties of science, technology, education.
The magazine Time quickly became a role model, as its financial indicators confirmed that the model of the publication and the reader's audience fully correspond to market criteria. Therefore, in the US and in European countries, similar magazines appeared.
In the United States in 1933, the magazine Newsweek ("News of the Week"), created under the guidance of the Englishman TJ Martin, previously working as an editorial assistant Time.
In the post-war period, the concept of a weekly North American-style news magazine has become widespread in Western Europe, Latin America and Asia. For example, in Germany in 1947, the Der Spiegel ("Mirror") log was created using the formula Time . In France, a whole group of editions of similar Time and Newsweek.Today news magazines are addressed, as before, to readers with a sufficiently high level of education - intellectuals (including academic), students, educated managers and officials with diverse information requests and the desire to regularly receive interpreted current information in a condensed form. Information magazines with their unique educated and solvent audience are viewed by advertisers as an important and effective means for advertising distribution.
Business magazines. When creating news magazines, publishers saw the opportunity to make middle-class readership readers. Outside, there was another segment of the audience that was definitely attractive to advertisers - the economic and political elite. They wanted to receive more concise, more systematized business and political information and commentary on it. The creators of the weekly magazine Business Week ("Business Week"), which appeared in the United States in 1929, responded to requests from this part of the audience.
In 1930, X. Lewis, using to a certain extent the workings of the magazine Time, launched another business news magazine - Fortune , addressed to businessmen . Despite the conditions of the economic crisis, the new magazine quickly established itself in the market of periodicals, along with the usual financial and exchange information, news of industry and trade, as well as extensive information about the news of the political and public life of the United States, the events in the world, in a concise and accessible form. The style of presentation and the combination of news and analytical material in the journal provided the business reader with the accessibility and assimilation of the various information offered to him.
Similar publications appeared in Europe. For example, starting in Dusseldorf (Germany) since 1926, the weekly magazine for business people Wirtschafts Woche ( Economic Week) presents the news on economic and socio-political topics in the form of extended notes and brief articles with embedded comment. Business news magazines serve as an effective channel for distributing advertising for financial markets, office equipment, luxury goods.
Illustrated magazines. As mentioned earlier, the development of polygraphy and photography has created prerequisites for the publication of illustrated magazines. The largest and most famous of them was the weekly magazine Life, which was created under the leadership of X. Lewes in 1936. In Life the photographic illustration comes to the fore as independent - and often dominant - content component.
Production of mass full-color illustrated magazines, published in millions of copies, of course, was associated with significant expenses, primarily on quality paper and printing. However, in publications of this kind, the business reserve was originally laid: the development of advertising of that time required the use of new non-standard methods. Therefore, advertisers almost immediately turned their attention to a new advertising channel. The ability to display commercial ads for a large number of audiences has turned into one of the most preferred objects of advertising investment, which accounted for 80-90% of the total level of publisher income. Significant inflow of advertising revenues made it possible not only to completely cover the costs of issuing and distributing print runs, to ensure high profitability of the publishing business, but also the ability to offer magazines to the mass reader at a low price, usually much lower than their cost.
For example, one copy of the richly illustrated magazine Life in 1938 was sold at a price of only 10 cents, which made it accessible to a very wide range of readers.
The commercial and social success of the illustrated magazine Life caused the US and foreign publishers to go on to create appropriate typological analogs.
In the late 1950's and 1960's. large illustrated magazines everywhere began to lose advertising revenues under the influence of competition with television, which demonstrated live pictures of reality, surpassing the expressiveness of photographic "pictures of life" caught by reporters of illustrated magazines, and represented a much more rapid and massive channel for the delivery of information and advertising.
The difficulties of mass magazines have been aggravated by some other trends in the development of the advertising business. With the improvement of targeted advertising technologies, advertisers increasingly switched from mass magazines to cooperation with specialized magazine editions designed for specific sectors and groups of the audience, viewing such publications as a more effective "sighting" means of advertising.
Magazines about fashion and lifestyle. The history of the development of magazines about fashion and style is rooted in earlier times. A peculiar forerunner of the magazines were books devoted to fashionable costumes, which appeared in Spain at the end of the 16th century. However, then the publication of the book was a matter of a long time, and the styles became obsolete by the time of the release. Magazines were faster and cheaper. And that is also important, the first magazines began to appear in France, in which the famous fashion houses arose. Do not stay away from the new fashion and other countries - the Netherlands, Russia, Italy.
But, despite such a rich history, it was in the XX century. magazines about fashion and lifestyle become active distributors of advertising on their pages. They did a lot to shape the tastes and habits of consumers, the development of consumer behavior. Magazines about fashion and style today - the most affordable broadcasters of fashion trends. And if they were originally issued exclusively for women, then in the XX century. fashion magazines have become interested in men.
Popular science cognitive journals. Scientific-popular journals did not initially aim to become channels for advertising distribution. The goal was somewhat different - the popularization of scientific knowledge. At least that's the position preached by National Geographic - a popular science magazine, created in the United States back in 1888 as a body of the National Geographic Society. But already in the first quarter of the century, National Geographic was significantly transformed and turned into a mass cognitive publication, quite in demand by the reader and suitable for advertising distribution. Currently, the magazine has a circulation of more than 8 million copies, good advertising revenue.
The German magazine Geo created exclusively a commercial task - to give the advertiser an interesting platform. Created in 1976 by Grover und Yar, this monthly illustrated magazine publishes essays, reports and articles on geography topics, high-quality photographic works that depict various scenic corners of the planet, animal life, etc. In its content a high proportion of purely entertaining material, there is an element of sensationalism. The magazine declares its main task to familiarize readers with the "unknown planet Earth". The magazine is interesting to read, therefore its readership has grown very quickly, including at the expense of foreign publications. The magazine contains a large amount of commercial advertising.
Editions for Professional Audiences ( b2b ). Traditionally, professional publications belong to the segment b2b . These publications are generally addressed exclusively to professionals working in a particular field or industry. Unlike consumer-oriented publications (62c), 626-editions are acquired solely for the purpose of obtaining information necessary for the work. Let us note that there are points of intersection of the auditor segments of professional and business publications. On the one hand, they are the same readers, on the other - the markets are different. First of all, they differ in the way they generate income. For 62nd editions, the subscription was originally considered the main income. But in the second half of XX century. many specialized publications are beginning to actively work in the advertising market. Designed for narrow segments of the audience, united by a single professional interest, magazines of this type become a truly effective advertising medium.
Such publications are read only by specialists. Therefore, the number of readers of specialized publications is much less than for mass publications, but the percentage of people who may be interested in published advertising is higher. Advertising in a specialized publication is much cheaper, but advertisements in it are placed only on objects of technology and technology, materials, licenses, know-how, etc. Advertising of consumer goods, designed for the average consumer, they are located in them. An advertisement in a specialized publication is, as a rule, more informative.
The peculiarity of specialized publications is the publication of articles about achievements in their industry. This is a wonderful and very effective channel for advertising new objects. Such an article contains, if possible, complete data on the technical effect and economic effectiveness of the new achievement. The data given in the article are well-argued and illustrated by photographs, diagrams, graphs.
Free newspapers. In the second half of the 1990s, newspapers in the metropolitan cities of North America and Europe, generally dependent on the reader's funding for their activities. We are talking about information and advertising newspapers, distributed free of charge in places of large crowds - at metro stations, train stations, trains, etc. Combining in their content journalistic and advertising components (with the strong dominance of the latter), these editions in a number of cases have made a significant competition to traditional newspapers.
The concept of a free newspaper was developed and implemented in Sweden. In Stockholm, in 1995, the newspaper Metro began to be distributed, intended for quick reading while traveling in public transport, and therefore containing a set of short readable news items in combination with advertisements. The publication gained popularity, the economic effectiveness of the concept of a daily free newspaper was proved. Soon the newspapers - typological analogues Metro - began to be published in major cities of Sweden and neighboring countries, in other regions of the world. The Paris free daily newspaper is called "20 minutes": this is the average estimated length of their reading. In New York, a free newspaper Express appeared in subway stations and bus stops, in Philadelphia - Metro with a circulation of 125 thousand copies. In the UK, the largest commercial success was given to free advertising newspapers Metro and Evening Standard. The establishment of the London Metro was followed by the establishment of regional newspaper versions in other major British cities.
For free newspapers as a successful project for the distribution of advertising began to pay attention and major traditional publications. For example, in 2005, one of the leading US newspapers, the New York Times, bought a stake in one of Boston's free daily newspapers, thus highly appreciating the business strategy used by such companies. Ns were left out of the free newspapers The Washington Post and Chicago Tribune. With their help, reputable publications are counting on defeating competitors, attracting young readers and so-coveted advertisers, usually "pulling" for young people. The same trend is observed in the EU countries. For example, the British Financial Times from in May 2005 launched the release of a special daily supplement to the newspaper (a selection of the freshest news with a small amount of advertising) for free distribution in the offices of the largest companies, airplanes and hotels in the UK. >
Thus, in the XX century. In the United States and Europe, all the main types of print media were formed. The main trend was the accounting of advertisers' requests in relation to the audience of this or that publication. And this is the main proof of the influence of advertising on the development of the media.
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